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<+_article> <#/>Slave trade was a kind of trade <-/where by> human beings were exchanged as items of trade. <#/>It was a commodification of human beings trade which took place around 15th century all the way to 19th century in Africa to Europe where Slaves were needed in Americas as labourers in sugar plantations and mines.

<#/>2: historical background of slave trade

<#/>The slave trade was an economic institution of the first importance in <+_article> development of capitalism. <#/>At first it started in different areas in Europe and America but it was found that the population was small <&/>grammar to meet the rising need for <-/>for labourers and that white people and Red <&/>orth indians in America failed to resist hardships so they turned to Africa where they took slaves mainly from West Africa to America and Europe.

<#/>The slave trade took place from 15th century to 19th century. <#/>(Walter Rodney) "Strictly speaking, the African only became a slave when he reached a society where he worked as a slave".

<#/>2:1 PARTICIPANTS

<#/>The main participants in this inhuman trade were <-/Europen> traders, <-_Americas><+_Americans> and Africans. <#/>That is slaves were taken from the coast of west Africa to America and from America to Europe although some worked in American plantations and mines others were taken to Europe where they had to work in industry <&/>grammar. <#/>This kind of trade came be known <&/>grammar as <+_article> Atlantic slave trade or triangular trade as it involved three continents.

<#/>2:2 techniques employed in obtaining slaves.

<#/>The slave traders employed different methods of getting slaves in different areas. <#/>The European traders used commodities from their home <-/endustries> as <+_article> medium of exchange with slaves along the coast of West Africa. <#/>However <-_another><+_other> techniques which were used in obtaining slaves were through imposition of warfare, <-/kidnaping>, punishment of wrong doers, Criminals and captives of the wars. <#/>In other areas slaves were obtained through selling to traders by their own chiefs so as to enable chiefs to get European goods like <-_weapon><+_weapons> and so forth.

<#/>3: CAPITALISM

<#/>Capitalism is an exploitative mode of production which emerged after the collapse of <+_article> <-_feudalism><+_feudalist> mode of production. <#/>In this mode of production few people exploit others through their capital as the majority of the people had no other means to survive except their labour power <&/>grammar/tense.

<#/>In <+_article> <-_capitalism><+_capitalist> mode of production labour power is exploited through necessary labour time or surplus labour time where the capitalist extend <&/>grammar working hours but the salary is constant.

<#/>For capitalism to grow to its full swing <&/>idiom it has to undergo 3 <-/metamophosis> stages that is capitalism, <-/competative> capitalism and monopoly capitalism.

<#/>Capitalism as a system is exploitative in nature and it has <+_article> competitive attitude against each other <&/>grammar in <+_article> sphere of economy and monopolistic in nature at its highest stage of its growth or maturity which was marked <-/finaly> by industrialization.

<#/>4: contribution of slaves to the development of capitalism in europe.

<#/>Slavery was an economic institution of the first importance in the development of capitalism in Europe. <#/>Historically slaves were the basis of <+_article> Greek economy which built up the Roman empire.

<#/>The historical literature has shown that slaves were bought cheaply and were taken to America to work in sugar plantations as well as in mines where they mined gold silver, <-_the> sugar, indigo cotton <-/mollases> and other tropical products, the <-_process><+_processing> of which created <+_article> new <-/endustrial> sector in England.

<#/>The ships sailed from the home country with manufactured goods and exchanged <&/>grammar/direct object at a profit on the coast of West Africa for Negroes, who were traded on the plantations at another profit in exchange for a cargo of colonial produce to be taken back to <+_article> home country. <#/>Therefore the triangular slave trade gave a triple stimulus to British industry.

<#/>Through <+_article> slave trade there emerged big <-_capitalist><+_capatalists> like Alexander Barclay who later on formed his Barclay bank out of profit from slave trade. <#/>He engaged in <+_article> slave trade in 1776 and there is a similar progression in the case of <-/Lyords> who <-_has><+_had> a small coffee house called <+_article> London coffee house and later on became the world's largest banking and <-/ensurance> houses after dipping into <+_article> profits from slave trade and slavery.

<#/>The slave trade as a historical phenomenon benefited Europeans the owners of slaves but slaves themselves didn't flourish <&/>lexeme from the trade.

<#/><-/Shiping> and ship-building was another historical importance <&/>grammar during and after <+_article> slave trade. <#/>The slave trade naturally drew in its wake a tremendous development of <-_the> <-/shiping>. <#/>At first there was a need of constructing vessels <&/>grammar for <-/shiping> slaves from Africa to America and <-/else where>; <-/morever> slaves were the makers of such <-/vessals>.

<#/><-/Ship building> was encouraged for <-/shiping> slaves to the plantations and cargoes from the plantations. <#/>This received a direct stimulus from the triangular trade; so <+_article> plantation trade was one of the greatest nurseries of <-/shiping> and seamen in England and one of the greatest branches of <+_article> trade.

<#/>Slaves contributed much on advancing <&/>grammar <-/ship building> technology which gave fame to England "wooden walls of England" <&/>grammar.

<#/>Due to the development of shipping and shipbuilding in Europe there was an expansion of trade and emergence of sea ports like Bristol, Liverpool and <-/Glassgow> which became <-/endustrial> revolution centers.

<#/>The slaves were the training ground for British seamen; they were just for experimentation. <#/>It is more significant to note that the Atlantic trade was the stimulator of consistent advance in naval base technology.

<#/>The exploitation of Africa and African labour continued to be a source of accumulation of capital - to be reinvested in western Europe.

<#/>By 1750 there was hardly a trading or manufacturing town in England which was not in some way connected with the triangular trade. <#/>The profit obtained provided one of the main streams of that accumulation of capital in England which financed the industrial revolution.

<#/>However, it was Negro slaves who made the sugar colonies the most precious colonies ever recorded in <+_article> whole annals of imperialism. <#/>They were the fundamental prop and support of the colonies <&/>punct valuable people whose labour supplied British with all the plantation produce. <#/>The British was a <-/magnificient> <-/supperstructure> of American commerce and Naval power of an African foundation.

<#/>It was estimated that 1775 British <&/>orth west indian plantations represented a valuation of fifty millions sterling and sugar planters themselves put the figure at seventy millions in 1788 (Sir Dalbly Thomas).

<#/>In 1878 Putt <-/assesed> the annual income from the <&/>orth west indian plantations at four pound million as compared to <-_with> one million from the rest of the world.

<#/><-/Morever>, the <-_profit><+_profits> of <+_article> sugar <-_plantation><+_plantations> in any of <&/>orth <+_article> western indian colonies are generally much greater than those of any other cultivation that is known in either Europe or America.

<#/>According to Devenant, Britain's total trade at the end of the 17th century brought in a profit of 2000,000 pounds, <+_article> re-export of plantation goods 120,000 <&/>punct Europe and African and levant <&/>lexeme trade 600,000, East <-/endian> trade 500,000 and <+_article> reexport of East <-/endian> goods 180,000 pounds as <+_article> profit from slave contribution work.

<#/>The slaves as commodities were sold in Europe very expensive <&/>grammar and at the same time <+_article> slave trade didn't mean only slaves but also other commodities for example:-

John Hawkins made three trips to W. Africa in the 1560's and stole Africans whom he sold to <+_article> Spanish in America. <#/>On returning to England after the first trip to W. Africa his profit was so handsome that Queen Elizabeth I became interested in participation, in his next venture and She provided for that purpose a ship named the 'Jesus'. <#/>Hawkins left with the 'Jesus' to steal some more Africans and he returned to England with such dividends that Queen Elizabeth made him a knight.



<#/>In Central and South America gold and silver that mined <&/>grammar by Africans played a crucial role in meeting the need for <-_coin><+_coins> in expanding <+_article> capitalist money economy of Western Europe <&/>punct at the same time African gold was also significant in that it helped <&/>grammar/tense the Portuguese to finance further navigation around the Cape of Good Hope and into <-_asian><+_Asia> ever since the 19th century. <#/>The gold which was also taken from Africa was the main source for mintage of Dutch gold <-_coin><+_coins> in the 17th century helping Amsterdam to become the financial capital of Europe in that period. <#/>However, as it was no coincidence that when the English struck <-_a> new gold in 1663 they called it 'guinea' used in United Kingdom <&/>grammar.

<#/>It was first coined in 1663 from gold imported from the Guinea Coast of West Africa by a company of merchants trading under charter from the British Crown.

<#/>The exploitation of slaves from Africa as well as natural resources continued to be a source of accumulation of capital to develop capitalism in Europe and America.

<#/>The Commerce derived from Africa helped a great deal to strengthen trans-national ties within the western European economy bearing in mind that American produce was the consequence of African labour. <#/>For instance Brazilian <-/dywood> were re-exported <&/>grammar from Portugal into the <-/mediteranean>, the North sea and Baltic and passed into the contents cloth industry <&/>sense of the 17th century, sugar from the <-/Carribean> was re-exported from England and France to other parts of Europe to such an extent <-_the><+_that> Hamburg in Germany was the biggest sugar refining centre in Europe in the first half of the 18th century.

<#/>Germany supplied manufactures to <-/Scandivian> Holland, England France and Portugal for resale in Africa. <#/>England, France and Holland found it necessary to exchange various classes of goods the better to deal with Africans for gold, <-_slave><+_slaves> and Ivory.

<#/>American economic development up to <+_article> mid 19th century rested squarely on foreign commerce of which slavery was a pivot. <#/>In <+_article> 1830's slave grown cotton accounted for about half the value of all <-_export><+_exports> from the United <-_State><+_States> of America. <#/>So <+_article> slave trade had contributed <&/>grammar/tense <-/alot> to the development of capitalism in Europe and America
<#/>5 summary of the role played by slaves towards capitalism development in europe.

<#/>The summary of roles or <+_article> contribution played <&/>lexeme by slaves in capitalism development in Europe can be culminated <&/>lexeme by mentioning the major roles. <#/>The slaves played a vital role in <+_article> development of <+_article> <-/metallugical> industries <&/>punct <-/morever> it was a main source of capitalist first largest banks and insurance companies in the world

<#/>The trade also stimulated the invention of <+_article> steam engine by James <&/>orth watt.

<#/>The development of ports and sea <-_ports><+_port> towns were also stimulated by <+_article> slave trade Bristol, Manchester <&/>punct> besides such contribution slaves contributed to the great deal <&/>idiom in <-/shiping> technology which gave fame to <+_article> British and expanded its <-/oversea> trade.

<#/>Slaves were the main source of cheap labour in the plantation, mines and the <-/endustries>, it was the slaves and sugar traders which made Bristol the second largest city of England for the first three <-/quaters> of the 18th century. <#/>"There is not" wrote a local <-/analist> "a brick in the city but what is cemented with the blood of slaves.

<#/>It was <+_article> slave trade which expanded the market of manufactured goods because the goods from Europe had to be sold in exchange for slaves and to the slave owners.

<#/>Industrial development and agricultural development gained momentum from the cotton produced by slaves for example the development of textile in <&/>orth liverpool and <&/>orth manchester and sugar production resulted in <+_article> establishment of refinery <-/endustries>. <#/>In general the historical importance of <+_article> slave trade was the accumulation of capital which financed <-/endustrial> <+_article> revolution in 19th century in Europe.

<#/>5:1 impact of slave trade <-_to><+_on> <+_article> african continent.

<#/>To sum up, <+_article> slave trade contributed <-_on><+_to> Capitalism development in Europe and America. <#/>However it had <+_article> negative Impact on Africa due to Unequal exchange.

<#/>During <+_article> slave trade Europeans took slaves and gold, ivory, and <-_diamond><+_diamonds> from Africa especially from West-Africa while they brought with them porcelain things and outdated things which were of low quality in exchanging <&/>grammar for slaves.

<#/>European traders contributed to the maximum in stagnating <-_the> African technology by imposing theirs as before their introduction, Africans had their own iron industry for instance textiles, weaving, cookery and even leather processing <-_endustry><+_industries> which were developed to a certain stage.

<#/>The able bodied and productive population were taken to Europe as slaves as cheap labour in plantations and mines which resulted in <+_article> depopulation and underdevelopment of Africa and marked the beginning of <+_article> dependence of <+_article> African continent up to date.

<#/>6: BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Hacker, L,M; Triumph of American Capitalism, ML Graw Hill Paperback, Colombia University, 19065.

2. Rodney, W; How Europe Underdeveloped Africa TPH, Dsm, 1972.

3. Rodney, W; West Africa and the Antlantic Salve trade, East Africa Publishing house, Nairobi, 1967.

4. William, E, Capitalism and Slavery, Andre Deutch, Ltd, London, 1964


NT-ESS8T


1: <#/> Introduction (Definition of the terms)

<#/>1:1 Slavery. <#/>In the dictionary of social science slavery is defined "as an Institution involving a degree of domination, subordination between persons ranging from the right of life and death of the owner over the slave to careful detailed legal provisions for mutual rights and privileges. <#/>The essential element of the agreement being the right of the master to force a slave to labour or render other services for the <-_master><+_master's> benefit".

<#/>1:2 Slave trade: <#/>Slave trade is the notorious commerce in human beings. <#/>This takes about 400 yrs operating <&/>grammar/sense <-/where by> millions of Africans population were taken overseas. <#/>It has been estimated that more than 15 million <-_African><+_Africans> reached the American continent, <&/>orth caribbean Islands as a result of <+_article> Atlantic slave trade.

<#/>1:3 Capitalism. <#/>Capitalism is a system determined not by the people's attitude to work, their spirit of enterprise, desire for gain, or the use of money to finance a series of exchange transactions in order to make profit, but by the way in which the means of production are owned, and by the character of the social relations of production between individuals and groups arising from the production process, particularly the manner in which work is organized and the surplus from production is distributed.

<#/>Its central determining feature is the transformation of the labour power of man into a commodity to be <-_brought><+_bought> and sold in the market for gain like any other object of exchange.

<#/>Therefore capitalism like the slave and feudal modes of production is a social system based on private ownership of the means of production and exploitation of man by man.

<#/>2: Historical background of <+_article> slave trade in Africa.

<#/>2:1. Main Participants. <#/>This notorious commerce in human beings started <&/>lexeme from <+_article> fourteenth century to 19th c. <#/>It was estimated that this trade lasts <&/>grammar/tense for about four hundred years. <#/>The main participants in this trade were <-/Portugues>, Spanish, British, Arabs and Africans. <#/><-_European><+_Europeans> participate <&/>grammar/tense mostly in <+_article> triangular slave trade while Arabs were participating in <+_article> East African slave trade. <#/><+_article> Africans were mostly local leaders who used to sell war captives to Europeans and sometimes exchange them <-_to><+_with> Europeans <-_with><+_for> guns, clothes, porcelain things and the like. <#/>Another group were the <-/Mullatoes> (The <-/inter breed> of <-/portugues> with Africans) This group emerged as slave traders. <#/>They were the clients between Europeans <-_in><+_on> the <-_cost><+_coast> and local leaders in the <-/country side>.

<#/>2.2. Continental <-/envolvement> and other areas. <#/><+_article> Slave trade can be identified under two main areas The triangular slave trade which sometimes was known as the Atlantic slave trade and the Great circuit and East Africa slave trade or Arab slave trade. <#/>The Atlantic slave trade <-_include><+_included> areas like Africa Europe and Latin America and other areas like <-/caribean> Islands west Indies <-/etcetra>. <#/>The Arab slave trade involved Africa especially the East coast of Africa and Arabian countries and later to Madagascar, Mauritius, <-/Sychell> and Commoro Islands.

<#/><&/>figure

<#/>2:4 Reasons for slave trade.

<#/>Slaves were used mainly for providing <-/cheep> labour, in cotton plantations and in gold <-_mine><+_mines> in central and in south America. <#/>Others were used as domestic servants in Oman and also as soldiers in Arabian countries.

<#/>2:5 Method used to obtain slaves.

<#/>Slaves were obtained <-/throurg> riding, <-/kidnaping>, exchange of war captives <-_to><+_for> European goods <-/etcetra>. <#/>However on the whole <+_article> process by which captives were obtained on African soil was not trade at all it was through warfare trickery, banditry and kidnapping.

<#/>3. Main body (Contribution of slaves in the development of Capitalism in Europe

<#/>3:1 Slave and Industrial Development.

<#/>In 1718 William Wood a surveyor of trade said the slave trade was "The spring and parent whence the others flow. <#/>A few years later Post <*/>leftway described the slave trade as

The first principle and foundation of all the rest, the main spring of the machine which sets every wheel in motion.



<#/>In <+_article> slave trade the Europeans accumulate capital which acts as a basis for invention of machines <&/>grammar/tense which resulted in the stimulation of <+_article> industrial revolution. <#/>After getting super profit from <+_article> slave trade and slavery James Watt financed his famous steam engine and took it from the drawing <-_boad><+_board> to the factory. <#/>Most of the capitalists who <-_enganged><+_engaged> in slave trade were the <-_one><+_ones> who provide <&/>grammar/tense capital for increasing industrial capital growth <&/>punct for instance John Hawkins made three trips to west Africa in the 1560's and stole Africans who sold <&/>grammar to the Spanish in America. <#/>As Walter Rodney says <&/>quote

<#/>On return to England after the first trip his profit was so handsome that Queen Elizabeth I. <#/>become interested in the direct participating <&/>grammar in <+_article> next venture and she provide <&/>grammar/tense for that purpose a ship named the Jesus. <#/>Hawkins left with the Jesus to steal some more Africans and he returned to England with such <-_devidens><+_dividends> that Queen Elizabeth made him <+_article> knight1.

<#/>3:2 Expansion of Commercial activities. </h>




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