The Bureaucracy "Open Book"



Download 189.01 Kb.
Date29.05.2016
Size189.01 Kb.


Name: _______________________________________ Date: _____________

Chapter 15

The Bureaucracy

“Open Book” reality check


1.

The definition of bureaucracy includes all of the following notions except

A)

a large organization.

B)

authority divided among several managers.

C)

complexity of structure.

D)

appointed officials.

E)

an issue network.



2.

Most federal agencies must share their functions with

A)

related state agencies.

B)

private corporations.

C)

interest groups.

D)

congressional staff.

E)

White House staff.



3.

When an agency such as the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) makes an important decision, it is quite likely to be taken to court. This is an example of what is meant by the term

A)

government bureaucracy.

B)

impedimentary government.

C)

red tape.

D)

adversary culture.

E)

reciprocal administration.



4.

One complication surrounding the federal bureaucracy is the fact that the Constitution

A)

gave the president sole power to make appointments.

B)

gave Congress the sole power to make appointments.

C)

restricted administrative appointments to elections years.

D)

does not mention departments or bureaus.

E)

None of the above.



5.

Patronage in the early republic provided the president with all of the following advantages except

A)

keeping subordinates supportive of his policies.

B)

influencing recalcitrant members of Congress.

C)

helping to build up party organization.

D)

holding special-interest lobbyists at bay.

E)

providing rewards.





6.

During most of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, appointments to the civil service were based primarily on

A)

merit.

B)

education.

C)

patronage.

D)

wealth.

E)

experience in government.



7.

Generally, the role of government bureaucracies up to the end of the nineteenth century was to

A)

provide benefits for interest groups.

B)

solve social problems.

C)

regulate unions.

D)

protect state and local government.

E)

solve economic problems.



8.

The shift in the role of the federal bureaucracy that occurred between 1861 and 1901 was from

A)

economic regulation to tax regulation.

B)

regulation to service.

C)

commerce to regulation.

D)

federal services to state services.

E)

federal services to commerce.



9.

The notion of laissez-faire and of the congressional mandate to regulate led to the bureaucracy's performing a

A)

service role.

B)

regulatory role.

C)

redistributive role.

D)

litigational role.

E)

expansionist role.



10.

Periodically, the size of the bureaucracy has grown substantially. These times of growth have generally occurred during

A)

depressions.

B)

wars.

C)

periods of prosperity.

D)

recessions.

E)

election years.



11.

A dramatic increase in activism by the federal bureaucracy occurred in the twentieth century, largely as a consequence of

A)

the growth of patronage and the rise of political parties.

B)

the Sixteenth Amendment and the Social Security Act.

C)

a desire for limited government and an end to earlier regulatory practices.

D)

the Great Depression of the 1930s and World War II.

E)

the rise of special interest groups and unions.



12.

An important effect of World War II on the federal government was to

A)

bring an end to laissez-faire government.

B)

greatly increase government revenues from taxation.

C)

strip various regulatory agencies of their policy-making functions.

D)

introduce the concept of pay-as-you-go government.

E)

streamline decision making but restrict the scope of the government's activity.



13.

If you wanted to do away with high federal taxation, you might see a quick solution in the repeal of the

A)

Sixteenth Amendment.

B)

Nineteenth Amendment.

C)

Twenty-first Amendment.

D)

Twenty-second Amendment.

E)

Twenty-sixth Amendment.



14.

The broad factors that best explain the behavior of bureaucratic officials include all of the following except

A)

how they are recruited.

B)

their personal attributes.

C)

the influence of outside forces on them.

D)

their party preferences.

E)

how they are rewarded.



15.

A person appointed to a government position after passing an examination is probably joining the

A)

excepted service.

B)

competitive service.

C)

patronage system.

D)

Department of State.

E)

Department of Justice.



16.

Which of the following statements concerning the Pendleton Act is incorrect?

A)

It was passed during a Republican administration.

B)

It was, in part, a response to public outrage over abuses of the spoils system.

C)

It was, in part, a response to the assassination of President Garfield.

D)

It was passed to avoid mass firings of Republicans.

E)

It enhanced the power of patronage in federal appointments.



17.

The merit system began with the

A)

Sixteenth Amendment.

B)

Seventeenth Amendment.

C)

civil rights cases of 1873.

D)

New Deal of the 1930s.

E)

Pendleton Act of 1883.



18.

One advantage of the merit system to presidents is that it

A)

protects them from patronage demands.

B)

grants them the power of appointment.

C)

insulates them from control by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM).

D)

excludes employees in the excepted service.

E)

exempts them from bureaucratic procedures which are not outlined in Article II.



19.

Using the buddy system, an agency can circumvent the usual Office of Personnel Management (OPM) search process by

A)

blanketing in a job candidate.

B)

issuing a merit dispensation.

C)

asking the president to appoint a specific candidate.

D)

tailoring a job description to a specific candidate.

E)

limiting the scope of a search to a specific region.



20.

If an agency committed to consumer protection hires someone from a private environmental protection group, the type of recruitment illustrated would be

A)

recruitment from an issue network.

B)

recruitment by patronage.

C)

a noncareer assignment.

D)

recruitment by favoritism.

E)

recruitment by ideology.



21.

The fact that agencies usually recruit their own staff, often on a name-request basis, should lead us to expect that these recruits will possess the

A)

intelligence of a turnip.

B)

legal viewpoints of relevant interest groups.

C)

political will to initiate new struggles.

D)

necessary expertise to advise political officials.

E)

agency point of view.



22.

Relative to their share of the population, Republicans tend to be overrepresented in the

A)

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

B)

Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

C)

Conservative Counseling Corps.

D)

Department of Defense.

E)

a and b.



23.

If bureaucrats regularly sabotage the actions of political bosses with whom they disagree, one would expect Republicans to be hurt more than Democrats. Why?

A)

Because Republican programs are more vulnerable to sabotage

B)

Because bureaucrats tend to be liberal

C)

Because more government money is spent on Republican programs

D)

Because the federal bureaucracy, at the moment, is overwhelmingly conservative

E)

Because Republicans rarely take an interest in the complexities of the federal bureaucracy



24.

Which law established the Office of Special Counsel?

A)

The Taft-Hartley Act

B)

The Civil Service Act

C)

The Administrative Procedure Act

D)

The Investigative Protections Act

E)

The Whistle-blower Protection Act



25.

The Whistle-blower Protection Act of 1989 is designed to protect

A)

agencies that are being undermined by their employees.

B)

agencies that are being undermined by Congress.

C)

agency heads who fire employees for misconduct.

D)

bureaucrats who tell on their bosses.

E)

bureaucrats who are not career employees.



26.

Having a strong agency culture can help an agency by motivating its employees to work hard, but it can also hurt it by

A)

increasing the number of highly structured roles.

B)

making the agency resistant to change.

C)

reducing cooperation among employees.

D)

encouraging whistle-blowing.

E)

promoting individuals who are patently unqualified.



27.

The "culture" of an agency is shaped by

A)

laws.

B)

rules.

C)

routines.

D)

informal understandings among fellow employees.

E)

All of the above.



28.

One of the major constraints under which government agencies operate is the

A)

obligation of leadership to frequently restructure.

B)

power of issue networks to determine agency policy.

C)

absence of competing forces in the public sector.

D)

presence of a great many highly structured roles.

E)

large number of regulations they must adhere to.



29.

The Freedom of Information Act and the Administrative Procedure Act are examples of

A)

government-wide constraints on bureaucracy.

B)

early, unconstitutional attempts to restrain bureaucrats.

C)

laws that apply only to Congress.

D)

regulations that limit executive powers principally.

E)

laws that apply only to Congressional staff.



30.

A particularly important constraint on bureaucratic power is the need to

A)

carry out the policies of the president.

B)

check congressional power.

C)

obtain agreement from other parts of the bureaucracy.

D)

obtain the approval of Congress.

E)

restructure agencies with each new administration.



31.

Among the effects of the many constraints on government agencies is the fact that

A)

many important issues tend to receive scant attention.

B)

taking action is easier than blocking action.

C)

lower-ranking employees are reluctant to make decisions on their own.

D)

government sometimes acts too quickly.

E)

decisions are often sweeping and inflexible.



32.

In a bureaucracy, why does government sometimes act inconsistently?

A)

Because constraints ensure that relatively few voices will be heard before a decision is made

B)

Because what is done to meet one constraint may endanger another constraint

C)

Because the more constraints that must be satisfied, the longer getting things done will take

D)

Because the best way for employees to stay out of trouble is to let their boss make the decision

E)

Because rules often leave bureaucrats little discretion



33.

In a bureaucracy, why is blocking action easier than taking action?

A)

Because the more constraints that must be served, the more forms that must be filled out

B)

Because constraints ensure that many voices must be heard before a decision is made

C)

Because the more constraints that must be satisfied, the longer getting things done will take

D)

Because the best way for employees to stay out of trouble is to let their boss make the decision

E)

Because few voices are actually considered in the decision making process



34.

The relationship among an agency, a committee, and an interest group was described in the past as

A)

red tape.

B)

an issue network.

C)

an iron triangle.

D)

laissez-faire.

E)

a flexible triumvirate.



35.

Because many federal agencies were created to serve some sector of society, we should not be surprised to learn that the American Legion is closely aligned with the

A)

Department of Energy.

B)

Department of Education.

C)

Department of Commerce.

D)

Department of the Interior.

E)

Department of Veterans' Affairs.



36.

Which of the following statements about agency allies is correct?

A)

The Small Business Administration (SBA) is part of an iron triangle.

B)

Iron triangles are far more common today than in the past.

C)

Presidential hiring from within issue networks is prohibited by law.

D)

Congress often establishes issue networks to study key policy issues.

E)

All of the above.



37.

Why are iron triangles less common today than they once were?

A)

Because agencies today are pressured by so many interest groups.

B)

Because iron triangles are no longer allowed by many agencies.

C)

Because congressional leadership is so much stronger today.

D)

Because the courts have stepped in to limit the intervention of interest groups in agency affairs

E)

Because special interests have aligned themselves with congressional leaders



38.

Secretaries of agriculture have found that they have considerable discretion in setting policy despite the involvement of strong interest groups because

A)

one interest group dominates all the others.

B)

of the inherent power of the Department of Agriculture.

C)

of presidential support for major policies.

D)

the groups most often work against rather than with one another.

E)

there is otherwise very little interest taken in agricultural policy.



39.

Which of the following statements about issue networks is correct?

A)

They tend to be highly academic and nonpartisan.

B)

They tend to hold views that are in opposition to the party in power.

C)

They are groups that regularly debate government policy on specific issues.

D)

They are composed mostly of federal bureaucrats of the same party as the current president.

E)

They are usually composed of party leaders and corporate heads.



40.

Which of the following characterizes appropriations?

A)

They consist of money dispersed through informal channels.

B)

They originate in the legislative committees.

C)

They originate in the legislative subcommittees.

D)

They consist of money that is not set aside for specific use.

E)

They are usually made annually.



41.

Compared to appropriations, authorizations are

A)

usually smaller.

B)

usually larger.

C)

subject to review less often.

D)

less complicated to administer.

E)

without constitutional basis.



42.

The main reason some interest groups are important to agencies is that these groups

A)

are important to Congress.

B)

can supplement agency funds.

C)

are grassroots organizations.

D)

have a long tradition behind them.

E)

can redirect agency funds.



43.

The most powerful group in Congress in terms of control over an agency's budget is the

A)

House Ways and Means Committee.

B)

House Committee on Committees.

C)

House Steering Committee.

D)

House Appropriations Committee.

E)

House Rules Committee.



44.

The effect of a legislative veto is to

A)

give Congress control over certain executive decisions.

B)

strip House chairpersons of powers of appropriation.

C)

give Congress control over the appointment of agency heads.

D)

strip House chairpersons of powers of authorization.

E)

return power to subcommittees.



45.

The legislative veto was declared unconstitutional in

A)

Immigration and Naturalization Service v. Chadha.

B)

United States v. Nixon.

C)

Brown v. Board of Education.

D)

Marbury v. Madison.

E)

Donnell v. Tarkenton.



Answer Key


1.

E

2.

A

3.

D

4.

D

5.

D

6.

C

7.

A

8.

B

9.

A

10.

B

11.

D

12.

B

13.

A

14.

D

15.

B

16.

E

17.

E

18.

A

19.

D

20.

A

21.

E

22.

D

23.

B

24.

E

25.

D

26.

B

27.

E

28.

E

29.

A

30.

C

31.

C

32.

B

33.

B

34.

C

35.

E

36.

A

37.

A

38.

D

39.

C

40.

E

41.

B

42.

A

43.

D

44.

A

45.

A




Page



Share with your friends:




The database is protected by copyright ©essaydocs.org 2020
send message

    Main page