1832 Nullification Crisis Jefferson authored the “Compact” theory of Government – Govt. was a compact among the several states. 1789 – 1832 former president Madison and the author of the Constitution was still alive and did not think that states could secede. Congressman Lincoln argued that the union pre-existed the Constitution – that the Constitution (Congress) confers existence upon the states – the colonies only became states when a New Government was declared so that they – the states – have no existence outside of the union created by the Constitutional Government. i.e. students in a room become a class only when entering the room – the class doesn’t create the students after it is created.