People should be free to make as much money as they can.
Factories and other property should be owned by individuals and companies.
The government should interfere as little as possible in the lives of ordinary people.
At elections people should be allowed to choose anyone they want for the government.
The Press should be allowed to criticise the government.
The government should not interfere with religion.
Rich people are wicked and selfish. They should be forced to share their wealth.
Factories and other property should be owned by the state on behalf of all the people.
A communist government should get involved in every aspect of life.
At elections people should only be allowed to choose communists for government.
The Press should never criticise a communist government.
Religious belief is nonsense and should be wiped out by the government.
Each side thought they were completely right.
Tension and hostility increased during the civil war in Russia between the White Russians and Bolshevik revolutionaries (reds). In 1919 the USA, Britain and France invaded the Soviet Union in order to destroy communism by supporting the Whites. This failed, increasing tension between the countries.
the common enemy
In 1941 hostility was suspended between the USA and the Soviet Union as they were linked by their common wish to destroy Hitler. But the end of the war proved a difficult situation. Nazi power over Europe had been destroyed but what should replace it?
‘After the collapse of the German Reich, and until there is a rise in nationalism in Asia, African or Latin America, there will only be two powers in the world: The United States and Soviet Russia. Through the laws of history and geographical position these giants are destined to struggle with each other either through war, or through rivalry in economics and political idea.’ Hitler’s Political Testament, April 1945
The Victory over Hitler created new worries for the winners. They had different views as to the future of Europe after the war. Before the end of 1945 deep division were emerging between the leaders of the USA and the Soviet Union.