The biology of leadership The relation between leadership, psychopathy and hormones

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6. Conclusion

This research has shown that several psychopathy traits are desirable to a mild extend. Boldness is needed in a mild version, because it is correlated with charm, empathy and taking charge. Charm, empathy and taking charge are factors that are important in leadership performance. Meanness is needed, because it is related to the need for achievement, a lower need for affiliation and risk taking. Need for achievement is important for leadership emergence, whereas need for affiliation and risk taking have a positive influence on leadership performance. The only negative effect meanness has is on agreeableness, which will be lower with a higher level of meanness. Disinhibition has a positive influence on risk taking. There can be assumed, that a small deviation from the population on psychopathy traits might be beneficial. A second research question is about the relationship between hormones and leadership. Unfortunately, the hormone results did not support the proposed theory, due to strong situational influences on hormones. The disappointing results do not reject the theory, that leadership is related to hormone base-levels. It indicates, that a different approach is needed to show possible significant results, an approach with less situational and environmental factors. An important finding is that the cortisol levels are very high in leaders, which indicates high levels of stress. This is a worrying result, because high stress levels and the inherently high cortisol levels are a cause of decreased job and leadership performance.

7. Limitations

There are several limitations to this research. First of all, the hormone data was not complete due to polluted samples. A share of the testosterone samples was not suitable for proper analysis, which resulted in a loss of data. The same goes for cortisol data, but to a smaller extent. This results in a smaller sample of certain tests (such as t-tests). Another shortcoming is the fact that the measurement points are not equal. Specifically, the time difference between measurement point 2 and 3 vary much. Measurement point 1 and 2 are set to measure the morning peak in hormone levels, whereas point 3 is set at 12:00 clock. The time difference between point 2 and 3 is a lot bigger for a person that wakes up at 04:00 o’clock compared to a person that wakes up at 10:00 o’clock. This can result in distorted data. A third shortcoming is the lack of partition between leadership emergence, leadership performance and leadership development. Leadership is measured by the leadership dummy, without looking at the different leadership criteria. This results in some contradicting results, as is the case with the influence of meanness. The fourth shortcoming and perhaps the biggest shortcoming, is the distortion of base-line hormone information by situational factors, which is inevitable in a non experimental setting. This results in very high cortisol levels in leaders, which is opposite of what is expected. Another shortcoming is the extent to which the psychopathy questionnaire of Patrick (2010) is suitable for measuring corporate psychopathy. The factors meanness and disinhibition are somewhat extreme for measuring corporate psychopathy, resulting in a lack of significant results in for example the t-tests. The last shortcoming is the fact that the included leadership factors do not cover the total range leadership traits. There is much unknown about leadership and much research should still be done.

Further research should include a factor that can be used to correct data in a way, that the influence of stress will be filtered out. This could be realised by including a factor that contains several items that measure stress. A psychopathy questionnaire should be created, in such a way, that it suitable for testing corporate psychopathy.


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The appendices contain the questionnaire, as presented to the respondents. This questionnaire contains many questions, that are not used in the thesis. Only 83 items are used, whereas 128 items are measured. The second appendix is the syntax, that is used in SPSS, which allows you to see what analysis have been done and how.

Appendix 1: Questionnaire

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