Russia is still searching for its place in international relations nearly two decades after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Moscow faces many security internal and external dilemmas, including Muslim minorities and their complex links with the Muslim world. In this regard, it seems that this is why Russia’s National Security Strategy 2020 aims to define Russia’s domestic and foreign threats simultaneously.
The paper examines Moscow’s security challenges in terms of its relations with Russian Muslim minorities. It argues that Moscow has failed to prevent the alienation and radicalization of some Muslims inside Russia; nevertheless, it has established excellent relations with governments in the Muslim world.
To find out such complexities, it highlights Moscow’s domestic and foreign policy and factors stimulated Islamic radicalism inside Russia. Examining the extent to which Moscow will be deal with any increased Muslim challenge in future would be another task of this article.