“The involvement of foreign powers was of crucial importance to the Unification of Italy.” How far do you agree with this statement?
Show how Italian unification was achieved in spite of the problems caused by the existence of various secular states and the Papal states.
How serious an obstacle to Italian unification was the Papacy between 1815 and 1870?
Why did it take so long to unify Italy?
How and why did Piedmont/Sardinia play an important part in Italian unification?
How, why, and with what results did Rome remain outside a unified Italy until 1870?
How and why did Cavour contribute to Italian unification?
Analyse the aims, motives and policies of Cavour between 1852 and 1861.
“Cavour’s main aim for Italy was independence rather than unification.” How far do you agree with this quotation and consider that it explains his success?
In 1861 Cavour said, “Rome must be the capital of Italy because without Rome Italy cannot be constituted.” Assess Cavour’s attitude to and contribution to Italian unification in the light of this statement.
Why has it been claimed that Italian unification needed both a Cavour and a Garibaldi?
Compare and contrast the aims and achievements of Mazzini and Cavour.
Compare and contrast the aims and achievements of Mazzini and Garibaldi.
Why and with what justification is Garibaldi regarded as an Italian patriot?
Compare and contrast the contributions of Mazzini and Garibaldi to Italian unification.
Austria and Prussia, 1815 to 1866
Bismarck, Prussian domestic and foreign policies, to 1871
Wars, unification of Germany
In what ways were the seeds of German unification sown between 1800 and 1815 and how much progress had been made towards this goal by 1853?
What did the 1848 Revolutions reveal about the strengths and weaknesses of Austria and Prussia?
How far is it true to say that Austria lost control of Germany rather than Prussia gained it?
Show how the policies of Metternich and Bismarck contributed to the defeat of Austria by Prussia in 1866.
Why was it that Prussia, rather than Austria, had achieved the dominant position in Germany by 1866?
It has been claimed that Germany was united “more by coal and iron than by blood and iron”. How far do you agree that economic power contributed more to the unification of Germany than did the military victories of the 1860s?
To what extent were Bismarck’s successes due to the mistakes of his opponents?
Explain how the inherent strength of Prussia combined with Bismarck’s political skills achieved German unification.
To what extent is it true to say that Bismarck gave Germany many years of prosperity and legal government and Europe a period of peace?
In 1867, Bismarck said: “Anyone who has looked into the eyes of a soldier dying on the battlefield will think hard before starting a war.” Analyse Bismarck’s foreign policy in the light of these words.
What advantages and disadvantages did Bismarck inherit when he became Minister President of Prussia in 1862 and how did he use the advantages to bring about German unification?
“Bismarck’s greatness lay not in mastering events but in going with events so as to seem to master them.” How far do you agree with this judgement?
To what extent should Bismarck receive credit for the unification of Germany?
Compare and contrast Bismarck’s policies towards Austria and France between 1862 and 1871.
The Kaiserreich Course Outline
Bismarck and Prussia/Germany, 1871-1890
Wilhelmine Germany, 1890 to 1918; domestic and foreign policies
What were the main problems faced by Bismarck after 1871 and how successfully did he resolve them?
“No man has had so great an effect on Germany and none a more profound effect on Europe.” Evaluate this quotation on the career and importance of Bismarck.
What problems did Bismarck face at home after 1871?
What were the main political, social and religious problems which affected the German Empire between 1871 and 1914?
“Bismarck’s policies both at home and abroad, between the years 1871 and 1890, merely stored up problems for the future, both for Germany and Europe.” To what extent do you agree with this verdict?