The Crusades changed Europe by

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  1. The Crusades changed Europe by

A forcing the Turks to give up Palestine.

B leading to increased trade with Asia.

C again allowing pilgrimages to the Holy Land.

D introducing Europeans to military life.

  1. Which of the following was not a

source of wealth for Ghana’s rulers?

A Ghana had its own stores of gold.

B Nearly all trade between northern and southern

Africa passed through Ghana.

C The rulers taxed traders coming into and leaving the


D Ghana had a large, well-equipped army.

  1. Anasazi cliff dwellings often could only be reached by using removable ladders, which offered protection from

A floods.

B dust storms.

C enemies.

D disease.

  1. How do many scientists think people first arrived in North America?

A After the Ice Age, glaciers melted and people came in

large boats.

B During the Ice Age, the sea froze and people crossed

the ice.

C After the Ice Age, glaciers melted and people crossed


D During the Ice Age, the sea level dropped and people

crossed land.

  1. How did the vast Incan Empire address the problems caused by its size?

A by building thousands of miles of roads

B by dividing its people into self- sufficient communities

C by creating a communication system based on glyphs

D by devising a number system to count the population

  1. Florence, Genoa, Milan, and Venice were

A important trading centers in northern Italy.

B wealthy banking centers in Spain.

C places of refuge from bubonic plague and the Black Death.

D cities in Gaul that were conquered by the Franks.

Chapter 1 Pretest World before the Opening of the Atlantic

  1. The Hopewell and Mississippian

mound builders were skilled

A farmers and traders.

B warriors.

C nomadic sheepherders.

D explorers.

  1. What are the Olmec best known for?

A their migratory culture

B their use of stone in architecture and sculpture

C their large paved plazas

D their networks of canals and water control

  1. The Iroquois became one of the

most powerful Native American

people in North America because

A they defeated all their enemies in battle.

B their wealth was greater than that of any other people on the


C their population was the largest of all the Native American


D they formed a confederation with other Native American


  1. Which of the following was not a

shared belief of Native American


A Spirits lived everywhere.

B Earth and Sky were the sustainers of life.

C Totem poles were central to their religion.

D Land was for the use of everyone in the village.

  1. Why did Native Americans on the

North American continent not

create large empires like those of

the Aztec and Inca?

A They lacked the political skills to work together.

B They had little interest in forming large political units.

C They could not overcome the problem of having no common


D They moved from place to place too often to settle in a single


  1. During the Renaissance, the new

emphasis on people rather than

religion was called

A intellectualism.

B humanism.

C theism.

D mercantilism.

  1. What was the basis for Ghana’s

importance as a trade center?

A salt

B oil

C taxes

D copper

  1. Who was the author of Republic,

which describes an ideal


A Aristotle

B Plato

C Socrates

D Sundiata

  1. Which of the following was the basis

of feudalism in the Middle Ages?

A Knights held land from a lord in exchange for military


B Kings became the vassals of wealthy landowners.

C Peasants began trading crafts.

D Kings rediscovered the glories of ancient Greece and


  1. Like the kingdom of Ghana, the

kingdom of Mali owed its importance to

A its supplies of gold.

B the influence of Islam.

C its geographical location.

D the collapse of nearby empires.

  1. Of the following, which was not a

reason for Mali’s wealth, power, and


A Mansa Musa’s leadership

B its emphasis on education

C the expansion of its trade

D the decline of neighboring states

  1. Which was most responsible for

the spread of knowledge during the


A the rediscovery of the classical thinkers of Greece and


B the movement of scholars from the Byzantine Empire to


C the development of the printing press and movable type

D the rapid growth of scientific study and discoveries

  1. What made the slave trade important

to the West African economy?

A Slavery had existed for centuries in Africa and


B Slaveholders were ranked by the number of slaves they


C Arab Muslims became involved in the slave trade.

D Slaves could be traded for valuable goods in North Africa

and the Middle East.

  1. Which was the biggest influence on

Renaissance thinking?

A the spread of Islam into Europe

B the ideas of Greece and Rome

C the growth of European farming

D the revolution in weaponry

  1. What caused the fall of the kingdom of Ghana?

A Its leaders converted to Islam.

B The Almoravids cut off its trade routes.

C Its army became too weak to defend it.

D Salt ceased to be a valuable commodity.

  1. Which of the following best defines direct democracy?

A All citizens participate in government.

B Citizens elect representatives to government.

C Laws are put on public display for all citizens to see.

D Citizens elect the officials who govern them.

  1. Which of the following did not lead to the decline of feudalism in the Middle Ages?

A the Black Death

B increased travel and trade

C emergence of a new middle class of artisans and merchants

D the failure of the Crusades

  1. The kingdom of Ghana was formed by

A the Berber people of northern Africa.

B the joining of the Mali and Songhai empires.

C the nomadic herders of the Niger River region.

D the banding together of Soninke families for protection.

  1. The Renaissance had its origins in

A England.

B France.

C Italy.

D Germany.

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