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<&_>Question: <#/>Rajabu is charged with murdering his wife. <#/>The evidence discloses that in June 1988 he beat his wife into unconsciousness, and her skull was fractured. <#/>He was subsequently charged with assault causing bodily harm, and sentenced to two years imprisonment. <#/>In July 1989, the accused again beat his wife and severely bruised her face and head. <#/>In September 1989, his wife developed traumatic meningitis and died in October 1989. <#/>By October 1989 the marks of the injuries inflicted in June 1988 had disappeared. <#/>The medical evidence is that the fractured skull is the main cause of the death.


<&_>Ebrahim, R.A. (f, 20+, student), Comunication Skills Dept, University of Dar es Salaam, 1993



<#/>The rationale of the government "cut a tree plant trees" policy was put forward in 1984. <#/>That policy was very important during that time and it is still valid even now due to the fact that there is rapid perishing of forests, if that condition would remain unchecked it would lead to the formation of a desert <&/>grammar. <#/><+_article> Government came to learn that there was over utilization of forests. <#/>People cut trees without planting new ones. <#/>This condition is called deforestation. <#/>The main cause of overutilization of forests is due to the rapid increase of population. <#/>Somebody may ask why does the increase of population affect the forests? <#/><&/>grammar This is because more than 90% of Tanzanians depend on forests as <+_article> source of fuel in the form of firewood and charcoal. <#/>Due to the above reason, <+_article> Government saw the need of find <&/>grammar a quick solution in order to prevent desert formation. <#/>Therefore the government by using its ministry of natural resources and tourism introduced that policy "cut a tree plant trees". <#/>Also apart from desert formation, there is the need to conserve forests because they are very important as long as <&/>idiom organisms life <&/>grammar including man himself is concerned, forests are very important in several ways.


<#/>First, green plants are very important to all living organisms. <#/>Without green plants there is no life. <#/>This is because green plants are producers. <#/>That means green plants are the only living organisms which are able to convert solar energy into chemical energy during the process of photosynthesis. <#/>Then that energy from green plants is <-_transfered><+_transferred> to other living organisms. <#/>As thus <&/>grammar we can say all other living organisms depend either direct or indirect to <&/>grammar green plants for their source of energy. <#/>Direct dependence means those organisms which feed directly on green plants for example goats, cows and gazelle, while indirect dependence includes those organisms which feed on other organisms which eat green plants e. g. Lions, hyenas and Leopards. <#/>That energy from the plant source is utilized by those organisms in all their physical, physiological and metabolic processes taking place in their bodies <&/>grammar. <#/>That's why green plants are termed as producers because they produce or manufacture food.

<#/>Secondly, forests are important in precipitation of rainfall formation. <#/>This process occurs through <+_article> evapotranspiration process. <#/>During that process soil water is absorbed by plants, then transpiration occurs and eventually that layer of water on leaves <-_evaporate><+_evaporates> to form atmospheric vapour (humidity). <#/>That humidity or vapour <-_rise ><+_rises> upwards, then due to variation in temperature eventually it condenses and forms some clouds which finally produce rainfall. <#/>therefore forests play a very big role in <+_article> hydrological cycle (water cycle).

<#/>Forests are important in producing forest products such as timber used for furniture making and building, also forests as raw material in paper industries, they also produce <-_gums><+_gum>, <-_tannins><+_tannin> as well as medicine. <#/>Both local and modern medicines originate from different types of trees.

<#/>Trees are also <+_article> very important source of fuel in the form of firewood and charcoal.

<#/>Biological wise <&/>grammar forests are very important in soil conservation by preventing soil erosion and <+_article> addition of manure. <#/>That is they (forests) bind soil tightly and reduce the force of running water and blowing wind. <#/>There they prevent the soil to be washed away <&/>grammar by those agents of erosion. <#/>Also forests leaves after falling down when they decay they form manure <&/>grammar thus increases <&/>grammar soil fertility.

<#/>Forests are the habitats or reserves for wild animals also <+_article> <-/resorvoir> of rivers. <#/>Most rivers have their sources in forests.

<#/>Last but not least some trees bear fruits such as mangoes,pawpaw, guavas, oranges and other fruits which are very important sources of vitamins and minerals.

<#/>For all the above mentioned <-_importances><+_importance> <&/>lexeme together with others which have not been mentioned, we can see the importance of conserving the forests. <#/>The same reasons have <-_enable><+_enabled> the government to formulate that policy "cut a tree plant trees" as one way of conserving the forests. <#/>The policy has four main objectives. <#/>The first being forest conservation, second planting trees, thirdly to find other alternatives of source of fuel instead of firewood and charcoal lastly conservation of soil


<#/>In the first objective ie conservation of forests, <+_article> government put much emphasis on conserving the existing forests such as Meru forest, Usa in Arusha, Magambe, Uwamforo and Longuza forests Rubya, Matogoro, and Rubare Forests; all those should be conserved. <#/>Also <+_article> government tries to educate people on <+_article> importance of forests through mass media such as <+_article> radio and <-_magazine><+_magazines> also through different campaigns. <#/>such as "Kiliocha mti", "mlima unalia<-/>", Kata mti pand miti" and "misitu ni uhai". <#/>All these are campaigns to educate man on <+_article> importance of forests and the need to conserve them instead of destroying them by random culling and forest fire.

<#/>The implementation of <+_article> tree planting objective is done by <+_article> forest department. <#/>The first step is <+_article> planting of trees in areas which were highly affected by deforestation for example Shinyanga region.

<#/>Second local governments are involved, these their main role <&/>grammar is to educate the villagers. <#/>As thus <&/>grammar each member of a certain village is required to plant trees around his/her house to meet fuel demands as well as building materials. <#/>Also each school or college should plant trees around their surroundings <&/>lexeme.

<#/><+_article> Third objective of finding other sources of fuel, <&/>punct was set because in Tanzania, trees as <+_article> source of fuel <-_contributes><+_contribute> 91% of <+_article> fuel expenditure, Petroleum 7% and electricity only 2%. <#/>Therefore in order to prevent further destruction of <+_article> forest people are <-_adviced><+_advised> to use other source of fuel such as biogas made from animal waste or <-/kerosine> oil.

<#/>In the fourth objective, people are highly encouraged to plant trees in order to prevent soil erosion, especially in those areas which have highly been affected such as , Shinyanga, Kondoa, Irangi and Dodoma.

<#/>Like any other policy, this policy is faced with a number of problems. <#/>The major problem being <+_article> lack of enough funds also <+_article> lack of enough means of transport <&/>grammar; as well as fewer forest <-_personells><+_personnel>. <#/>Another problem is <+_article> failure to find ways of preventing forest fire. <#/>In case of funds some donors help in solving that problem by assisting in some projects such as the one inShinyanga. <#/>Those donors include DANIDA, SIDA and UNEP. <#/>DANIDA apart from assisting those large projects it <&/>grammar also <-_help><+_helps> very much the secondary schools in implementation of that policy.


<#/><-_On><+_In> my opinion, I think the implementation of that policy could be simplified if the government could train forest <-_personels><+_personnel> at village levels. <#/>These could live among the people and learn their problems as well as their suggestions as long as <&/>idiom <+_article> fuel problem is concerned. <#/>Through discussing it could be very easier to educate and encourage those people on <+_article> importance of planting trees for their own benefit.


<#/>As a conclusion, I would like to <-_advice><+_advise> my fellow Tanzanians that prevention is better than cure: In order to help the coming children to find <+_article> promising and conducive environment all of us should prevent the formation of desert as much as we can just by planting two to three trees after every cutting <+_of> one tree.


1. Herald Foley, Global warming who is taking the heat? Ponos publication Ltd 1991

2. Temu A. B. and Kaale B.K., "Kumbukumbu ya Warsh ya kifaifa ya Upanday miti, Wizara ya ardhu na ... na utahi" DSM 1984

3. Otysine M. Robert, Consequences of deforestation in Sheryanga in Agroforestry today NOT 5 1995 ICAF.



<#/>The world wildlife means wild plants (including fungi) and animals (mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fishes and invertebrates. <#/>According to <+_article> World Conservation strategy (WCS) definition, Conservation means "the management of human use of the biosphere (i.e. all living things) so that it may yield the greatest sustainable benefit to present generations while maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of future generations" (IUCN 1980). <#/>So, conservation includes preservation, sustainable use, enhancement and restoration. <#/>In short, Conservation means maintenance. <#/>Habitat maintenance (Conservation) is <+_article> prerequisite for the sustainable development of wild living resources.

<#/>Wildlife conservation in Tanzania dates back to <+_article> early <-_19800s><+_1900s>, that is, during the colonial era. <#/>The prominent conservation areas which were established during this era include Selous Game Reserve (1905), Serengeti National Park (1957) Mkomazi Game Reserve (1958), Ngorongoro Conservation Area Authority (1959) and Arusha National Park (1960) established as Ngurdoto crater National Park.


The post-independence established conservation areas include National Parks like Tarangire, Kilimanjaro, Manyara, Katavi, Ruaha, Rubondo, Gombe, Mahale Mountains and the most recent (1992) Udzungwa. <#/>The Game Reserves include Rungwa/Kizigo, Saadani, Maswa, Moyowosi/Kigosi, Burigi and Ibanda.

<#/>The establishment of more conservation areas and <+_article> College of African Wildlife Management-Mweka was part of the implementation of the "Arusha Manifesto" by the former Tanzanian President Mwalimu Julius K. Nyerere 1961 (Appendix III).

<#/> Categories of conservation Areas:

<#/>There are four major categories of wildlife conservation areas namely: National Parks, Game Reserves, Conservation Area, and Game controlled areas. <#/>However, in <+_article> 1980s, the world conservation Strategy (WCS) and Man and Biosphere (MAB) added two categories: Biosphere Reserves and world heritage Sites.

<#/>The following table summarizes all.


The wildlife conservation areas occupy 25% of the total land mass of Tanzania mainland. <#/>The sketch map to show the location of these areas is hereby attached.

<#/>The government allocates 8% of its annual national budget for conservation. <#/>For example; in 1991/92 and 1992/93 T.SHs. 266,563,000 and 319,700 were allocated respectively.

<#/> The Reason for Conservation

<#/>The reasons for conservation of wildlife are as follows:

<#/> (a) Commercial Values:

<#/>Animals and fish are used as food. <#/>Some are exported and generate foreign exchange (e.g. prawns, Shrimps and lobsters). <#/>Sale and export of animal trophies such as skins, tusks and teeth. <#/>Tourist hunting (for trophy animals) which <-_generate><+_generates> a lot of foreign exchange. <#/>Live animal trade such as sea turtles, sea mammals, shell fish, birds and most land mammals. <#/>Some are exported as pets. <#/>Tourist photographic safaris in National Parks.

<#/>(b) Recreational Value:

<#/>This include sport hunting and fishing, game viewing, and photographic excursions in national parks and game reserves.

<#/>(c) Aesthetic Values

<#/>These <-_include><+_includes> <-/shear> beauty and human spirit, game viewing and bird watchers and photography in conservation areas. <#/>"World wide it is the <-/aethetic> value of wild places and animal life that becomes more important and provides an economic justification for marine reserves, national parks and Wildlife refuges" (Dasmann, 1981).

<#/>(d) Ethical Values

<#/>This is an obligation to conserve wild species. <#/>Reverence and respect for wild species. <#/>Their right to live. <#/>"A land ethic" does not prevent the alteration, management or use of plants and animals, but "it does afford their right to continued existence". <#/>A "land ethic" changes a person from conqueror of the natural community to a "plain member and citizen of it". <#/>"It implies respect for his fellow members and also respect for the community as such". <#/>(Leopold, 1949).

<#/>(e) Scientific Values

<#/>This is knowledge and understanding of many of the earth's species and the ways in which they are related in an evolutionary sense as well as how they interact to keep the planet habitable (Dasmann, 1981).

<#/>Wild animals make a crucial contribution to biomedical research. <#/>The most important group is the primates due to the close relationship with human beings. <#/>The most important primates for health purposes include the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), the longtail macaque (Macaca fascilucaris), the squirrel monkey (Saimiri Sciureus), the Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), the African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops) and owl monkey (Aotus Trivirgatus). <#/>The rhesus monkey is the most widely used especially for polio and other vaccines.

<#/>Species with unique uses include:

- Chimpanzee for research into hepatitis B

- African green monkey for production of SV40 virus free poliomyelitis vaccine.

<#/>- Central and South American owl monkey which is the only non-human animal suitable for malaria chemotherapy and immunology studies (Inter agency Primate Steering Committee, 1978).

<#/>In developing countries, up to 70-80% depend on traditional remedies (WHO,1977). <#/>This include treatment of postnatal bleeding, diabetes, malaria, hepatitis. <#/>The herbs concerned include morphine (opium), quinine (cinchona), etc. of the 200 drugs regarded by WHO as essential (WHO, 1979) only 5 come wholly or partly from wild plants.

<#/>1. Atropine - the antidote and antismodic from Egyptian hambane Hyoscyamus muticus).

<#/>2. Hydrocortisone, an important anti-inflammatory in dermatology and ophthalmology derived from diosgenin from the wild yams Dioscorea composita and D. flaribuna in Mexico and Guatemala.

<#/>3. The general antidote ipecacuanha from wild ipecac (Cephaelis ipecacuanha) in Brazil.

<#/>4. Pilocarpine used as a miotic (to constrict the pupil) in ophthalmology in wild jaborandi (Pilocarpus) from Brazil.

<#/>5. The muscle relaxant tubocurarine, which is both synthesized and obtainable from Pareira Chondrodendron tementosum wild in the forests of Southern Brazil, Peru, Columbia and Panama (Morton, 1977).

<#/>(f) Ecological values:

<#/>Wildlife provides the ecological support for economic activity. <#/>Ecological support means the provision of essential ecological processes. <#/>According to the World conservation Strategy (WCS): "Are those processes that are governed, supported or strongly moderated by ecosystems and are essential for food production, health and other aspects of human survival and sustainable development" (IUCN, 1980).

<#/>They include.

<#/>(i) The cycling of carbon and other vital elements.

<#/>(ii) The concentration, fixing and recycling of nutrients.

<#/>(iii) The regulation of the Chemistry of the planet so that the earth remains fit for life.

<#/>(iv) Soil formation, regeneration and protection.

<#/>(v) The cleansing of the air and waters and waste disposal.

<#/> Development of Science:

(a) <#/>Research: Plants and wild animals are widely used as samples for various research purposes. <#/>The details concerning this aspect have been outlined under the subsection of Scientific Values.

<#/>(b) Funding of research work: Part of <+_article> money which is accrued from the sale of wild animals and their products is used to fund research <-_works><+_work>. <#/>This money is <-/channeled> through the Tanzania Wildlife Protection Fund (TWPF) established by an act of parliament in 1978.

<#/> Economic development:

<#/>Wildlife can bring two types of economic benefit:

(i) Wildlife may be used directly as food, fodder fuel or fibre.

<#/>(ii) Wildlife may be sold providing much needed income (especially foreign exchange). <#/>In some cases, this income is a prominent item in national budgets, even where it is negligible in GNP terms, it is generally important and sometimes vital for the communities most closely concerned with the trade.

<#/>Revenue (local and forex) accrued from wild animals through direct sale of live animals, their products or different forms of tourism in our conservation areas is used to develop various sectors of our economy such as:

<#/> (a) Development of conservation areas by:

- building and maintaining roads and houses

- boundary <-_dermacation><+_demarcation>

- Water distribution in areas with scarcity by digging small (artificial) dams so as to trap rain water for animals during dry season.

<#/>(b) Communication network

- Building and maintenance of major Public and utility roads and railways.

<#/>- Installation and maintenance of telecommunication infrastructure.

<#/>(c) Industrial development:

- Building of new industries

- Maintenance of old/existing industries by buying and fitting in new spare parts or installation of new machinery.

<#/>(d) Service Sector:

This <-_include<<+_includes> health, education, water, etc. <#/>For example:

Health: - Building new hospitals and dispensaries

- maintenance of existing ones.

<#/> - Buying hospital facilities and equipment.

<#/> - Buying of drugs.

<#/><#/>Education: - building of new schools and colleges.

<#/> - maintenance of existing ones.

<#/> - Buying of schools facilities and equipment.


<#/>Wildlife makes an important and often essential contribution to <+_article> local and national economies of developing countries. <#/>Much of this contribution is difficult to evaluate and readily over looked because it is part of the hidden economy of the rural areas, informal markets or illegal trade channels. <#/>Wild resources should be conserved and developed <-_sustainable><+_sustainably>. <#/>However many are either <-/over exploited> or depleted by <-/habital> loss.

<#/>Concern for threatened species can induce a false sense of security. <#/>Sometimes the species is not a risk, but valuable genotypes or other subdivisions of the species are. <#/>(Robert and Christine, 1982.)

<#/>How can we best maintain and <-_sustainable><+_sustainably> develop wildlife as a resource and reconcile it with other development needs?

<#/>The WCS (IUCN, 1980) proposed three main steps:

(i) National and regional evaluation of the Contributions of wildlife.

<#/>(ii) Conservation of wild resources.

<#/>(iii) Integration of conservation with development.


<#/>The world conservation strategy recommends the following measures:

<#/>1. <+_article> Government should have <+_article> explicit policy for the conservation of living resources, a policy that is cross-sectoral (applying to all sectors that depend on or have an impact on living resources), and concerned as much with maintenance as with production. <#/>One way of achieving this is through the inclusion of a conservation chapter in the national economic development plan or equivalent.

<#/>2. Governments should articulate a strategy for implementing a conservation policy.

<#/>3. Environmental planning needs to be greatly improved and land and water uses allocated on the basis of that improved planning.




<#/>To a large extent, <+_article> modern world can be counted as <+_article> major source of environmental pollution. <#/>The modern world is the world of science and <-_teqnology><+_technology>, this is the result of man's struggle against his environment for centuries.

<#/>There has been especially in the present century, a rapid growth of technological and <-_scientifical><+_scientific> innovations. <#/>This development precipitates rapid and <-/wide spread> social change with important implications <-_in><+_for> the society.

<#/>However, there can some times be unanticipated effects on the entire ecosystem.

<#/>In explaining the body of this project, I will start with defining the terms; Environment, Pollution and Pollutant.

<#/>Environment may be defined as consisting of all external sources and factors to which a person or aggregate of <-_person><+_persons> is actually or potentially responsive.

<#/>In <+_article> other way, <+_article> environment is the interaction between living things and <-/non living> things. <#/>On that interaction, there are certain results which appeared partly of that <&/>grammar which have the same characters with nature, while some of them move against <-_the> nature and these are <-/so called> "Environmental Pollution". <#/>And these particles which such a contradiction are known as "pollutants" <&/>grammar

<#/>In continuing I will mention the major forms of <-_pollition<<+_pollution> those are <&/>grammar:


<#/>This is a contamination of soil due to <+_article> application of chemical fertilizers. <#/>Indeed agricultural development can be counted as factor of soil pollution.

<#/>One effect is in the application of Nitrogen fertilizers. <#/>The most likely <-_harzards><+_hazard> is methaemoglobinaemia or the "blue baby syndrome" which <-/participaly> <&/>lexeme affects infants. <#/>It is associated with high levels of nitrates in drinking water, which also contaminated <&/>grammar/passive with bacteria. <#/>Another rise is <+_of> cancer especially bladder cancer.

<#/>Another type of this soil pollution is called "Beach <-/Erossion>". <#/>Beach erosion along the <-_Tanzania><+_Tanzanian> coastline has now reached <-_on> alarming proportions posing a threat to sustainable development.

<#/>This problem was first noted in Tanzania in 1901 along the Maesani bay, Kunduchi, North of Mbweni and Baga-moyo coastal line.

<#/>The following are causes of this problem.

<#/>- Climate change (Global warming) which results <-_from><+_in> sea level rising.

<#/>- The removal of natural <-_barries><+_barriers> such as coral reefs by either dynamite fishing, <-_blesting><+_blasting> mining together with <-/Mangroove> cutting.

<#/>- Blowing of the strong south-Eastern <-/Moonson>, which is dominant during May - October.

<#/>- Deforestation activities along the coastal forests.

<#/>If these are not controlled the following <-_problem><+_problems> will appear.

<#/>- Loss of <-_habital><+_habitat> for most of coastal and beach fauna and flora.

<#/>- Loss and displacement of biological life in the area.

<#/>- Loss of <&/>grammar most expensive and beautiful structures found along the coast and shore lines.

<#/>- <-/Substential> decline or possibility closure <&/>grammar of coastal tourism industry which has several effects <-_to><+_on> <+_article> country's economy.

<#/>- Some parts of the country, which are very important will possibly be lost like it happened to Maziwi Island in Tanga <&/>grammar and some other areas <-_in><+_on> the islands, and in the mainland like Kunduch in Dar-es-Salaam.


<#/>This is the contamination of the air with undesirable gases, smoke and minute particles. <#/>This pollution of air is particularly by smoke and is very serious in especially those <-_country><+_countries> which have heavy industries in <-_life><+_living> areas.

<#/>Major sources are:

- Transportation <-_equipments><+_equipment>.

<#/>- <-/Air craft> trains , ship and boats.

<#/>- Electric power and heating plants.

<#/>- Industrial processes.

<#/>- <-/Misceleneous> sources as forest fires, agriculture burning coal, waste fires and solid waste disposal.

<#/>In industrial <-_smokes><+_smoke> there are two major gases which are poison to <-/humman> <-_being><+_beings>, Carbon monoxide (CO), and sulphur dioxide which causes the <-/distruction> of some amount of <+_article> ozone layer <-_on><+_in> the atmosphere. <#/>This reduces the power of preventing the strength of <+_article> Ultra rays of the sun. <#/>These ultra violet rays are very very hot and if penetrate <&/>grammar in the world hemisphere in a large amount causes <&/>grammar the environment to be very hot than usual <&/>grammar. <#/>And results the problem which is commonly known as "Global warming" <&/>grammar


<#/>This is contamination of water sources by unwanted materials and dead organisms. <#/>It is produced primarily by activities of man especially in his management of water resources.

<#/>The pollutants may be any chemical, physical or biological substances, <&/>punct that <-_affects><+_affect> the natural conditions of water or it's intended use.

<#/>The major pollutants are organic <-_wastes><+_waste>, living agents, plants nutrients and symmetric organic <-_chemical><+_chemicals>, oil, and radio active <-_radiations><+_radiation> materials.

<#/>These are caused by domestic sewage and industrial waste. <#/>Food and paper industries are the generators of organic <-_wastes><+_waste>; e.g. <#/>Those industries which are <-_in><+_on> the shores of Lake Victoria, the waste <-_product><+_products> from these industries <-_entire><+_enter> <-_in> the lake and kill the organisms present including fish. <#/>Since fish is a great type of food in these areas people eat and are contaminated with diseases from these waste products.


<#/>The problem in Tanzania is very serious, because as we know Tanzania is one among the <-/so called> underdeveloped countries <-/there fore> to <-/over come> and prevent pollution in the environment we need technology and <-/finantial> resources which will help in succession. <#/><-/Forexample> in <+_article> case of pollution from industries we must <-_had><+_have> a technology of diluting these waste products into neutral and <-_safety><+_safe> <-_one><+_ones>.

<#/>In the case of <-_smokes><+_smoke> we must <-_had><+_have> a special programme of ensuring that all industries are apart from <-/humman> <-_life><+_living> areas, <+_for> example houses, markets, hotels and others while Tanzania is still not able to do this until in 1970's <&/>grammar/sense.

<#/>However Tanzania now has started to improve in taking in account the measures which will solve this problem even <-/alittle>. <#/>To show its attitude towards the problem <+_article> <-_Tanzania><+_Tanzanian> Government has established NEMC (National Environmental Management Council). <#/>In its establishment NEMC is in the process of ensuring that the coastal or beach <-/erossion> is controlled as follows:

- A total of 54 <*/>groy were planned at Kundudi area early in 1980's as protective structures.

<#/>- NEMC in collaboration with the University of Dar-es-Salaam and Ardhi Institute conducted a study on <+_article> <-_couses><+_causes> of beach erosion, <+_article> effects and possible solutions to the problem.

<#/>- NEMC again is running some environmental conservation <-_programme><+_programmes> in the coastal zone which in one way or another will <-_acess><+_assess> the potential rise and utilization of coastal resources which are affected by <+_article> erosion problem. <#/>These programmes are in Rufiji, Zanzibar and Dar-es-Salaam.


<#/>From the problem explained earlier, it can be concluded that the problem of environmental pollution is very serious in Tanzania although is the one <&/>grammar among these countries which have smaller number of industries. <#/>This is due to the problem of <-/unaquiring> the <-_controlls><+_control> of the <-/polution>. <#/>In developed countries like Europe and others pollution is not serious than in Tanzania <&/>grammar despite of having a greater number of industries <&/>grammar, the reason is that they are well developed in <+_article> scientific and <-_teqnological><+_technological> manner of controlling pollution.

<#/>So I <-_advice><+_advise> my <-_fallow<<+_fellow> <-_Tanzanian><+_Tanzanians> to give their actual participation <&/>idiom in developing our science and <-_teqnology><+_technology>.


<#/>Science is the process governed by the methodology in proving or <-/prosuming> the theories and laws. <#/>Science and technology therefore is the application scientific methodology in solving different social problems in the society.

<#/>The Importation of science and technology is just the transfer of science and technology from one country to the other, that means this is just the transfer of skills or materials from one country to the other. <#/>This transfer of science and technology is normally from the developed countries to the third world countries, the underdeveloped.

<#/>A third world country is a country where by her economic is totally depending on agriculture that is it is not an <-/industralized> one here we mean There are very few Industries and even those few are working under production and machines used the oldest ones.

<#/>Although these third world countries depend on agriculture, but one can find that there is much use of primitive tools used in agricultural processing in general. <#/>Now due to this fact a third world in order to improve its agricultural, or Industrial sectors it has import either material from outside, skilled <-/personel> and <-/soon>.

<#/>The importation of science and technology in third world countries site an example Tanzania. <#/>In Tanzanian there was considerable growth in across National out put and In Industrial production however this was between 1960s and 1970s. <#/>But in 1980s have witnessed a precipitous decline in both of these national out put and Industrial sector.

<#/>Now coming to the question that is science and technology transfer in neither directed to the Import substitution strategies nor the export orientation strategies. <#/>Where as short term considerations might necessitate a measure of these strategies for brief period, our conviction is that the long term prospects for technological transformation economic development lie in BLS or some similar strategy.

<#/>Our first consideration about science and technology must be therefore be the establishment of a capital goods Industry Asedquist point out "domestic design and production of capital goods crucial for the generation of a technological capacity as well as for the development process in general". <#/>This is <-/enssential> for long run sustainability and <-/Indegenization> of technology, it is therefore very difficult to appraise this strategy with the received wisdom short term cost-benefit and analytical frame work.

<#/>In Identifying transferable science and technology the following factors must be born in mind.

<#/>a) Domestic resources availability and accessibility in terms of raw materials and other material inputs.

<#/>b) Domestic availability of skills and technical capacity to adopt the technology.

<#/>c) Potential linkage between various productive sectors so us to built up reciprocal and forcing relationship between various production activities in the economy.

<#/>d) Potential for the creation of a division of labour among countries in a region so us to take advantages of economy of large scale production.

<#/>All these leads to the advantages and disadvantages of science and technology Importation into the third world countries, Tanzania as an example.

<#/>In order to minimize the problems due to science and technology and financial constraints, The Tanzania government allowed foreign investment with Industrial sector. <#/>This also has resulted into joint ownership of some Industries through special management agreements between Government and some foreign firms.

<#/>Tanzania Government allowed the importation of science and technology by expecting the following:

i) The country lacked technical and <-/managerials> skills for modern industries so it would benefit from highly competent foreign managers and technical staff who would pass their knowledge to local trainees.

<#/>ii) The country expected to develop technological capability through technologies <-/transfered> from outside and at the same time keep abreast with the latest results of research in science and technology inventions.

<#/>iii) The country also <-/expeted> that the management agency can Integrate other local firms to obtain other raw materials, inputs at a discount, since it could have been difficult for local firms to do that for themselves due to their poor financial ability.

<#/>These are the advantages of Importing science and technology. <#/>The Importation of science and technology has advantages and at the same time disadvantages


(i) The foreign firm make technology transfer difficult and hence not available to local users.

<#/>ii) Through monopoly the foreign firms have tended to restrict the use of local resources and at the same tie acquire foreign currency through overpricing of Important products.

<#/>(iii) The foreign firms through management agreements have prefer capital intensive "<-/tuurnkey>" project which are technologically too complex to be assimilated and adapted by the local <-/personeel> that is they cannot even learn it. <#/>In other word this technology does not lead into developing the skills of local persons.

<#/>iv) The management agreement and technological agreement can not provide any beneficial , example Tanzania Industries both technologically and economically. <#/>This is done to the general behaviour of the foreign firms to control the choice and transfer of technology.

<#/>There fore these are the advantages and disadvantages of the Importation of science and technology.

<#/>For the purpose of two different case of study from Tanzania I have selected two local firms which are; Tanzania <-/Cigarate> company (T.C.C.) and Tanga fertilizer company.


<#/>This company originally known as the British Association of <-/tabacco> (Tanzania Branch) BAT was owned through joint venture between the British association on Tobacco foreign firm based on England-BAT (UK) and the Tanzania Government with a share 40% and 60% respectively. <#/>But in 1975 when the Government took all the <-/>the 100% the name was changed Tanzania <-/Ciggarette> Company (TCC) In joint venture the management agree had provided for BAT (UK) to the supplier of all inputs including Machinery and spare parts. <#/>This enabled the foreign firm to gain 2 1/2% of an actual <-/parchase> as a buying <-/commision> also the foreign firm had to provide the General manager, production manager, chief accountants, chief Engineer and Technical manager. <#/>After terminating agreement the BAT continued to act as a buyer agent and BAT (UK) received 3% of actual purchase as a buying commission. <#/>Between 1968 and 1971 Tanzania had paid as a good a value of Tshs 9,670,020/- to BAT (UK) that amount has the same as the met profit after tax per year. <#/>Between 1967 & 1970 the average met profit was about Tshs 10,091,308/- per year. <#/>This means that approximately one year was devoted to multination <-/coorporation> and this means that the local firm was not going anything from contact. <#/>Even after Nationalism the foreign firm continued to control the control the local firms and large firms of money continued to follow outside.


<#/>This company was built through joint venture between the Government of Tanzania and The foreign firm known as KLOECKNER based on west Germany Kloeckner owned 40% in the <-/bussiness>. <#/>According to the managing agreement the multinational <-/coorporation> was responsible for choice of modern <-/aquipment> needed in factory.

<#/><-_A><+_As> a result of that nearly all of the input were imported from abroad, leading into foreign currency outflow. <#/>For example although the country had Gypsum and coal but these were being imported from outside the country.

<#/>The table below shows this point.


<#/>From this data it is obvious that large <-/ammount> had been coming foreign currency. <#/>This amount <-/>amount could have been <*/>served if the country had engaged herself into exploitation of local available Gypsum and phosphate every important raw material for the production of sulphate of Amonium which one of the fertilizer produce by the Tanga factory.

<#/> Recommendation to the Government

<#/> (1) The Government should restrict the Importation of science and technology from a particular country and also choose the technology which is to be imported.

<#/>(2) The Government should import the technician who will come to the country so us as to teach our local technician rather than exporting the science and technology in the form of contractions etc.
<&/> 2079b



<#/>Language, according to the Longman Dictionary of Applied Linguistics, is defined as the system of human communication by means of a structured arrangement of sounds (or their written representation) to form large units, for example, morpheme, words or sentences.

<#/>In common usage it can also refer to non-human systems of communication such as the language of bees, the "language" of dolphins. <#/>Language is usually not spoken in exactly the same way from one part of a country to the other. <#/>Differences in the way a language is spoken by different people is described <-/interms> of regional and social-cultural variations.

<#/>From sociolinguistic view point, the role of language in our understanding or our conceptualizing the word around us, is largely determined by the culture which pattern in: our societies and those around us. <#/>Culture, here means, socially acquired knowledge. <#/>A knowledge that some one has by virtue of his being a member of a particular society.

<#/>Language, as a social phenomena is closely tied up with social structure and value systems of society, thus different contexts evaluate different ways. <#/>It is from this point that the great American linguist and anthropologist Edward Sapir (1884-1939) and his pupil Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897-1941) came out with their hypothesis called Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. <#/>The hypothesis is approximately that a speaker's native language sets up a series of categories which act as a kind of grid through which he perceives the world and which constrain the way in which he categories and conceptualises different phenomena. <#/>A language can affect a society by influencing or even controlling the world view of its speakers.

<#/>Most languages are very similar in this respect, presumably because of their common genetic relationship and long cultural contact between them; for example African-(Bantu) languages. <#/>The world views of their speakers and their societies are probably for that reason not all dissimilar.

<#/>Here, two points are clear, on how the above fact can happen. <#/>First, a language can affect the society by influencing or even controlling the world view of its speakers. <#/>Second, a language does not only accumulate knowledge, customs, believes and so on; but also it provides a vision of the world. <#/>Thus, language <-/controlls> its society through its inventory and structure.

<#/>It is the purpose of this essay, therefore to pinpoint the elements of language which can mould society. <#/>These can be grouped in three categories: Vocabulary, grammar and sounds.


<#/>According to the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary, (1993), Vocabulary means "total number of words which (with rules for <-/combaning> them) make up a language.”

<#/>The vocabulary of each language is set according to the values, <-/altittudes>, and experiences of the speakers by using it, we <-/subconciously> enter into the psychological and social-cultural out look of that society. <#/>Five areas can be observed under this:

<#/> (a) Range of meaning: This is different according to connotation. <#/>That is, conceptual meaning may be the same, but with different connotative meanings. <#/>The following terms can be considered:

(i) kitchen. <#/>The conceptual meaning of this word in English language and Kiswahili is the same but different in connotative meaning.

<#/>Language conceptual meaning connotative meaning

English kitchen = cooking place kitchen = cooking place only-no connotation.

Kiswahili Jiko (kitchen) = cooking place Jiko = cooking place also means a wife.

(ii) Colours. <#/>Vocabulary of colour, as it was put forward by psychologists in 1950s in their investigation of the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. <#/> (Lyons, 1981.):-

There is isolation of descriptive meaning of colour terms from their expressive and social meaning. <#/>Their descriptive meaning seems to be related to the physical world of every day experience, in terms of <-/denotion> in a much more <-/straight foward> way than does the descriptive meaning of Lexemes in many Semantic fields.

<#/>The colour spectrum is a physical continuum. <#/>It is also a visual continuum in the sense that any one distinguishable colour shades gradually and at the limits of visual discrimination, imperceptibly into its neighbours language differ in the number of basic colour-terms that they have. <#/>Also word-for-word translation of colour-terms across languages is frequently impossible because no word in the one corresponds exactly to a word in the other. <#/>For example, there is no word in French that covers exactly what "brown" does in English; there is no single word in Russian, Spanish or Italian that corresponds to "blue" no single word in Hungarian that corresponds to "red". <#/>(Lyons 1981). This is the case with Kiswahili. <#/>The are exactly no word that can cover what "pink" does in English. <#/>This is because of the arbitrariness of the divisions that different language-systems draw within physical and also visual (psychological) continuum.

<#/>(iii) Kinship terms. <#/>Society kinship system is generally reflected in its kinship vocabulary. <#/>So societies have different ways of looking at this. <#/>(Trudgill, 1974)

Basing on that point, let us observe the English kinship terms in comparison to those in Kiswahili kinship terms: In English "Uncle" would refer to mother's brother or father' brother. <#/>"Mjomba" in Kiswahili which means Uncle, would refer to mother's brother. <#/>"Baba mdogo/ mkubwa" would represent father's brothers.

<#/>Again in English, the word "cousin" is <-/refered> to as paternal and maternal. <#/>In Kiswahili "binamu" is the term used for aunt's sons or daughters related through mother (maternally). <#/>But "kaka" (brother) and "dada" (sister) are terms referring to father's relations.

<#/>(b) Societal values and attitudes: In environment and social structure, the values of a society can also have an effect on its language. <#/>Through the different uses of different words, people acquire different attitudes and values towards the words. <#/>The following examples can be considered:

(i) An Owl. <#/>In Europe, English people have positive attitude towards this bird. <#/>It signifies wisdom. <#/>But in most of Bantu Societies this bird has a negative attitude for it signifies bad omen.

<#/>(ii) Bepari. <#/>Is a Swahili connotation meaning "exploiter" but with the influence of Tanzania in the global capitalism (international exploitation) words with negative meaning such as those used during colonialism and soon after independence, words like "Bwanyenye" meaning exploiting person and "Beberu" meaning colonialist; have disappeared, now the beparis have become "wafadhili" Dono

(iii) Taboos. <#/>Are characterized as being concerned with behaviour which is believed to be supernaturally forbidden, or regarded as immoral or improper.(Trudgill, 1974).

Examples can be drawn from Kiswahili language, where the word "mavi" meaning <-/feaces>; is avoided as it seems too strong to the users. <#/>Instead, the neutral word "kinyesi" is applied for the same meaning. <#/>Also in some cases the word "paja" meaning thigh is avoided when talking for it is the body part which is <-/associeted> to private parts of human being.

<#/>(c) Specialisation: Important items in a society fall into varieties of meaning. <#/>The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis is concerned with the possibility that man is concerned- with the possibility that man's view of his environment may be conditioned by his language.

<#/>For example, people from banana culture in East Africa, have varieties of terms to banana as good as to their counterparts from coastal areas who have many names concerning fish (from both sea and lakes).

<#/>(d) Conceptualisation of the elements of the Universe.

<#/>The way people conceive the elements of the universe according to how that society conceives the items. <#/>That is, the item may the same in different language but experiences give different conceptions:

(i) house. <#/>A house in chagga tribe is taken as a round hut with thatched roof. <#/>In chagga language is known as "Msonge". <#/>While in Gogo language, a house is underground hut roofed with mud. <#/>This is known as "tembe". <#/>But in English a house may refer to a "<-/bungalaw>" (known that way); as small house with only one storey; such a house is <-/sorrounded> by a large verandah. <#/>(Dictionary meaning of <-/Bungalaw>)

(ii) hotel: This word is so fluid in Tanzanian usage. <#/>Even a small hut where tea is sold can be <-/refered> to as 'a hotel'. <#/>But in English language a hotel is a building where meals are provided together with <-/accomodation> (rooms), for travellers.

<#/>(e) Categorization of the Universe: A person may categorise the universe according to the social out look for instance in French: 'la terre' means the land; which is taken as feminine. <#/>In Maasa a cow is masculine for it is very important in their life. <#/>So anything central or very important is masculine. <#/>Things like ship, vehicle, country in English have given feminine nature. <#/>Let us consider the following sentences:

(a) M.V. Victoria is the fastest ship, She can reach Musoma bay before twelve this morning.

<#/>(b) It is a smart car, how much does she cost?

<#/>(c) Tanzania is a nice country, and her people are good.

<#/> 2: GRAMMAR.

<#/>The grammar of each language is set and organized according to the values and attitudes of people in the society.

<#/>In the book by J. Howard, Discovering Grammar; he wrote "Language is sometimes viewed as the means by which meanings are transmitted in sound via the organising principle of grammar. <#/>" Grammar is thus concerned with the counters of meaning-words, parts of words, grammatical categories and their combination into meaningful strings-sentence. <#/>Two elements can be observed:

<#/> (a) Gender: The three definite singular personal pronouns are distinguished as respectively, feminine masculine and neuter, terms in a system of gender. <#/>They satisfy the three general definitions of the three gender categories in that they characteristically refer to male, female, and inanimates - respectively.

<#/>Gender in French is sex oriented (masculine or feminine). <#/>In Bantu (with <-/norminal> prefixes) there is natural genders. <#/>For instance, for human beings, trees or things we have; -Mtu - Jitu - Kitu

prefixes m, Ji and ki in Bantu language are neutral.

<#/> (b) Tense: According to Huddlestone (1988), English Grammar an Outline. <#/>He described tense as follows "There are just two tenses in English past and present; unlike such language as French and Latin ... <#/>English has not future tense. <#/>That is to say that, there is no verbal category in English whose primary use is to locate in future time the situation described in clause". Pg. 80.

<#/>The primary use of the present tense is to locate the situation in present time - where "situation" is to be understood as a general term covering states, actions, processes or whatever is described in the clause, and present time is the time of the utterance.

<#/>Past tense is used in past time situations.

<#/>In other language Aspect is used to indicate aspectual meaning. <#/>It <-/envolves> temporal flow or segmentation. <#/>English does not have grammatical aspect. <#/>We will say that a language has grammatical aspect if it has a system of the verb, marked inflectionally. [Huddlestone, (1988)]-pg 73.

<#/>An example of aspectual meaning that marks time, can be taken from Lingala Language. <#/>"In Lingala the meaning of "I love" for the Lingala forms nalingi and nalinga. <#/>So its difficult to detemine the true value of the aspect/tense suffixes -i and -a. <#/>However, closer view would reveal that nalingi means "I love" (I am already in the state of loving) and nalinga "I love" (I am entering into the state of loving). <#/>These differences of aspect are not always clearly expressed in the English gloss" (Batibo, H.M., 1984)

<#/> 3: SOUNDS.

<#/>Sounds show how one conceptualises something and so affect society (though not strongly as the former elements - grammar and vocabulary).

<#/>Two ways can be said to be involved on how sounds help to conceptualise the world around.

<#/>(a) Sound differentiation can influence society:

The prefixes in Swahili language namely Ki and Ka mean "small". <#/>(that is <-/deminitive>) in kitoto, katoto instead of mtoto meaning ”child”.

<#/>The word Poromoka, refers to something big such as rock. <#/>/poromoka/ means fall down heavily. <#/>A small thing can not "poromoka".

<#/>Also a word Churuzika, refers to flowing out of small content of water in a certain manner. <#/>Consider the sentence; "maji yanachuruzika" meaning "Water is flowing" A heavy <-/poridge> can not "churuzika". <#/>Both, 'poromoka' and 'churuzika' are Swahili words.

<#/>Therefore psychological and socio-cultural outlook can also be reflected in sounds.

<#/>(b) Sounds can control the acoustic values impressions.

<#/>In English, phoneme /z/ is accompanied by sharp movement: zoom!; zig zag! and phoneme /sk/ accompanied by force or sudden action - scream, screw, scram.

<#/>In Kiswahili phoneme combination of the sounds fy gives the impression of something being cut through or being produced through constriction. for - example words like fyeka "clear land", fyatua "release fyonza "suck", fyonya "make a hissing sound", fyanda "squash, crush" fyata "press or squeeze". <#/>Also anomatopoeic words are all included here. <#/>Consider words: Pikipiki or tukutuku "motorbike" from its sound when it moves; also nyav "cat" from cat <-/meaws>.


<#/>Language leads to the so called schizophrenia (split personality). <#/>A person may have different personalities according to the way she or he is influenced by different languages as she or he acquires the personality formed by his own language as well: as the personality of speakers of other languages. <#/>This influence of language in people's behaviour and thoughts can be seen in the different ways in which speakers of different languages behave differently when they speak the languages. <#/>An English person behaves differently when s/he speaks English. <#/>And Swahili speakers also behave differently when they speak Swahili. <#/>- When each of them speak the language of the other they behave according to the dictates of that language. <#/>Therefore linguistic differences can produce cognitive differences.

<#/>[5: REFERENCE ]



<#/>The education system that was inherited at independence both in Tanganyika in 1961 and in Zanzibar in 1964 reflected unbalances in <-_term><+_terms> of <-_equity><+_equality> for both girls and boys. <#/>1 Till today some girls <-/under achieve> at secondary school level and higher learning institutions. <#/>According <+_to> A.G.M. <*/>Shumi and T.L. Maliyankono, in a book titled Education and Social Change say <&/>grammar that in <-/pre colonial> Zanzibar education mostly was given to intelligent people who were prepared to be <-_priest><+_priests>. <#/>Therefore according to my view women were left behind compared to men because they were not prepared to be priests.

<#/><+_article> Government’s education policy to eradicate this situation of <-/inbalances> by stressing <-_equity><+_equality> for both genders in schools. <#/>Also the Musoma resolution requires that every school age children should get <&/>lexeme to school <&/>grammar.

<#/><+_article> Government under <+_article> universal primary education programme [UPE] opened more public <-_school><+_schools> and encouraged private schools for the purpose of eradicating gender <-/inbalances> in schools.

<#/>In spite of government efforts to reduce and eliminate gender inequalities in education major inequalities still prevail at all levels of education in Tanzania. <#/>In this part I try to show <+_article> statistical analysis of gender and education in secondary <-_school><+_schools> from 1982 to 1990; student enrolment from form one to form four by subject bias in 1984 to 1986 examine and explain discrimination and <-_differentiations><+_differentiation> by looking at different factors <&/>grammar.



Source. Ministry of education and culture. Tanzania Bureau of Statistics Dar-es-Salaam 1990.

<#/>Our data above reveals real <-/inbalances> between men and women students in each year. <#/>Girls are <-/under represented> compared to boys: For example in 1982. <#/><&/>punct Those students who completed form four were 39,000 in public schools; only 32% of girls crossed <&/>lexeme <+_article> educational ladder to form five while 68% were enrolled to form five.

<#/>The same applies to private schools <+_in> the same year (1982). <#/>Total enrolment was 39,000 students, but out of this number only 38% of the girls entered form five while boys were 62% selected to join form five <&/>grammar. <#/>This situation went on so till 1990. <#/>Government policy failed to bring equality in education as we shall see a number of factor explaining this <&/>grammar.

<#/>In enrolment in ordinary level <&/>grammar is slightly high for both genders due to the policy of <+_article> quota system which use to favour girls<&/>grammar, at ordinary level only. <#/>According to <+_article> gender profile of Tanzania statistics, female enrolment in secondary schools grew by 10% from 1978 to 1990 compared to 6% for male enrolment2. <#/>Although there are few girls in secondary schools, the increase in female enrolment has gone up <+_more> than that of male enrolment during 1981 to 1991 with the exception of 1985 to 1990. <#/>The main reason was <+_article> quota system and <+_article> expansion of secondary schools especially private ones.

<#/>Moreover; to support <+_article> quota system there is a <-/seperate> selection process for secondary school girls compared to boys. <#/>In <+_article> regions and districts <-_girl’s><+_girls'> results of standard seven are separated from boys and a certain number of percentage of girls is selected for form one according to <+_article> top marks score among <+_article> girls themselves. <#/>In Dares Salaam results of many form one pupils have performed much lower than boys <&/>grammar; just as many boys and girls from disadvantaged districts performed less well than from educationally developed districts. <#/>If there was no district and gender quota system there might be no girls at all in secondary school in some areas and some districts find themselves without any secondary school enrolment3 <&/>grammar.

<#/> <-_Prons><+_Pros> and Cons of Quota System . <#/>On the side of <-/adventeges>; it favours girls. <#/>Many girls are getting access to education hence efforts to reduce inequalities in education in Tanzania.

<#/>On the other side of the coin; poor people in Tanzania who include most peasants are in rural <-_area><+_areas> do not enjoy <&/>grammar quota system as those who are in towns. <#/>The reason here is that, <&/>punct some of the educated parents make their children to repeat primary school <&/>grammar through back doors. <#/>Also migration and transfer of parents living with their children in town to another town increase the possibility of their children to be selected <&/>grammar for form one than those children living in the rural area <&/>grammar.

<#/>Another important factor which results in <-_to> different gender <-/performence> in schools is economic status. <#/>Students from homes which are better off economically tend to perform well their studies because their parents are able to supply them <+_with> educational play materials and pay for their school fees. <#/>According to Malekela G.A., PHD, Access to secondary education in Sub Sahara Africa, The Tanzania experiment in 1983 says that urban <-/salariel> workers had income four times more than a peasants <&/>grammar. <#/>Therefore from this basis I say that <-_peasant’s><+_peasants'> children mostly do not perform well due to <+_article> economic situation of their <-_parent><+_parents>. <#/>Some time they lack school fees and the educational supply materials for learning.

<#/>Gender division of labour at the household level is <-_the> one among major causes of low school and examination <-/performence>. <#/>For example for day school students after school hours boys have few roles to do <&/>lexeme at home than girls if there is no house <-_girls><+_girl>. <#/>They have to enter the kitchen and prepare food, house cleanliness while most of the boys studying and doing home works <&/>grammar.

<#/>Moreover; according to a panel discussion on gender profile of Tanzania, (1993) held in Dar es Salaam argue <&/>grammar that bad home economy is a principal factor which <_lead><+-leads> to poor <-/performence> in school. <#/>In rural <-_area><+-areas> during <+_article> weeding and <-/hervesting> <-_season><+_seasons> private school day students are temporarily withdrawn by their <-_parent><+_parents> so as to help <+_with> shamba work. <#/>Now I say that those <-_whoremain><+_who remain> in classes will continue studying as normal while other are <-_loosing><+_losing>. <#/>Also I see that <+_article> rural poor economy will encourage <-/absentism> and truancy from the above basis. <#/>Therefore if the economy of rural parents was good house boys and girls <-_cold><+_could> have done household activities and student would not have interrupted <&/>grammar.

<#/> Educated parents . <#/>These are parents with secondary education and above and <-/non educated> for the <-_rests><+_rest> 4<&/>grammar. <#/>Thus from this basis I say that students with educated parents tend to perform better than those: Whose <-_parent><+_parents> are not <&/>grammar. <#/>A simple life <&/>lexeme example is here at the university if you talk to <-/meny> students about the occupation of their parents you will find that most of their parents are employed salaried workers: These parents know the importance of education to their children therefore; they send them to schools unlike <-/non educated> people from the remote parts of our country like Barbaig people.

<#/>However; gender stereotyping of subject matter is another intermediate cause of <-/differencial> school and examination <-/performence> begins at the early age <&/>grammar. <#/><+_article> Members of <+_article> panel discussion on <+_article> gender profile of Tanzania (1993) discovered that Tanzanian girls like mostly everywhere are less interested in maths, science and technical subjects. <#/><-/Girlgs> say these subjects are for the men.

<#/>Moreover; statistics from the ministry of education and culture from the year 1984 to 1986 show this situation of subject bias.


Source. Ministry of education and culture. Tanzania Bureau of Statistics, Dar es Salaam, 1990.

<#/>These statistics show subject bias. <#/>For example in 1984 <+_article> number of students completed <&/>grammar form four was 1,917,000 and among them 10% women studied domestic science. <#/>But no male studied such <+_article> subject for that year (1984). <#/>Now under this basis I can say that female students think that maths and science are for men and male students also say that domestic science is for those who go to the kitchen.

<#/>In 1986, out of 334000 students completed <&/>grammar ordinary level only 15% of girls joined <+_article> technical stream; While boys <-_at><+_of> the same year were 85% of the total number of students. <#/>This reflects <+_article> great <-/inbalance> situation in the representation of girls in the world of science and technology.

<#/>Malekela G.A. in his P.H.D. thesis of August, (1983), argues that boys worked hard in science because they want to determine their future. <#/>But girls <-_dont><+_don't> like to trouble much in determine <&/>grammar the future because they think that, <&/>punct they shall get married by people <&/>idiom who are already established. <#/>That’s why most of the girls ignore tough subjects like maths and science. <#/>Therefore; from this background I think that; this is one of the major causative <-_reason><+_reasons> hinders <&/>grammar their future representation in the world of academy and politics.

<#/>"For example at the university of Dar es Salaam and Morogoro (SUA), <+_article> representation of women has remained low; from 26% in 1980 10%, in 1990 to 1991 and low of 14% in 1985 to 1986. <#/>The growth rate has been twice as high for men 5.8% completed to women 2%. <#/>Similar trends <-/occured> <-_in><+_at> post graduate level at the Hill <-_droping><+_dropping> from 16% female ratio in 1980 to 1981 to 12% in 1987 to 1988. <#/>Both genders have been hurt by rates decline the same period 3% for men and 7% decline for women5 <&/>grammar.

<#/>Another important factor which leads to different <-/performence> for gender examination in secondary schools is <+_article> social related factor. <#/>For example <+_article> teacher and student relationship. <#/>If such <+_article> relationship won’t promote <-/accademic> affairs and embark on love affairs <&/>grammar; This may lead to the unwanted or unplanned pregnancy for both teacher and student and automatically affects her <-/performence> <&/>grammar. <#/>Other things include antagonism, bias and bad attitude against teachers and teachers against <-_student><+_students>.

<#/>Also teaching methodology may affect student <-/performence> positively or negatively. <#/>For example if the teacher is not well <-/prapared> <-_looses><+_loses> confidence and therefore, no good logical and analytical <-/flowege> of points of what he/she teaches from simple to complex <&/>grammar. <#/>Here students fail to <-/percive> abstract things - hence poor <-/performence> in examination especially for those slow <-_learner><+_learners> who may be girls <-_and><+_or> boys.

<#/>Lastly girls perform worse than boys because of <+_article> cultural stereotype factor. <#/>Some parents want their daughters to get married soon after <-/purberty> so that they can <+_article> get bride price to increase <+_article> wealth at home. <#/>Parents of this kind are problems to girls even today; because pastoral societies like Maasi in Tanzania especially Arusha <-_use> to get wealth through their married daughters.

<#/>Other parents have <+_article> tendency of educating boys only. <#/>They say you educate a son who will later remain at home after studies. <#/>Therefore females are left home waiting to get married.

<#/>Furthermore; the dropout rate for girls is high at school because of pregnancies. <#/>Most of school girls during puberty are not well informed about sex education; while they are exposed to sexual <-/harrasment> from their fellow students, teachers and society as a whole. <#/>Those who fail to maintain celibacy and come short of sex education drop out <+_from> their studies due to unplanned pregnancies.

<#/>Therefore due to those factors I have explained I can arrive at a conclusion by saying that our government should think of <+_article> clear policy guideline that will enable every member of a society to have access to education. <#/>UPE has tried its level best but today we are having cost sharing programme in schools <&/>grammar/aspect. <#/>This will foster up <-/unbalances> in schools. <#/>In rural areas most <-_peasant><+_peasants> have no money to send their children to form one as a result primary school school graduates are flowing to town thinking that they may chance better life <&/>grammar. <#/>See for example the so called <-/Maching> a phenomenon in Dar es Salaam city. <#/>Children who were supposed to be in the classes are moving here and there selling variety of items to earn living. <#/>They don’t have<+_article> predictable future. <#/>Therefore; I argue that <+_article> government should think <-_of><+_about> this issue deeply.


<#/>Mbilinyi Marjovie T The decision to educate in rural Tanzania, Vol. 1 P.H.D. dissetation, Dar es Salaam, 1993.

<#/>Tanzania Gender Network Programme [TGNP], Gender Profile of Tanzania Inter Press of Tanzania Ltd., Dar es Salaam, 1993

Ibid p.83

<#/>Malekela G.A. Access to secondary education in Sub-Sahara Africa. The Tanzania experiment; P.H.D. dissetation, Chicago Illinois August, 1983

T.G.N.P. OPCit, pp 8788.


Byrn, Eileen. M. Women and Education Tavistock Publication Ltd; London, 1978

Malekela G.A. Access to secondary education in Sub-Sahara Africa. The Tanzania experiment; P.H.D. Chicago Illinois August, 1983.

Mbilinyi Marjorie et al. Educational in Tanzania with gender perspective; Dar es Salaam. 1990.

Mbilinyi Marjorie T. The decision to educate in rural Tanzania, Vol. 1 P.H.D. Thesis in Dar es Salaam, Dar es Salaam, 1993.



1. introduction


2. historical background of slave trade

2:1 participants

2:2 techniques employed in obtaining slaves

3. capitalism

4. contribution of slaves to the development of capitalism in europe

5. summary of the role played by slaves towards capitalism development

5:1 its impact to african continent

6. bibliography

1. <#/> introduction

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