The cold war era

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The Philosophy of Gandhi

Directions: Working in groups, each group will examine one of Gandhi’s philosophies below. Then you must list people (specific or general) that exemplify those values as well as people who violate those values. Together, you should come up with a list of about 20 names/titles in total. Then you will share your findings with the rest of the class. Make sure you copy down the names/titles listed by the other groups as well. Worth 40 points.

Key Concepts of Gandhian Philosophy

Dr. S. Jeyapragasam

Love: of self, God, nature, fellow humans; love as compassion, warmth, kindness, friendship, empathy, fraternity, altruism, service, mercy, help, sharing, trusteeship, non-possession; love as healing, patience, tolerance, reconciliation, forgiving, repentance, sacrifice, mutual aid, solidarity.


Nonviolent action: in lifestyle, economics, politics, society, defense policy, institutions and organizations, education and communication, child upbringing, approaches to crime and punishment, direct action for peace w/justice, peaceful resolution of conflicts, constructive work to build up a nonviolent world order, relief and rehabilitation work; removing structural (indirect) violence. Non-killing: disarmament, preventing accidents and calamities, non-injury in both human and non-human contexts.


Nonviolent Ethics and values: spiritual and ethical religion; joy with conscience, reasoning and responsibility; human-centered, eco-friendly, holistic, ethical and sustainable science and technology, economics, politics, society; human rights and responsibilities; purity of means and ends; welfare of all and welfare of last first.


Truth: Truthfulness, honesty, transparency, accountability, expanding conscience, awareness and responsibility; justice with compassion; taking responsibility for past mistakes, errors, sins; repentance and apology; avoidance of repetition of mistakes, freedom from ignorance, errors, mistakes, sins; pluralism; understanding of the multiplicity of truth; humility and respect for others’ truths; holding on to relative truth but continuing quest for further truth; attempting to arrive at a consensus on key issues; quest for truth; testing truth with reason.


Further British Retreat from Empire

    • Generally, British knew this loss of their empire was inevitable

      • Also wanted to ensure their former colonies would create representative self-government

  • 1948, Burma & Sri Lanka became independent

  • Ghana & Nigeria became self-governing 1957 & 1960 – this was planned

  • British left Cyprus, Kenya, & Yemen under pressure of militant nationalists

    • But Asia has generally been area of political stability and economic growth

6. The Turmoil of French Decolonization

France and Algeria

  • France conquered Algeria (pirate haven) in 1830

        • Voting was set up to give the French as much power as majority Arab Muslim population

  • At end of WWII, during a celebration, violence broke out between French & Muslims

      • Thereafter, many Algerian Muslims called for independence

  • Algerian nationalists soon founded National Liberation Front (FLN) –

    • French government refused to compromise with the rebels

    • War lasting until 1962 between Algerians and French – both sides committed atrocities

      • French lost control of their military, the war split French population, and violence continued to spread throughout Algeria

    • Military asked him to – he agreed only if the Fourth Republic was ended and a new constitution was written

      • New constitution increased power of president and Fifth Republic was born

    • Algeria became independent 1962

    • Once FLN took over in Algeria, hundreds of thousands of French there fled to France (as did Muslims who supported French during war)

France and Vietnam

    • This problem eventually drew U.S. into war in Vietnam

  • French occupied Indochina 1857-1893

      • French suppressed it for a time

    • During WWII, ICP fought Japan (who occupied area) and French – made Ho Chi Minh a major anticolonial, nationalist leader

    • By 1947, civil war had erupted in Vietnam

  • Until 1949, U.S. had little interest in this war

    • But that same year, China became communist – changed U.S. outlook

      • U.S. now saw French colonial war as major part of Cold War

      • But U.S. was not prepared militarily to deal with Vietnam yet

    • North Vietnam –

    • South Vietnam –

Vietnam Drawn into the Cold War

  • 1954, U.S. formed Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) – alliance between U.S., Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, Thailand, Pakistan, and Philippines

    • U.S. assumed North Vietnam was basically a puppet of Soviet Union & China

      • French troops began to leave by 1955 – Vietnamese political groups started fighting each other for power

    • Because U.S. had supported French, Vietnamese nationalists would be suspicious of any government they supported

  • 1960, National Liberation Front founded

    • Goals – overthrow Diem, unify country, reform economy, kick out Americans

        • Diem, a Catholic, also faced criticism from Buddhists (who he oppressed) and the army

Direct United States Involvement

  • Eisenhower & Kennedy supported Diem – but demanded he make reforms

    • By 1963, U.S. had 16,000 troops in Vietnam (earlier, just sent advisors)

      • Hoped new government in South Vietnam would gain popular support

        • Nguyen Van Thieu ran S. Vietnam 1966-1975

  • After JFK’s assassination, Lyndon Johnson took over –

      • Bombings would continue until 1973

    • Land war grew as well until there were 500,000 U.S. troops there

  • 1969, President Richard Nixon began policy called Vietnamization

    • Ceasefire eventually called 1973

      • American troops left Vietnam

    • 1975, North Vietnamese attacked South and captured capital city of Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City)

Directions: In this scene from Apocalypse Now, Robert Duvall tells a story to another soldier about a bombing he witnessed in the Vietnam War. In doing so, he basically sums up the American military’s thinking in this war. Watch the clip and we will discuss the questions below after. Worth 18 points.

    1. When the colonel says he loves the smell of napalm in the morning, what is he talking about?

    1. Why, after bombing a hill for 12 hours, was the colonel not able to find one Vietnamese body?

    1. Colonel Kilgore refers to the Vietnamese as “dinks.” What does that tell you about the racism of American soldiers?

    1. Bombing a hill for 12 hours sounds like a good plan, but it didn’t work. What was the problem with America’s plan in fighting this war?

    1. When Kilgore says the hill smelled like victory, what did he mean?

    1. Why does Kilgore’s tone of voice change at the end when he says this war will end some day? Is he happy, sad, or what about that?

7. The Collapse of European Communism

Gorbachev Attempts to Reform the Soviet Union

    • He attempted to reform Soviet Union

    • But within 7 years, he would be forced to retire and communist rule would end

Economic Perestroika

  • Gorbachev’s main goal was to revive Soviet economy –

  • At this time, Gorbachev was faced with labor discontent

  • 1990, Gorbachev argued for private ownership of property & liberalization of the economy – working toward free market system

    • Economy, however, continued to decline


    • Workers were allowed to criticize party officials & economic plans

    • Censorship relaxed & free expression encouraged

    • Political opponents were released from prison

    • 1988, new constitution allowed openly contested elections

      • Congress of People’s Deputies was elected 1989

      • Gorbachev was formally elected president 1989

    • Gorbachev could not make every formerly-subject group happy

1989: Revolution in Eastern Europe

Solidarity Reemerges in Poland

  • 1980s, Polish government released all Solidarity prisoners

      • After negotiations, Solidarity union was legalized

  • Polish leaders promised free elections to a parliament with more power

      • Then government appointed first noncommunist prime minister of Poland since 1945

Toward Hungarian Independence

    • Early that year, Hungarian government opened its border to Austria – free travel

      • Thousands of East Germans could now move through Hungary & Austria into West Germany

    • May, leader of Hungarian Communist Party (Janos Kadar) was removed

German Reunification

    • Gorbachev told East German Communist Party that Soviet Union would not help them stop protesters

      • November, new government made of young communist leaders ordered the opening of the Berlin Wall

  • West Germany now faced issue of German reunification

    • Helmut Kohl

      • Late in year, Europe accepted unification of Germany (Western powers accepted 1990)

The Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia

  • After fall of Berlin Wall, non-violent (gentle) Velvet Revolution broke out in Czechoslovakia

      • December 1989, communist government admitted that the 1968 invasion was mistake

      • After, Havel’s group – Civic Forum – forced president of Czech. to resign

Violent Revolution in Romania

  • Only revolution of 1989 involving violence was in Romania

    • President and his wife tried to flee but were captured, tried, and executed

The Soviet Stance on Revolutionary Developments

    • October 1989, Gorbachev formally renounced Brezhnev Doctrine

    • Once they realized Soviets would not stop them, thousands of people took to streets in protest of Communist Parties in their countries

        • Communist Party in E. Europe & Soviet Union could not offend world with similar attacks

The Collapse of the Soviet Union

  • Gorbachev believed Soviet Union could no longer support communist regimes in E. Europe

Renunciation of Communist Political Monopoly

  • After debate, government agreed that single-party rule could no longer work

New Political Forces

  • Gorbachev faced challenges from 3 political forces by 1990

    • 1.

      • They controlled major parts of economy and society

      • 1990-1991, Gorbachev appointed many of these men into powerful positions in government

    • 2.

      • Their leader was Boris Yeltsin

      • 1990, Yeltsin was elected president of the Russian Republic

        • He now had power to challenge Gorbachev

    • 3.

      • Military & Communist Party had always repressed their discontent in past

      • Greatest unrest, at first, came from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (were free until Soviets took them over 1940)

      • 1990-1991, Gorbachev tried to negotiate new constitutional arrangements between republics and central government

The August 1991 Coup

    • Troops occupied Moscow – Gorbachev placed under house arrest

      • Boris Yeltsin denounced the coup and asked for world’s help in Soviet movement toward democracy

    • Gorbachev returned to Moscow, but was humiliated

    • Communist Party (who participated in coup) collapsed

Directions: We will discuss the following facts below together as a class. For each fact, you must write your initial response to such incredible facts and your solution to the problem. Worth 24 points.

    • More than 25% of the world’s population does not have access to safe drinking water

Your Response:

Your solution:

    • If all the food in the world were divided evenly, everyone would have enough to eat. Because it is not divided evenly, 60% of world’s population is always hungry, 16% go to sleep often without enough to eat, and only 24% always have enough to eat.

Your Response:

Your solution:

    • More than 2/3 of the world’s population has to survive on less than $500/year (or less than $2/day)

Your Response:

Your solution:

    • 27,000,000 people in the world today live in slavery

Your Response:

Your solution:

    • The richest 350 people in the world have incomes greater than the poorest 45% of the world’s population combined.

Your Response:

Your solution:

    • In many countries today (including the U.S.) the gap between the rich and poor is growing wider (rich becoming richer and poor becoming poorer)

Your Response:

Your solution:

The Yeltsin Decade and Putin

    • As president of Russia, he was head of largest, most powerful of new states

    • But in a year, he faced serious economic & political problems

      • Russian Parliament (most former communists) opposed Yeltsin’s economic & political reform

        • Military backed Yeltsin & surrounded Parliament building with tanks and troops

  • December 1993, Russians voted for new Parliament and new constitution

    • 1994, central government was at war in Islamic province of Chechnya

    • Involved corruption by individuals looking for profit

      • While they were filthy rich, rest of Russian economy was stagnant

    • 1998, Russian defaulted on its international debt payments

      • Political assassinations took place

      • Political unrest got worse as economy got worse

  • Putin renewed war against rebels in Chechnya – heavy casualties and destruction

  • War in Chechnya led to one of major acts of recent terrorism in Russia

    • September 2003, group of Chechens captured elementary school in Beslan

    • When government troops stormed school, 330 hostages were killed

  • Since then, Putin tried to diminish local autonomy and centralize power in his own hands

    • Despite Putin’s power, Russia was more democratic now than under Soviet system

8. The Collapse of Yugoslavia and Civil War

  • Yugoslavia was created at end of WWI –

      • Croats & Slovenes – Catholic, use Latin alphabet

      • Serbs, Montenegrins, Macedonians – Eastern Orthodox, use Cyrillic alphabet

    • Most live in regions their group has lived in for centuries

  • Tito acted outside Soviet control in 1940s

      • After his death, economic difficulties undermined central government & Yugoslavia devolved into civil war

  • Late 1980s, ethnic differences resurfaced in Yugoslavia

    • 1990, Slovenia & Croatia declared independence – European countries recognized them

    • Serbs were determined to dominate a unitary Yugoslav state

    • Croatia wanted to be independent

      • Croatian Serbs wanted protection from discrimination and violence

      • By 1991, war had erupted

        • Serbia accused Croatia of being fascist – Croatia accused Serbia of being Stalinist

  • Conflict changed 1992 when Croatian & Serbian forces wanted to divide Bosnia-Herzegovina

    • Muslims in Bosnia soon became crushed between the two forces

  • Bombardment of Sarajevo (capital of Bosnia-Herzegovina) brought the violence of this war to world’s attention

    • 1994, bomb exploded in marketplace in Sarajevo, killing dozens

      • NATO forced Serbs to withdraw their artillery

    • Under U.S. leadership, leaders of warring sides negotiated peace agreement in Dayton, Ohio

      • Recognized independent Bosnia

    • Serb military deported Albanians from the area (even though they made up majority of population)

    • 1999, NATO again used air strikes & sent in troops to Kosovo to protect Albanians

  • 2000, revolution overthrew Slobodan Milosevic – he was turned over to International War Crimes Tribunal at the Hague

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