The Citizen-Soldier

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Narratives of Early Carolina, 1650-1708. New York: Scribner's, 1911, 277--313.

dxviii John Oldmixon, "History of the British Empire in America: Carolina" [1708], in Salley, Narratives, 313-74.

dxix E. M. Wheeler, "The Development and Organization of the North Carolina Milita," North Carolina Historical Review, 41 [1964]: 307-23.

dxx 4 Amer. Arch. 5: 1330.

dxxi Governor Archdale's Laws, 1696, 1-8, in South Carolina Statutes at Large.

dxxii R. I. Col. Rec., 6: 213.

dxxiii Wellenreuther, "The Political Dilemma of the Quakers," 135-72.

dxxiv Among the early Quaker merchants engaged in the illicit rum trade was William Biles. The monthly meeting often warned Biles about his trade. finally by 1687 the Quaker Assembly threatened to expel him for making enormous profits in the rum trade. See Thomas Budd. Good Order Established in Pensilvania and New Jersey. Philadelphia, 1685; Thomas Sergeant. View of the Land Laws of Pennsylva­nia with Notices of its Early History and Legisla­tion. Philadelphia: Carey, 1838.

dxxv Act of 1718, Pennsylvania Statutes at Large, 3: 199-214.

dxxvi Pa. Col. Rec., 7: 272-73.

dxxvii "Act for Forming and Regulating the Militia," [1757], in 1 Pa Arch 3: 120-36.

dxxviii "Act for Forming and Regulating the Militia," [1757], in 1 Pa Arch 3: 120-36.

dxxix Belcher to Pownall, 10 November 1755, 1 N. J. Arch. 8: 160-61.

dxxx Minutes of the Provincial Congress, 1: 179-81.

dxxxi Minutes of the Provincial Congress, 1: 192.

dxxxii Minutes of the Provincial Congress, 1: 241-43.

dxxxiii Theodore Sedgwick. The Life of William Livingston. New York, 1833, 226-28.

dxxxiv Jack D. Marietta, "Conscience, the Quaker Community and the French and Indian War," Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 95 [1971]: 3-27.

dxxxv Benjamin Franklin, comments on the Pennsylvania Militia Law, in The Pennsylvania Gazette, 18 December 1755.

dxxxvi Pa. Col. Rec., 10: 316-17.

dxxxvii Broadside, dated 29 May 1775, Collection of Miscellaneous Papers, Lancaster County Historical Society; Anne M. Ousterhout. A State Divided: Opposition in Pennsylvania to the American Revolution. New York: Greenwood, 1987, 110-11.

dxxxviii Pennsylvania Statutes at Large, 1682 to 1801, 8: 514.

dxxxix 8 Pa. Arch. 8: 7397-7400.

dxl "Address of the People called Quakers," 26 October 1775, 8 Pa. Arch. 8: 7327-30; "Address of the Society of Mennonists and German Baptists," 8 Pa. Arch. 8: 7349-50.

dxli 8 Pa Arch 8: 7327-30, 7349-50.

dxlii Pennsylvania Statutes at Large, 8: 541.

dxliii Philadelphia Evening Post, 14 and 19 September 1776.

dxliv Pa. Col. Rec., 10: 297, 308-12.

dxlv 8 Pa. Arch. 8: 11-13, 7323-24.

dxlvi 8 Pa. Arch. 8: 7326-30.

dxlvii Pennsylvania Statutes at Large, 8: 541.

dxlviii 8 Pa. Arch. 8: 7369-84.

dxlix 1 Pa. Arch. 5: 369, 412, 558-61, 767-68.

dl "Memorial of the First Company of Philadelphia, Artillery," 1 Pa. Arch. 7: 392-95.

dli See Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr. The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution, 1763-1776. New York: Ungar, 1918; Thomas M. Doerflinger, "Philadelphia Merchants and the Logic of Moderation, 1760-1775," William and Mary Quarterly, third series, 40 [1983]: 197-226; Robert F. Oaks, "Philadelphia Merchants and the Origins of American Indepen­dence," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 121: 6 [1977]: 407-36.

dlii quoted in The Life and Correspondence of Joseph Reed. William B. Reed, ed. 2 vols. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blakiston, 1847, 2: 148.

dliii 1 Pa. Arch. 6: 189.

dliv Gerhard Friedrich, "Did Mr. Saur Meet George Washington?" Pennsylvania History, 10 [1943]: 193-200.

dlv Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 50: 7-8.

dlvi Howard M. Jenkins, editor. Pennsylvania: Federal and Colonial, a History, 1608-1903. 3 vols. Philadelphia: Pennsylvania Historical Publish­ing, 1903, 2: 67. Roberts' arrest warrant read, "To the Sheriff of the City and County of Philadelphia . . . Where as John Roberts, now or late of the Township of Lower Merion, is this day charged before me, James Young, Esquire, one of the Justices, on the oaths of Michael Smith, Esquire, and Mary, his wife, of said Township, with High Treason, by aiding and assisting the Enemies of this State, and of the United States, and joining their armies at Philadelphia in the month of December last. These are therefore to command you in the behalf of this Commonwealth forthwith to apprehend the said John Roberts and convey him to the Jail of this County; and the Keeper of Said Jail is hereby requested to receive into his custody the Body of said John Roberts and him safely to keep till he be delivered to the due course of the Law. Given under my hand and seal this 27th day of July 1778. James Young." [Pa. Mag. of History and Biography, 24: 117].

dlvii Charles Palmer. History of Delaware County, Pennsylvania. 2 vols. Harrisburg: National Historical Association, 1932, 1: 339.

dlviii W. W. Hening, ed. Statutes at Large, Being a Collection of All Laws of Virginia. 13 vols. Richmond: State of Virginia, 1818-23, 7: 93-106; 274-75; 8: 241-45, 503; The Acts of the Assembly nowe in Force in the Colony of Virginia. Williams­burg: Rind, Purdie and Dixon, 1769, 474-76.

dlix Ordinances of the Virginia Convention, 1775, 38; Hening, Statutes at Large, 9: 34.

dlx Revolutionary Virginia: The Road to Independence. edited by Brent Tarter. 8 vols. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1983, 7: 549.

dlxi 4 Amer. Arch. 3: 1235.

dlxii Journals of the Continental Congress. W. C. Ford and others, editors. 34 Volumes. Washington: U.S. Government, 1904-37, 2: 187-90.

dlxiii "Act for Forming and Regulating the Militia," [1757], in 1 Pa Arch 3: 120-36.

dlxiv 4 Amer. Arch. 6: 889.

dlxv Annals of Congress, 1: 451.

dlxvi New York Constitution of 1777, in Poole, Constitutions, 2: 1331-39.

dlxvii New Hampshire Constitution of 1784, in Poore, Constitutions., 2: 1280-82.

dlxviii John T. White, "Standing Armies in Time of War." Ph. D. dissertation, George Washington University, 1978, pp. 1-74. Lawrence D. Cross, "The Standing Army, the Militia and the New Republic." Ph. D. dissertation, University of Virginia, 1966, 1-126.

dlxix John Shy, "The American Revolution: the Military Conflict Considered as a Revolutionary War," in Stephen G. Kurtz and James H. Hutson, eds. Essays on the American Revolution. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1973, 121-56; Piers Mackesy, "What the British Army Learned," in Ronald Hoffman and Peter J. Albert, eds. Arms and Indepen­dence. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1984, 191-215.

dlxx 4 Amer. Arch. 2: 341.

dlxxi 4 Amer. Arch. 2: 841.

dlxxii Letter from a gentleman at Charles-Town, South Carolina, to his friend in London, 10 May 1775, London Gazetteer and New Daily Advertiser, 5 July 1775.

dlxxiii "Minutes of the Council of Safety," in Journals of the Continen­tal Congress. Worthington C. Ford, ed. Washington: U. S. Government, 1904-37, 2: 187-90. Hereinafter cited as Ford, Journals.

dlxxiv John and Abigail Adams. Familiar Letters of John Adams and his Wife Abigail Adams During the Revolution. Charles F. Adams, ed. Boston: Houghto­n-Mifflin, 1875, 65-66.

dlxxv Documents Illustrative of the Formation of the Union of American States. 69th Congress, 1st Session, H.R. Doc. 398 [1927], 14-15.

dlxxvi Resolution of Continental Congress in Leon de Valinger, ed. "Council of Safety Minutes," Delaware History, 1 [1946]: 69.

dlxxvii 4 Amer. Arch. 3: 1235-37.

dlxxviii Ford, Journals, 2: 89.

dlxxix Resolution of Congress, 13 January 1776, in Leon de Valinger, Jr. Colonial Military Organization in Delaware, 1638-1776. Wilmington, DE: Delaware Tercentenary Commission, 1938, 75.

dlxxx Pennsylvania, for example, used the ages of eighteen to fifty-three years. Pa. Col. Rec. 10: 292-94. This issue is discussed in detail on each colony and state in the chapter on the colonial militia.

dlxxxi Resolution of Congress, 26 December 1775, in De Valinger, Military Organization in Delaware, 74.

dlxxxii 4 Amer. Arch. 6: 1149.

dlxxxiii Stephen Hopkins and William Ellery, Delegates of the Colony of Rhode Island in the Continental Congress, to the Governor of Rhode Island. Philadelphia, 8 June 1776. R. I. Col. Rec., 7: 577.

dlxxxiv R. I. Col. Rec., 7: 578.

dlxxxv Richard Henry Lee to Patrick Henry, 15 September 1776, in William Wirt Henry. Patrick Henry: Life, Correspon­dence and Speeches. 3 vols. New York: Scribner's 1891, 3: 10-11.

dlxxxvi George Washington to Patrick Henry, 5 October 1776, in Henry, Patrick Henry, 3: 12-13.

dlxxxvii Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789. 34 vols. W­orth-ington Ford and others, eds. Washington: U.S. Govern­ment Printing Office, 1904-37, 2: 336.

dlxxxviii Henry, Patrick Henry, 1: 483-85.

dlxxxix Henry, Patrick Henry, 1: 489.

dxc Articles of Confederation, section VI, paragraph 4.

dxci Russell F. Weigley. Towards an American Army. New York: Columbia University Press, 1962, 4.

dxcii in Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 53 [1929]: 92.

dxciii George Washington to Governor Robert Dinwiddie, in The Papers of Governor Dinwiddie. 4 vols. Richmond, Va.: Virginia Historical Society, 1883-84, 1: 92.

dxciv George Washington to Joseph Reed, dated 28 November 1775 in The Writings of George Washington. John C. Fitzpatrick and others, eds. Washing­ton: Washington Bicentennial Commis­sion, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1931-44, 4: 124-25. Hereinafter cited as Fitzpatrick, Writings of Washington.

dxcv Samuel White Patterson. Horatio Gates: Defender of American Liberties. New York: Columbia University Press, 1941, 100-01, 125.

dxcvi Quoted in Stephen Botein, "The Making of a Respectable Army," Harvard Magazine [Sept-Oct 1978], 32-37.

dxcvii "Letters of a French Officer," written on 23 October 1777 at Easton, Pennsylvania, in Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 35, [1911]: 90-102 at 93.

dxcviii Quoted in H. C. B. Rogers. Weapons of the British Soldier. London: Seely Service, 1960, 111-12.

dxcix The London Chronicle, 17 August 1775.

dc The Pennsylvania Herald, 17 October 1787.

dci Richard Henry Lee [?], Letters from the Federal Farmer. Philadelphia: Williams, 1788, 170. The authorship of this work is disputed.

dcii Richard Henry Lee to Patrick Henry, 3 December 1776, in He­nry, Patrick Henry, 3: 31-32.

dciii Samuel Adams, quoted in Merrill Jensen. The New Nation: A History of the United States During the Confederation. New York: Knopf, 1950, 29.

dciv. Debates in the Several State Conventions. Jonathan Eliot, ed. 5 vols. Washington: Eliot, 1836-45, 3: 386. Hereinafter cited as Eliot's Debates.

dcv Quoted in Letters on the American Revolu­tion. Margaret Willard, comp. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin, 1925, 29.

dcvi Quoted in Samuel A. Drake, Bunker Hill: The Story Told in Letters from the Battlefield. Boston: Nichols and Hall, 1875, 49.

dcvii George Hanger. To All Sportsmen. London: Stockdale, 1814, 123-24.

dcviii Constitutional Gazette [London], 20 April 1776.

dcix General Knox's report was summarized in Emory Upton. Military Policy of the United States from 1775. Washing­ton; U. S. Government Printing Office, 1904, 34, 40, 47, 57-58.

dcx In James Madison. Notes of Debates in the Federal Convention of 1787. Adrienne Koch, ed. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1966, 484.

dcxi Farrand, Records of the Federal Convention, Appendix A: 319.

dcxii 39 Stat. 166, National Guard Act of 1916, ch. 134.

dcxiii Act of 15 June 1933, ch. 87, 48 Stat. 153.

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