The Causes of the First World War The M. A. I. N. Causes

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  • The Causes of the First World War

  • The M.A.I.N. Causes

  • Imperialism

  • Nationalism

  • Militarism

  • War was highly attractive to the generation of Europeans before 1914.

  • Mobilization Plans

  • Artillery

  • Big Ass Cannon

  • Barbed Wire

  • Alliances

  • Setting the Stage

  • Several factors made a European war likely.

    1. Constant military ____________________ of mobilization.

    2. Rivalry due to colonization

    3. Nationalism and the strive for prestige

  • Above all, Europeans made alliances which ended the possibility of traditional two country warfare.

    1. Alliances grew out of a fear of _____________________

  • FEAR OF FRANCE??????

  • That’s right, in the late 1800s, many Europeans hoped to isolate France without allies because they were afraid of France.

    1. France had a massive overseas empire for resources.

    2. France was angry due to a recent embarrassing loss to Prussia

      1. Alsace and Loraine

    3. Napoleon had nearly conquered all of Europe

    4. France had evolved into a military state

      1. Closest example of modern Sparta.


  • 3 Emperors League Germany/AU/Russia

  • The first European Alliance was made by Germany in hopes of leaving France out.

    1. Germany, Austria-Hungry, and Russia unite to form the 3 Emperors League.

    2. Wanted to 1st isolate France, maintain European boundaries, and resist spread of revolution, especially communist.

    3. Would fall apart because Germany helps Austria-Hungry to gain power in the Balkans, where Russia had dominated.

      1. Russia now mad at Germany and Austria-Hungry and Leaves

      2. Germany liked Austria-Hungry because it was weaker and easier to control than Russia.

  • Triple Alliance

  • France colonizes Tunisia, land in North Africa that Italy hoped to colonize.

  • Italy is now mad, and is quick to join with Germany and Austria-Hungry in Triple Alliance.

    1. All groups agree to assist another if they were attacked. Except

      1. Italy would not help Austria attack Russia

      2. Italy insisted that the treaty not work against England.

      3. This gives the English a sense of security.

  • Things Change in Germany

  • 1890- Otto von Bismarck is out-Kaiser William is in.

    1. Bismarck’s alliances to this point have been of a non-aggression nature.

      1. Based his policies on friendship and isolation-careful not to anger other countries.

    2. William will take a more aggressive stance

      1. Pushes for expansion in both Europe and Africa

      2. William openly believed conflict with Russia was inevitable

  • A 2nd Alliance

  • Germany alienating Russia provoked Russia to join up with France.

    1. Was seen as unlikely because of French Republic and Russian autocracy.

    2. Worked out because both were afraid of Germany, and France had loaned Russia a lot of money for industry.

  • England realizes it is the only major country without allies.

    1. Makes an agreement with France to settle all African affairs peacefully, and support each other in Africa.

      1. Angered Germany

    2. England and Russia are rivals, but both are afraid of Germany.

      1. They are able to settle their Eastern colonial disputes, and unite against Germany with France.

  • Result of Alliances is Militarism

  • The creation of these teams causes distrust in Europe.

    1. In response, European countries begin to boost their militaries.

      1. Germany builds 9 new battleships, then England builds 18.

    2. Nationalism in the Balkans would also run wild.

      1. Balkans, and especially in ethnic Austrian groups.

      2. All countries in Europe are now paranoid about war.

  • The Schlieffen Plan

  • _____________________, like the rest of Europe, felt a war was coming, and made a__________ plan early.

  • Germany had a big problem, if war broke out, they would most likely be attacked from______________________________

  • Their plan was that as soon as fighting began, they must immediately invade and conquer ____________________ by surprise, then focus on the other side of Europe.

    1. Thought it would take _________________ and other larger countries longer to ___________________ buying them time to take over France.

    2. Would most likely attack through _____________________ less defended.


  • The Serbian terrorists group, _____________________ wanted to________________ Archduke Ferdinand and his wife. One of the members of The Black Hand threw a bomb into the car Ferdinand was riding in. The bomb was thrown out of the car before it could ________________

  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife got back into their car to drive to the _______________ – to check on the people hurt when the assassin’s bomb exploded. The driver of their car took a ___________________ As the driver stopped the car to turn around, one of the members of The Black Hand rushed up to the car and __________ Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife.

  • A Tragic Wrong Turn

  • The Situation Continued…

  • Austria annexes Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, is assassinated in Sarajevo in 1914. In retaliation, the Austro-Hungarian Empire ________________________.

    1. Looks to ______________ For help

  • Austria is upset and must get backing from what country?

    1. _____________________y b/c knows Serbia is backed by Russia

  • Germany gives “blank check” to Austria

  • Austria offers Serbia an ultimatum and Serbia accepts

  • Austria rejects ultimatum and invades Serbia


  • The Situation Continued…

  • Russian troops align along Austria/German border

  • Germany declares war on__________________ b/c fearful Russia will ____________________ on them

  • Who is Russia allied with?

    1. ________________,

    2. Von Schlieffen Plan says attack on Western front, then Eastern front.

  • French troops aligned along border, so how invade?

    1. Through _______________ and down to Paris

  • Belgium neutral, so ______________________ and Italy declare war

  • German troops blockade Britain, sink Lusitania (and other causes), get America involved in WWI

  • Reading…

Franz Ferdinand’s

Car of Death

  • Path to War

    1. _____________________ declares war on Serbia

    2. R_____________mobilizes to help Serbia

    3. _____________________ declares war on Russia and then its ally France

      1. ______________ declares war on Germany for violating the neutrality of Belgium

      2. _________________ calls for soldiers from former and current colonies, including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India

      3. ____________________ backs out of Triple Alliance due to German attack, saying it was only for defensive purposes

        1. First is neutral and then joins the Allies

      4. _____________________________________ join Germany and Austria-Hungary to form the _________________

  • The Dominoes Fall

II. A European conflict becomes a true world war

  • European powers fight for control of __________________ as battles spread to Africa

  • Allies fight ______________________ to gain access to the Black Sea and assist Arab nationalists fighting the Ottoman Empire for control of territory in the _________________________

  • __________________ declares war on Germany and seizes Asian colonies

III. Development of a two-front war

  • Eastern Front

    1. ____________ was less industrialized, fewer modern weapons, but had large population

    2. _____________ attacks Germany and Austria-Hungary, but is forced to retreat

    3. Allies could not easily supply Russia, as it was blockaded by________________ in Baltic Sea and the Black Sea was controlled by the ___________________________

    4. Russia loses __________________s, but prevents Germany from focusing entirely on the Western Front

    5. Eastern Front is closed when Russia pulls out of the war because of the Russian _________________ in 1917

  • Western Front

    1. French troops able to force retreat of invading German forces at the Marne in September 1914

    2. Germany realizes it must fight a __________________________

    3. Trench Warfare

      1. Each side developed a series of mazelike trenches

      2. Attacks took place in “_____________________”, the area between the trenches

      3. Conditions were bad: mud, trench foot, rats, disease

      4. ___________________ is exchanged with high rates of casualties

Trench Warfare

Going Over the Top

  • Trench systems

  • Trench Warfare & Weapons

  • Troops in Action

  • Places for soldiers to hide. Bunkers, dug deep underground, provided protection during artillery bombardments.

  • Trench Rats


  • Miserable living conditions; rats, lice, mud.
    Dead people became the floor. Trenchfoot.

  • Activity



  • Weapons DETAILS

  • Poison Gas DETAILS

IV. New Technology Changes Warfare

  • Technology at the outset of war

    1. Europeans still planned on a fairly quick war

    2. _____________________ was making its final appearance

  • New weapons change warfare

    1. _______________________ placed in positions to guard trenches

      1. Crossing “No Man’s Land” nearly impossible

      2. Helps cause __________________ on Western front

    2. ______________________: most feared weapon of war

      1. Introduced by Germans at Bolimow in East and Ypres, Belgium on Western Front

      2. Most casualties were not fatal, but crippling

      3. _____________________: damage to skin and lungs

      4. Chlorine/Phosgene: damages lungs by internal blistering, causing lung __________________________


  • Weapon: Poison gas

  • Use: Terrorize enemy troops.
    Inflicts crippling and fatal injuries.

  • Increased the barbarism of the war.
    Caused blindness, choking, vomiting, blisters.

    1. Airplanes: move from spying to outright warfare Initially used for ___________________ enemy positions

      1. Adapted to drop bombs, then mounted with ____________

    2. ___________________________ brought naval warfare to new level

      1. Introduced by the Germans and called U-Boats

      2. Destroyed ships carrying supplies with torpedoes

      3. German policy of __________________________________ helps cause US entry into World War I

  • World War I

III. U.S. Involvement in the War

  • President Wilson claims ___________________ at the beginning of the war

    1. Wilson wins reelection in 1916, campaigning that “He kept us out of the war”

    2. Wilson wants to avoid US entanglement in _______________e and issues caused by revolution in _______________ and crisis with Pancho Villa

    3. US attempts to continue __________as a neutral party

  • Citizens begin taking sides

    1. Many in US favored Allies, due to connection to _______________ by culture and _______________ as a past ally

    2. Many in _________________t strongly favor Germany due to heritage

    3. Recent immigrants often torn, as many came from Eastern and Southern Europe

    4. ____________________ from Europe that reached US often pro-British or anti-German

  • Economic factors for the War

    1. US traded much more with Allies

    2. American banks loaned nearly _____________________ to Allies that would only be _________________ if Allies are victorious

    3. German submarine warfare harmed US trade

  • Political and military causes

    1. ___________________: unannounced sinking of trade vessels against law and caused loss of American life

      1. _________________ British passenger ship destroyed in 1915, killing 128 Americans

      2. Wilson gets Germany to temporarily end strategy after second incident (Sussex)

  • New York Times Headline

  • New York Tribune Headline

  • Reading…

“Calls the Situation Critical”

  • Baltimore, Md. on the sinking of the Lusitania

    1. __________________________: from Germany advising Mexico to attack the US if it declares war on Germany (Jan. 1917)

      1. US/Mexican relations strained due to attack on __________________ by Pancho Villa

      2. Germany offers to help Mexico recapture _________________ in Mexican-American War

      3. Germany wants to keep ___________________ to provide time to defeat Britain and France

      4. Telegram is intercepted by British and given to US

      5. Germany resumes ________________________ warfare in Feb. 1917, sinking six US ships

  • Zimmerman


    The Zimmerman Note

  • America Joins the Ranks

  • World War I

IV. United States in World War I

  • Declaration of War

    1. __________________ asks Congress to declare war on April 2, 1917

    2. Congress votes to declare _____________________ (82-6 Senate and 373-50 House)

  • Readings…

  • Declaration of War

  • “If We Don’t Lick the Huns Now”

  • World War I

  • US mobilization for war

    1. To protect troops, US uses ___________________ of merchant, troop transport, and warships to get troops across Atlantic

    2. US soldiers “_________________” arrive in France in late 1917 and boost both Allied morale and numbers

    3. Nearly __________________ US soldiers will fight in World War I

  • US military action in World War I

    1. US enters the war near beginning of _______________________

      1. _________________ withdraws from war after Bolshevik revolution, essentially ending the war on the Eastern Front

        1. 3.3 million killed, 4.9 million military wounded


      2. Germany concentrates nearly all troops in the _____________

      3. Germany advances to almost ________________________ of Paris but turned back at Chateau-Thierry and Belleau Wood

      4. US involved in massive __________________ in the Argonne Forest, eventually driving a hole in the German lines

V. The American Home Front

  • Mobilization for war

    1. Conscription (draft): ____________________ created using a lottery and draft boards to select soldiers

    2. Control of supplies

      1. Rationing used to reduce civilian consumption

        1. _________________ leads increased food production and decreased consumption

        2. Energy concerns caused introduction of __________________ time and factory restrictions

  • 16th Amendment

  • The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States and without regard to any census or enumeration.

  • The origins of the 16th Amendment (1913) date back to 1895, when the Supreme Court declared a federal income tax unconstitutional. To overturn this decision, this amendment authorizes an income tax that is levied on a direct basis.

    1. Paying for the war ($32 billion or $44 million a day)

      1. US raised income taxes, allowed by________ Amendment

      2. _______________: sold to Americans paid for $20 billion

  • Changing populations

    1. African Americans and Hispanics

      1. ____________________: African Americans moved to the North to take jobs that were vacated by white workers going to war

      2. Political turmoil in _________________ and job opportunities spike large immigration by Hispanics

      3. African Americans and Hispanics joined the military in ___________________

      4. Women

          1. Over __________________ join workforce, although most leave after the war

          2. Women enlisted or hired by military for mainly clerical and support positions

          3. ______________________ only women sent overseas


  • Women in the Work Force

  • Turn to women to work in factories and build products for war

  • Social and political issues

  • Restricting anti-war actions and speech

    1. Climate of suspicion surrounded country, especially immigrants or those of German descent

      1. ________________ of 1917: penalized those spying or interfering with the war effort

        1. Schenck v. __________________ Charles Schenck unsuccessfully argued that free speech protected distribution of anti-draft materials

          1. Free speech can not constitute a “____________________” and wartime allowed more restrictive circumstances

      2. ____________________ of 1918: made it illegal to publicly express opposition to the war

  • Readings

The U.S. Sedition Act

Make America Safe for Democracy First

Robert La Follette Demands His Rights (1917)

    • Economic and worker issues

      1. Increased production for World War I causes ________________

      2. Conflicts increase between unions and owners

      3. Large strikes occur throughout US, including the __________________ strike (all workers) in Seattle

      4. Increased labor concerns raise fear of the spread of socialism and help lead to the ___________________ in 1920s

  • Ending of WWI

  • Germany and its allies are_______________________

    • All fighting has taken place ____________________________ to this point.

  • Seeing very little_______________ done at home, Germany calls for an end to the war

  • Returning German Soldiers treated as ________________________

  • ____________________ agreed on November 8th 1918

    • Goes into effect 3 days later at 11am.

  • France and Britain deal with Germany harshly, and threaten to restart war if Germany does no accept Treaty of Versailles


  • The Ending of World War I and its Consequences

I. Ending of World War I

  • Popular ______________________is that World War I ended with just the Treaty of Versailles

  • Ended with a ______________________ between the Allies and separate members of the Central Powers

  • War on Eastern Front ended earlier with Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, where Russia gave vast territory to Central Powers

II. Treaty of __________________(November 11, 1918)

  • Ended war between Allies and __________________________

  • ____________________________ given no say in treaty

  • Each of the major Allied Powers came in with different goals

    1. ______________: punish Germany for the war

    2. _______________: decrease German power and punish, but leave it enough to counterbalance France

    3. ___________: Obtain territory promised at outset of war

    4. _________________________: Achieve a lasting peace in Europe as planned through Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points

  • Discussion…

  • President Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points

      1. Fourteen Points

        1. A _____________________ would help resolve international disputes to avoid future wars

        2. __________________________ to allow ethnic groups formerly part of larger empires to determine status as new nations

        3. Restoration of territories seized by European powers previous to the war

        4. Wilson is forced to concede many goals about a less harsh settlement in order to obtain the ______________________________

  • Peace, Diplomacy & Reparation

  • Results of the Treaty of Versailles

    1. __________________ must accept total blame for war and pay __________________ in war reparations

      1. Germans lose___________________ to creation of new European nations and enemies

      2. Germany must _________________________

      3. Germany loses ___________________________ colonies

      4. Germany is both crippled economically and politically angry, helping lead to _________________________


    2. US fails to ratify Treaty of Versailles

      1. Many in US fearful of League of Nations as an entangling international alliance

      2. _______________________ fails to approve Treaty of Versailles

      3. US _____________________ League of Nations, lessening the overall strength of the organization

  • Wilson’s Last Days

III. Other Treaties Ending World War II

  • Treaties with former Austria-Hungary

    1. Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (Austria - 1919) and Treaty of Trianon (Hungary – 1920 ) signed separately, splitting the empire

      1. Pay war reparations for destruction

      2. Treaty taken given to Italy, Greece, Romania and used to help create Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Poland

      3. Both countries are weakened and Austria can not unite with Germany without League of Nations approval

  • Treaty of Neuilly (1919) has Bulgaria demilitarize, pay smaller reparations, and give land to Greece and Romania

  • Treaty of Sèvres (1920) end war with the Ottoman Empire

    1. Lands in Middle East to be controlled by France (Lebanon and Syria) and Britain (Iraq and Palestine)

      1. Britain to resolve issue of Jewish state in Palestine

    2. Treaty of Lausanne (1923) recognized Turkey as new nation and ends conflicts between Turkish forces and Allied forces

      1. Armenia is annexed by Soviet Union beforehand

    3. Recognition of _________________ as independent

      1. Armenians were subjected to genocidal actions during the war

      2. Armenians were a Christian minority viewed as siding with Russia in the war

      3. _________________________ with high death rates, rape, robbery, murder were all used against the Armenians

      4. Nearly one million Armenians were killed

        1. Lack of prosecution viewed as partially influential on later ________________

        2. Today though viewed by many as a genocide, including 20 nations and 39 US states (including MO, but not US as a whole)

  • Armenian Genocide…
    Did it really happen? Was it the world’s first genocide?

  • Armenian Genocide…
    Did it really happen? Was it the world’s first genocide?

  • Armenian Genocide…
    Did it really happen? Was it the world’s first genocide?

  • Armenian Genocide…
    Did it really happen? Was it the world’s first genocide?

  • Aftermath of the War

  • Germany is left devastated by the treaty.

    1. German citizens angry at Allies

    2. German money left worthless due to inflation

    3. Inflation causes massive depression.

  • Wilson breaks ties with England and France getting his League of Nations passed.

    1. US takes a policy of isolation

  • Japan’s Power in the Pacific is unchecked by Russia because of the Bolshevik Revolution

  • Desperate German citizens begin to look everywhere for help.


IDs- Zimmerman Note, Armenian Genocide, Lusitanian, Great Migration, Espionage/Sedition Act , Schlieffen Plan

1 WWI was the most destructive war in human history until WWII. Please explain what factors made this war so much more destructive than any other war in human history up until this point.

2 During this unit we have discussed several new weapons that arrived on the fronts of WWI. Pick three of these new weapons and describe them. Be sure to include how these weapons were used during WWI, and more importantly how they changed warfare.

3 During the early 1900s, America employed a policy of international isolation. Much controversy has surrounded the US not becoming involved in WWI at its onset, as well as its eventual entrance into the war in 1917. At what point, if any, do you believe the US should have entered WWI? Make an argument for your point backed up with reason, logic, facts, and stats, and be sure to refute at least one other viewpoint.

4 The Treaty of Versailles completely devastated Germany. First explain the ways Germany was devastated by the treaty, then explain how this treaty helped set the stage for WWII.

5 Life in America Changed drastically during WWI. Please explain how life in America changed during WWI. BE sure to list and explain as many examples as possible.

6 This unit we have begun to touch on a theme that we will continue to discuss for the remainder of the year, the struggle between communism and democracy. First discuss how each system works, then explain why these two systems conflict.

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