The Cold War 1945-1991

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Name ________________________________

Date ___________________ Pd __________

The Cold War (1945-1991(
I. The end of World War II led to important changes in the world:

A. The United Nations was created which replaced the League of Nations

B. The UN created a Jewish nation called Israel which set off a series of wars with Arabs in the Middle East

C. The United States occupied & helped rebuild Japan

D. The end of the war inspired independence throughout Africa & Asia, called decolonization

II. The Beginning of the Cold War

A. One of the most important changes after World War II was the beginning of the ________________________________

1. From 1945 to 1991, the _______________________________ & ___________________________________ entered an era of distrust & hostility known as the Cold War

2. The United States & Soviet Union were _______________________________ & rivals who dominated world politics

B. Cold War Ideologies

United States


Soviet Union



  • Private ownership of industry, freedom of competition, gov’t keeps hands off (laissez-faire)

  • Leads to different economic classes (rich and poor)


  • Gov’t owns industries and farms; The goal of the gov’t is to bring equality to people

  • The goal is to have a classless society with no rich or poor



  • Government led by a dictator

  • Total control over many aspects of peoples’ lives


  • Valuing freedoms of speech, press, and business


  • Valuing basic needs (food, homes jobs) for all people



  • People need to work together to benefit everyone

  • Everyone works the same amount and every gains the same benefits

1. This was an era of competing ideologies: the USA promoted ______________________ & _____________________ while the USSR tried to spread ________________________________

2. The different ideologies between USA & USSR and their desires to ____________________________________ led to an era of _______________________, hostility, proxy battles, & near ______________________________________

C. Causes of the Cold War

1. In 1917, _________________ led the ___________________________________ in the Russian Revolution & created the world’s first communist gov’t

2. Distrust began when the USA sent troops to fight the “__________________________” during the Russian Civil War

3. After Lenin’s death in 1924, ____________________________ became ____________________ of the Soviet Union

4. During WWII, the USA & USSR worked together to defeat the _____________________________, but…World War II increased _______________________ between the USA and USSR

a. Stalin never ________________________ the Britain or the USA during World War II

b. The __________________________________________ gave the USA a monopoly on nuclear weapon technology

III. The Cold War in Europe, 1945-1949

A. Soviet Satellites in Eastern Europe

1. At the ________________ Conference, Stalin agreed to allow ____________________________________________ in Eastern Europe

2. But, Stalin wanted a “_________________________________” between the USSR & the ______________________ nations in Western Europe

3. Stalin used his military to install _________________________ gov’ts in _____________________ European nations

4. As a result, Eastern European nations turned communist & became _______________________________________: nations that were ________________________________ by the USSR

5. In the years after World War II, the USA began to view Stalin as a new ___________________—a dangerous dictator who wanted to _______________________________ the world

B. By 1946, Europe was divided by an “____________________________________” that separated democratic/capitalist Western Europe from _________________________________/_______________________________ Eastern Europe

C. The U.S. created a foreign policy called _____________________________________________ to stop Soviet influence & the ___________________________________________________________

1. Truman Doctrine

a. When the USSR began to pressure _______________________ & ______________________ to turn communist, the U.S. created the _____________________________________, promising economic & __________________ help to any nation threatened by communism

b. The Truman Doctrine __________________ & neither Greece nor Turkey fell to communism

2. Marshall Plan

a. European nations had difficulty _____________________ after WWII which led to fears of communism in Europe

b. The U.S. created the ___________________________________________ which offered $_______ billion to help ___________________________ post-war Europe

c. By 1952, Western Europe _______________________________ & Communism never took root


a. In 1948, the USSR used _________________________________________ to turn Czechoslovakia to communism; This led to fears that Stalin would use similar tactics in ________________________ Europe

b. In 1949, the United States formed the _____________________________________________________________ (NATO): a ______________________________________ among democratic countries in Europe & North America

4. Berlin Airlift

a. At the end of WWII, Germany was _______________ into zones occupied by the USA, Britain, France, & the USSR

b. ________________, the German capital, was also divided but was located in the __________________________

c. In 1948, Stalin tried to turn all of Berlin communist & ordered the _______________________________________ which ___________________________ all ground transportation to West Berlin

d. In response, the U.S. began the ________________________________________

i. For _______ months, U.S. & British ________________ supplies landed in Berlin to bring food, fuel, & supplies

ii. Stalin admitted defeat & lifted the ________________________ in 1949

iii. The United States _________________________________________ kept West Berlin from turning communist

D. The Cold War Expands

1. From 1945 to 1949, the United States successfully _____________________________________________ in Europe

2. But over the next 40 years, the Cold War ___________________________ as communism spread to ____________, Africa, and Latin America

3. The Cold War intensified as new ____________________________________________ were introduced; espionage (spying ) increased; & _____________ broke out in ________________, _______________________, & Afghanistan

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