The Beginning of the Civil Rights Movement



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CPUSH (Unit 14, #1) Name ______________________________

Date ____________________ Pd _______


The Beginning of the Civil Rights Movement
I. The Modern Civil Rights Movement (1954-1965)

A. Early Successes in Civil Rights

1. By 1950, the United States was a _______________________ society:

a. __________________ laws throughout the South created a segregated society (_______________ segregation)

b. __________________ to the suburbs left African Americans in poor inner cities (_____________ segregation)

B. But after WWII, African Americans gained success in civil rights

1. In 1948, ____________________ became the 1st president to attack segregation:

a. Truman issued an executive order to ______________________________________________

b. He outlawed ____________________________ in the hiring of government employees

2. In 1947, _____________________________________ was the 1st black major league baseball player

C. Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954)

1. The _________________________________________________________ began in 1954 with the Supreme Court decision Brown v Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas

a. The _______________ took the lead in civil rights; Segregated _______________ became their primary target

b. Their strategy was to use lawsuits to challenge that segregation violated the ____________________________

2. Brown v Board of Education in 1954

a. The Topeka school district denied Linda Brown from attending a ________________ 4 blocks from her house

b. NAACP lawyer __________________________ used the 14th Amendment to attack public school segregation

c. Marshall argued that even “____________” schools, if separate, imply that black children are _____________ to whites

3. The Supreme Court’s _______________________ decision in Brown v Board of Education (1954) ruled “separate facilities are inherently _____________________”

a. Chief Justice _____________________________ stated that segregation violated the “equal protection clause” of the 14th Amendment

b. The decision overturned the ___________________________________ (1896) “separate but equal” precedent

4. The Brown decision was divisive:

a. Schools ____________________ in Baltimore, St Louis, & Washington DC

b. But Southern state leaders vowed to _____________ integration & the ________ returned to block integration

c. At first, President Eisenhower left enforcement of Brown up to states & did not _______________ the decision

5. Little Rock, Arkansas

a. In 1957, President __________________________ was forced to support integration

b. Arkansas governor Orval Faubus called the National Guard to keep ______________________________ from enrolling in Little Rock’s Central High School

c. Eisenhower sent the ________ to force integration for the black students (the “________________________”)

II. Conclusions:

A. The Brown v BOE decision was the first major step towards ending _______________________________ in America

1. The ___________________ provided a model for other civil rights leaders to follow by using the 14th Amendment

2. Resistance to Brown revealed that civil rights leaders could not __________ on the ____________ to protect rights

B. _________________________________ would soon emerge to take charge of the movement

Timeline: A Brief History of African American
Injustices & Civil Rights (1607-1954)






























Colonial Era
(1607-1783)

The New Nation
(1783-1800)

Early Antebellum
(1800-1840)

Late Antebellum
(1840-1860)

Civil War & Reconstruction (1861-1877)

Gilded Age & Progressives (1870-1920)

WWI & 1920s

(1917-1929)



Depression & World War II

(1929-1945)



Post War

(1945-1`954)




































Injustices Towards African Americans (Cards A-I go on top of the timeline)

Card A

  • Deep South states seceded due to threats on slavery

  • After the Civil War, states created black codes to limit the liberties of freedmen

  • Rise of the KKK

Card B

  • Manifest Destiny increased slavery in the West

  • Fugitive slave law, Bleeding Kansas, Dred Scott, John Brown’s raid increased tensions over slavery

Card C

  • African Americans were drafted into segregated units, but few were allowed to fight in the war

  • Most black Americans remain sharecroppers

Card D

  • The first African slaves arrive in Jamestown, VA

  • Within 50 years, slaves outnumbered poor, white indentured servants in America

Card E

  • White flight left African Americans in poor cities

  • Despite the booming post-war economy, segregation laws keep blacks unequal

Card F

  • Most black Americans remain sharecroppers

  • Most New Deal programs did not help poor black

  • Soldiers fought in segregated units again

Card G

  • “King Cotton” expanded the use of slavery throughout the South

  • Northern textile factories used Southern cotton and therefore tolerated slavery

Card H

  • The Jim Crow Era begins & legal segregation begins

  • Poll taxes & literacy tests

  • Plessy v Ferguson

  • Sharecropping is dominant

Card I

  • After the American Revolution, the new U.S. government did not free slaves

  • The 3/5 Compromise allowed slaves to count towards state population




Civil Rights Achievements (Cards 1-9 go below the timeline)

Card 1

  • Emancipation Proclamation

  • 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments

  • Freedman’s Bureau

  • Military zones were created in the South to protect former slaves

Card 2

  • The first Great Migration led many African Americans into Northern cities for high paying jobs

  • Harlem Renaissance is an explosion of black cultural achievements

Card 3

  • During the Articles of Confederation, slavery was banned in the Northwest Territories

Card 4

Card 5

  • The Missouri Compromise in 1820 limited the growth of slavery above 36°30’

Card 6

  • Abolitionism became more popular in the North

  • “Free soil” Republicans wanted to stop the spread of slavery into the West

Card 7

  • WEB Dubois & Booker T Washington debated the best way to achieve civil rights

  • The NAACP was formed

Card 8

  • The Stono Rebellion in SC was the 1st major slave uprising

Card 9

  • A Philip Randolph pushed FDR to create the Fair Employment Practices Commission (equal pay)

  • Great Migration continues

Answer Key
Timeline: A Brief History of African American
Injustices & Civil Rights (1607-1954)



D

I

G

B

A

H

C

F

E

Colonial Era
(1607-1783)

The New Nation
(1783-1800)

Early Antebellum
(1800-1840)

Late Antebellum
(1840-1860)

Civil War & Reconstruction (1861-1877)

Gilded Age & Progressives (1870-1920)

WWI & 1920s

(1917-1929)



Depression & World War II

(1929-1945)



Post War

(1945-1`954)






8

3

5

6

1

7

2

9

4




Injustices Towards African Americans (Cards A-I go on top of the timeline)

Card A

  • Deep South states seceded due to threats on slavery

  • After the Civil War, states created black codes to limit the liberties of freedmen

  • Rise of the KKK

Card B

  • Manifest Destiny increased slavery in the West

  • Fugitive slave law, Bleeding Kansas, Dred Scott, John Brown’s raid increased tensions over slavery

Card C

  • African Americans were drafted into segregated units, but few were allowed to fight in the war

  • Most black Americans remain sharecroppers

Card D

  • The first African slaves arrive in Jamestown, VA

  • Within 50 years, slaves outnumbered poor, white indentured servants in America

Card E

  • White flight left African Americans in poor cities

  • Despite the booming post-war economy, segregation laws keep blacks unequal

Card F

  • Most black Americans remain sharecroppers

  • Most New Deal programs did not help poor black

  • Soldiers fought in segregated units again

Card G

  • “King Cotton” expanded the use of slavery throughout the South

  • Northern textile factories used Southern cotton and therefore tolerated slavery

Card H

  • The Jim Crow Era begins & legal segregation begins

  • Poll taxes & literacy tests

  • Plessy v Ferguson

  • Sharecropping is dominant

Card I

  • After the American Revolution, the new U.S. government did not free slaves

  • The 3/5 Compromise allowed slaves to count towards state population




Civil Rights Achievements (Cards 1-9 go below the timeline)

Card 1

  • Emancipation Proclamation

  • 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments

  • Freedman’s Bureau

  • Military zones were created in the South to protect former slaves

Card 2

  • The first Great Migration led many African Americans into Northern cities for high paying jobs

  • Harlem Renaissance is an explosion of black cultural achievements

Card 3

  • During the Articles of Confederation, slavery was banned in the Northwest Territories

Card 4

  • President Truman ordered the military integrated

  • Jackie Robinson integrated professional baseball

Card 5

  • The Missouri Compromise in 1820 limited the growth of slavery above 36°30’

Card 6

  • Abolitionism became more popular in the North

  • “Free soil” Republicans wanted to stop the spread of slavery into the West

Card 7

  • WEB Dubois & Booker T Washington debated the best way to achieve civil rights

  • The NAACP was formed

Card 8

  • The Stono Rebellion in SC was the 1st major slave uprising

Card 9

  • A Philip Randolph pushed FDR to create the Fair Employment Practices Commission (equal pay)

  • Great Migration continues



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