I. Dedication .. 1 Game Developer: Louis R. Coatney
II. Introduction .. 1
III. Components .. 1
IV. Victory Conditions .. 3
V. Sequence of Play .. 3
VI. Weather Determination and Effects .. 3
VII. Dispersal and Facing .. 3
VIII. Strategic Movement .. 4
IX. Replacements and "Siberian Reserve" Reinforcements .. 4
X. Terrain Effects .. 6
XI. Operational Movement .. 7
A. General Rules .. 7
B. Movement into, out of, and/or through Enemy Zones of Control .. 7
C. Operational Movement Bonus .. 7
D. Parachute Operations .. 8
XII. Maximum Number of Units in a Hex - "Stacking" .. 8
XIII. Attacks, Combat Resolution, Retreats, and Tactical Advances after Combat .. 8
A. Commitment of Units to Attack .. 8
B. "No Retreat!" Orders .. 9
C. Combat Odds Calculation Sequence for An Individual Attack .. 9
D. Armor Overrun .. 9
E. Combat Results .. 9
F. EXCHANGES .. 9
G. Tactical Retreats after Combat .. 10
H. Tactical Advances after Combat .. 10
I. Breakthrough/Bonus Attacks .. 11
J. Reserve Phases .. 11
K. Facing .. 11
XIV. Supply and Isolation .. 11
XV. Control .. 12
See B. SCENARIOS AND HISTORY BOOKLET for Parts XVI. through XX.
XVI. Game Length, Special First Turn Rules, Scenario Selection, and Strategic Options ..
XVII. Advice on Play of the Game .. 4
XVIII.Designer's Notes .. 4
XIX. Historical Notes .. 5
XX. Bibliography .. 6
Historical Orders of Battle/Set-Ups .. 8
A NOTE ON COPYRIGHT:
I realize that some may consider the price of purchase of this game-kit in
papercopy to be excessive -- considering its crude physical components and how
easily it can be photocopied. I ask you to remember that it is the game design
you are purchasing, as much as the components, and that I have put a good deal
of work into what I think you will agree is a worthwhile strategic/operational
simulation of the Russo-German Front/Great Patriotic War of World War II.
A papercopy of the game for private, recreational use is available only
from my home address, shown below to the left, as an unassembled kit for $17.00
ppd or, assembled, for $28.00 ppd.
A SIMILAR GAME FOR FREE, EDUCATIONAL USE
My strategic level Russian Front game, GERMAN EAGLE VS. RUSSIAN BEAR (ERIC Document no. ED 361 256) is indexed on the ERIC - the U.S. government sponsored Educational Resources Information Center - index database and available FREE to print off and play from my www.CoatneyHistory.com
webpage. I am very
grateful for my Illinois education and the use of the excellent Alaska and
Illinois library systems. Therefore, educators and librarians are free to make
papercopies of GERMAN EAGLE VS. RUSSIAN BEAR for educational/public service use
within their own schools, universities, training centers, and libraries.
Please direct any questions or comments about the game to:
CATALOGING IN PUBLICATION:
Coatney, Louis Robert, 1946-
The Barbarossa File: Deep Battle in Russia, 1941. [game] Macomb, IL:
Louis R. Coatney, c1997. i, 11 p. rules booklet, 8 p. scenarios and history
booklet, 2 maps in two parts each, 2 sheets of pieces, 4 charts.
THE BARBAROSSA FILE can be used as an instructional aid in history classes
or as a standard "Barbarossa" game in wargame tournaments. In either case,
the "Game Analysis and Log Form" should be used.
The scale of THE BARBAROSSA FILE is 20 days of real time per game-turn, 36
miles/60 kms per hexagon width and division-corps-army-front (14,000-250,000 men) in unit level.
Like the Soviet T-34 tank, this historical game
was conceived to be of simple manufacture, but of superior design having the
essential decision-making variables of the campaign's military operations.
The game is designed to be fast-playing and mechanically simple. In the
interests of simplicity, naval, aerial, and partisan warfare have been
omitted - factored into the general game system.
Indeed, it is intended to be a "classic" refinement in the abbreviated
physical format reminiscent of Simulations Publications Inc. "folio games."
Nonetheless, a variety of options have been reserved to the players, including
nonhistorical 22Jun41 unit deployment, early Axis invasion, and alternative
orders of battle reflecting the diverse military philosophies of Marshal
Tukhachevsky and Kulik. As was the historical situation, the Axis commander
can never be quite sure of what he is marching into ... or against. In any of
the scenarios, there is ample opportunity for aggressively attritive
attacking, aggressive counterattacking, the customary passive (Soviet)
defense, and/or any combination of the above, to gratify the operational and
strategic creativity of even the most jaded wargamer.
Although such a game can be highly absorbing and uniquely educational, its
players should never forget the grief and destruction which accompanied the
invasion. It is estimated that 27 million Soviet men, women, and children
died in this holocaust, and many more millions of Central and Eastern
European people would die, before this tragedy was finished.
A. The mapsheet: After trimming the 2 map segments with scissors, they should be taped together. Colored pencil and fine-point porous-tipped
pens can highlight map features - if used with caution.
Following is a key to various terrain symbols and features:
B. The unit pieces and markers:
The sheets of units and markers should be mounted on cardboard (of
different colors, if possible). The usual adhesion method is a coating of
rubber cement applied and held until tacky on both surfaces to be joined.
(White paper glue works also, if applied very thinly.)
Marking the bottom of Axis units black and Soviet units red - before
cutting them out - can be vital, to differentiate flipped/dispersed units.
Following is a key to unit and marker formats and symbols:
Panzer/Armor Mechanized Infantry/Rifle Cavalry
Shock Front Motorized Infantry Mountain
Unit size: xxxxx = Front, xxxx = Army/Gruppe, xxx = Korps, xx = Division
Nationalities: B = Bulgarian, H = Hungarian, I = Italian, R = Rumanian
Designations: 1. Mos Mot = 1st Moscow Motorized, Shk = Shock
G = Guderian, vM = von Manstein, Vla = Vlasov, Rok = Rokossovsky
Following, is the format for unit information on the pieces and markers:
C. A few key definitions of terms in the rules:
Attacker: The player whose movement and attack initiative it is.
Combat (strength) Factor (CF): Arbitrary units of combat strength used to calculate relative combat strengths and battle results.
Defender: The player whose movement and attack initiative it isn't.
Hex: Any one hexagonal space on the mapboard, without reference to the terrain inside it or along its "hex-side."
Infantry-Type Units: Fronts, Shock, Rifle, Infantry, Motorized Infantry, Mountain Infantry - not Mechanized or Parachute.
Movement Factor (MF): The number of movement points a unit can move. For example, a clear terrain hex costs only 1 MF to enter.
Owning player: The player to whom a unit in question belongs.
D. Charts and tables: These are found on a separate sheet. Put it in see-through plastic for marking the Turn Record Track with grease pencil.
E. Randomizer: You will have to supply your own randomizer - six-sided, marked "1" to "6," and usually referred to as a single d6 die (of dice).
F. List of Components: 1. Game map in 2 pieces, 2. advanced game map in 2 pieces, 3. Russian units countersheet, 4. Axis units countersheet, 5. front-and-back countersheet master (for inventory and piece replacement), 6. turn/phase record track, 7. combat results table (CRT) and (on the back) terrain effects chart, 8. game analysis and results form, 9. "verso" and (on the
back) advanced game map terrain effects chart, 10. rules booklet, and 11.
scenarios and history booklet.
IV. Victory conditions:
To win the game, a player must be able to trace an overland supply line into each of the total number of victory cities indicated for him in the scenario rules during any one of his Victory Determination Phases - VDPs - which occur toward the end of the opposing player's player-turns.) This number can be modified by Rules V.A.1.a. or X.A.1.c.3.
Each of the following 11 cities are "victory cities:" Warsaw, Ploesti,
Minsk, Kiev, Leningrad, Moskva, Sevastopol, Gorki, Rostov, Stalingrad, and
Krasnodar. For victory determination purposes, Moscow (M21) worth 2 victory
The Axis Player wins if - during any of his Victory Determination Phases - he
controls the number of victory cities stipulated by the scenarios.
The Soviet Player wins if - during any of his Victory Determination Phases -
he controls Warsaw or Bucharest.
V. Sequence of play: See the Charts and Tables sheet.
VI. Weather determination and effects:
A. Determination: 11Jun-1Oct are automatically Good weather turns, and 1Dec-11Feb are automatically Snow weather months. The weather for the other
months is determined by the Axis Player's die roll during the Weather Determination Phase or the resulting sequence - See Charts and Tables Sheet 1.
B. Weather effects:
1. On terrain: In Snow weather months, swamp, lake, and river hexes and hex-sides north(east) of the appropriate Arctic Weather Line freeze over and are treated as clear terrain hexes and hex-sides. This is true for all purposes, except strategic land movement and victory determination.
2. On movement: Weather has no effect on strategic land movement or sea movement in the Black Sea. In Snow turns, sea movement in the Gulf of Finland is prohibited. In Mud and Snow weather, the small "Bad Weather Movement Factor" number in the lower right-hand corner of a unit is used as its movement factor.
3. On combat: In any 3 consecutive Snow weather turns of his choice during the (first)
Winter of 1941/42, the Soviet Player may increase by a one-column shift (up) to the right the final combat odds of any of his attacks on Axis units which are north of the Arctic Weather Line. Axis armor units may not overrun in Snow. No unit may do so in Mud.
VII. Dispersal and Facing:
In THE BARBAROSSA FILE "dispersal" is a basic function. A unit can be
Dispersed as a result of combat, at its completion of strategic movement by
land or by sea, or upon its (re-)entry into the game as a replacement unit.
(A Dispersed unit is so indicated by being flipped upside down.)
A. Dispersed units suffer the following effects:
1. A Dispersed unit may not be operationally moved.
2. A Dispersed unit may not attack. The combat results of attacks against
Dispersed units are read 1 column higher (than against undispersed units) to the right on the Combat Results Table. Thus, a die roll of "3" at 3:2 odds against a dispersed Soviet unit would instead be read under the 2:1 column (as a D1 result, instead of an E) for any already-Dispersed
Soviet unit in the group.
A Dispersed unit's basic defensive strength is unaffected by being
Dispersed, and it may be retreated (and/or Dispersed) by combat - again
in the same player-turn.
B. Recovery from Dispersal:
All a player's Dispersed units are recovered to his control - flipped
back face-up - during the opponent's Initial Operations Attack Phase -
unless they have just been re-Dispersed. However, a unit recovered from
dispersal is faced toward the opponent and unable to attack or move for the
rest of that game-turn. At the end of the game-turn, all UnDispersed units
are then faced back toward the owning players for use the following turn.
"Engaged" units are faced toward the opponent (until the end of the game-turn) and may not be moved or used to attack by the owning player.
VIII. Strategic movement:
To be moved strategically, a unit must be UnDispersed.
A unit is then Dispersed at the end of its strategic movement by land or
sea. A unit may not move strategically both by land and by sea in the same
Replacement/Reinforcement & Strategic Movement Phase (R/R&SMP).
A. Strategic land - "rail line" - movement:
1. As long as it doesn't enter an EZOC, an undispersed unit may move any number of contiguous hexes - a "rail line" - connected by land and already under friendly control, if it would theoretically be able to make such movement at that instant to the owning player's mapboard edge from any of the hexes traversed. River hex-sides do not obstruct strategic land movement. Open sea, frozen or unfrozen lake, and impassable hex-sides do.
EXAMPLE: Strategic land movement is possible across hex-sides K26/K27 and B16/C17 - never across B16/C16, D12/D13, or the Kerch Straits, JJ13/II14.
2. In any given R/R&SMP, the Axis Player may strategically move any 1 undispersed corps- or division-level Axis unit. The Soviet Player may strategically move as many as 3 non-front units. Each side's limit is called its strategic land movement "capacity."
3. Units no greater than a hex's stacking limit may end their strategic land movement - "detrain" - in a major city hex; a maximum of one nonfront unit may detrain in an eligible minor city or town hex. Except for Siberian Reserve units, a unit may never detrain on a hex without a city or town (in supply) being in it.
B. Strategic sea movement:
In the Baltic Sea and/or in the Black (and Azov) Sea(s), a player may move a maximum of 1 non-front unit per turn from one friendly coastal hex to a friendly-controlled port on the same sea. (The Sea of Azov is just considered part of the Black Sea.) To so move, a unit must already be sitting on its embarkation hex at the start of the R/R&SMP. The unit is dispersed and may move no farther upon arriving at its destination/debarkation hex. A unit may not sail through the Kerch Straits if any of the adjacent land hexes (II13, II14, JJ13, or JJ14) is under enemy control. When attempting to sail through a sea under friendly control, a special "submarine" die roll of "1" by the opposing player eliminates the unit instead. An odd number
eliminates a unit attempting to sail through a sea under enemy control.
IX. Replacements and reinforcements:
In general, a replacement unit enters the game on any hex which is within its own country's borders and is accessible to strategic land movement at that instant. Note that the destination hex capacity limits Rule VIII.A.3. (for units strategically moved by land) do apply.
A replacement unit is Dispersed at the instant of its time and place of
creation and/or (strategically moved) entry point into the game.
A unit's replacement factor cost is its (smallest) combat factor. Replacement factors of the same (infantry or armor) type may be combined to produce units and/or may be "saved" by the for use in a later game-turn.
Axis armies, parachute corps, and the 1. MsMtRfDv are irreplaceable.
1. Soviet replacements:
a. Infantry replacements: Each of the 23 major Soviet cities (still under Soviet control and at that instant in supply) produces 1 Soviet infantry production factor, per turn, with the exception of Moscow, which produces 2. Additionally, 6 more are produced in Siberia, off the mapboard, to the East. This is then divided by its Infantry Replacement Divisor - from
3 in the Historical scenario to 5 in "Fantasia a la Adolf" - yielding
the final infantry replacement factor total.
b. Tank Factories and Armor/Mechanized Replacements:
1) Each active tank factory accessible to strategic land movement at that instant may produce 1 armored, mechanized, or shock replacement point in each Soviet Replacement/Reinforcement and Strategic Movement Phase (R/R&SMP). A shock army needs to have at least 1 tank factor.
2) Tank factories begin the game on the cities determined in the scenario rules - there is also one off the map in Siberia.
3) A tank factory becomes nonproductive when its city is out of supply. It becomes permanently nonproductive if a city it is in is lost.
Except on the first turn, the Axis Player receives 1 armor replacement factor on odd-numbered turns and 1 infantry replacement factor on even-numbered turns. (For infantry corps, use the attack factor.) These replacement factors may be accumulated between turns.
3. Voluntary Elimination of Units:
During the owning player's Replacement/Reinforcement Phase, he may voluntarily eliminate any of his units. For example, a clearly doomed unit might be more useful sacrificed and brought back in the game as a replacement unit in a better location. Its factors are lost, though.
B. The Soviet Siberian Reserve Gamble - "Siberian Roulette" - playing option:
1. The Soviet Siberian Reserve reinforcement begins entering the game automatically and "safely" - at no risk - in the Replacement/Reinforcement Phase (R/RP) of the 21Dec41 Soviet player-turn, unless the Soviet Player chooses to begin entering them earlier.
2. The allotments of Soviet Siberian Reserve units consist of 3 consecutive turns of units (of the Soviet Player's choice) having replacement values of 7, 5, and 3 factors, respectively, of which half are considered to be armor. Unless the game scenario is The Tukhachevsky Twist, Shock armies may not enter the game - as replacements or Siberian Reserve reinforcement units -
until this time. Any extra Siberian Reserve reinforcement factors may be used as replacement factors.
3. In each month that any Soviet Siberian Reserves are in the game before their "safe" month, the Axis Player picks a number (from 1 to 6), and the Soviet Player must cast the die. (This should be done at the end of the Soviet R/RP.) If the number cast is the one selected by the Axis Player, the Japanese have invaded the weakened Soviet Far Eastern Military District, and the Axis Player immediately wins the game!
4. Unlike replacement units, reinforcement units are not dispersed in (and thus can move and attack after) the R/R&SMP in which they enter the game.
5. A reinforcement unit may enter the game in any area accessible to strategic land movement - even an otherwise accessible unpopulated hex, in exception to Rule VIII.A.3. - and its entry does not count against the owning player's overall strategic land movement capacity.
X. Terrain Effects ...
A. ... on operational movement:
No unit may cross an impassable hex-side, such as an all-sea hex-side. (EXCEPTION: A unit may make a one-hex, maximum, operational movement to an adjacent land hex across a lake hex-side, the Kerch Straits or from Leningrad to Kronshtat.
ADVANCED MAP/Moscow-Minsk Highway: In Good and Mud weather, moving from one Moscow-Minsk Highway hex to another costs armor, armored infantry, armored cavalry, and motorized infantry units only 1/2 movement factor.
B. ... on combat are cumulative:
1. Units may not attack into a hex, unless they could operationally move into it at that instant.
2. Rivers: If a defending unit is being attacked cross-river by all or enough of the attacking units, the combat odds are reduced by a 1-column shift to the left on the Combat Results Table (CRT). Any such cross-river defensive advantage is nullified, if at least half of the total attacking combat strength participating in the attack is attacking from a hex which is not cross-river.
3. Stalin Line: Unless flanked in the manner as for rivers, above, each Soviet army receives 1 additional combat factor defending behind the Stalin Line and each front receives 2.
4. Unfrozen Lake Hex-sides, Kerch Straits, Leningrad-Kronshtat: Armor, mechanized, and/or cavalry units may not attack or retreat across them. Other units' attack factors are halved, rounding down any fraction of the total, and they are eliminated by an R2 resulted if forced to
retreat across them.
5. Major City: An infantry army or front defending a major city receives a bonus of 2 defense factors. An infantry corps (also) receives a 1-factor defense bonus. Units in a major city cannot suffer Armor Overrun.
6. Victory City: In addition to its major city bonuses (or any fortress bonus), a victory city has 1 intrinsic defense factor, until captured. For Moscow, this bonus is 2.
7. City: Any one infantry-type unit receives a defense factor bonus of 1.
8. Fortress: A fortress adds a defense factor of 1 to any one friendly infantry-type unit defending it. Fortresses can survive isolation, and they remain in friendly control until actually occupied by an enemy combat unit. Furthermore, they themselves can act as an independent source of supply for any 1 non-front unit, if the normal supply line is cut. They cannot be Armor Overrun.
Although not so marked on the map, Kronshtat (B17) is a fortress.
9. Swamp: A Soviet army or front defending in a swamp receives a defense factor bonus of 1. (See stacking limitations against armor in or attacking into swamp. There is no Armor Overrun against units in unfrozen swamp. Only Soviet armor units may overrun against units in frozen swamp.
10. Hills: Each infantry-type unit in a hill hex receives a defensive bonus of 1 factor. Units in hills cannot be Armor Overrun.
11. Mountains: Same penalties against stacking and Armor Overrun as for unfrozen swamp. Same defense factor bonuses as for major cities.
C. On supply: Supply may not be traced across an impassable hex-side. Supply can only
be traced across an all-sea hex-side if the sea is under friendly control.
1. Unless it is Snow weather, Units attacking Leningrad from C16 may suffer the normal cross-river penalty. See C.2. above. However, units in Leningrad always attack (units in) C16 _without_ suffering this river penalty.
2. The Hungarian unit may never enter Romania - under penalty of elimination. Similarly, one of these nationalities' units may never enter a hex already occupied by the other's.
XI. Operational movement:
A. General rules:
1. The owning player may move all, some, or none of his UnDispersed units during any one of his Operations phases - unless prevented by impassable hex-sides or other rules. However, he may only operationally move a unit once per game-turn, and if it has moved it must attack in that (initial or reserve) phase, if ever, during that game-turn.
2. One movement factor is expended for each hex entered. An unDispersed unit may be moved all, some, or none of its (weather- and phase-modified) movement factor. A Dispersed unit may not move operationally/voluntarily.
3. The owning player must finish moving one (group of) unit(s) before starting to move another. (If necessary, a tournament director may invoke chess rules about moving a "touched" piece.)
4. A unit of whatever type may never enter - let alone pass through a hex having an enemy unit, unless that enemy unit is a para-brigade.
5. A unit may always make an operational movement of at least 1 hex, as long as it isn't violating Zone of Control rules described in B. below; however, if doing so exceeds its MFs, it is Dispersed.
B. Movement into, out of, and/or through Enemy Zones of Control (EZOCs):
1. A unit must stop upon entering the ZOC of an enemy unit, even if the ZOC is that of a Dispersed enemy unit or is already occupied by a friendly unit. A parabrigade-occupied hex is considered a Soviet ZOC.
2. A unit may leave any EZOC without penalty. However, a unit may never (make a 1-hex )move(-ment) from one EZOC to another EZOC of the same unDispersed enemy unit, UNLESS ...
a. ... it is moving into a hex already occupied by a friendly unit,
b. ... it is moving through the ZOCs of a Dispersed enemy unit, or
c. ... it is a German Panzer div, and it is not moving across/into penalizing terrain or through EZOCS of an undispersed Soviet front.
3. A unit may always make a 1-hex movement out of one unDispersed enemy unit's ZOC and directly into another, different unDispersed enemy unit's ZOC, UNLESS: the EZOC being moved into is that of an unDispersed German army or Soviet front which is not already occupied by a friendly unit.
4. Division-level ( xx ) and parachute units have no Zones of Control.
C. The Operational Movement "Bonus:"
Regardless of the weather, Axis units with a Bad Weather Movement factor of "3" and ll Soviet units receive a bonus of 3 operational movement factors, if they do not move into the ZOC of an unDispersed enemy unit.
They can also receive the bonus, if they move into the ZOC of a Dispersed enemy unit (or any division), but are not going to attack during that game-turn (and are immediately faced toward the enemy). All other Axis units similarly receive a bonus of 2, if the above conditions are met.
These bonuses are never modified/reduced by weather, although they can be reduced by the phase penalty. (For example, a front moving in the 3rd Reserves Phase would only have 2 "bonus" movement factors left.)
Each parabrigade is eliminated per unDispersed Axis unit moving into its hex and sitting on it - not having attacked anything else - at the end of the game-turn. An Axis unit may not attack from a parabrigade-occupied hex, unless the brigade is being eliminated by another Axis unit.
XII. Maximum Number of Units in a Hex - "Stacking":
There may not be more than 3 units in a hex. Not more than 2 may be larger than division level. Not more than 1 may be larger than corps level. There may be only 1 unit in a hex if it is a Soviet front unit.
Not more than 1 armor-type unit of any level may be on an unfrozen swamp or mountain hex ... or attacking into one (from each attacking hex). Not more than 2 armor-type units - only 1 of which may be corps level or larger - may be on a frozen swamp or hill hex or attacking into one (from each attacking hex).
These limits are in effect at the end of operational and attack/tactical movement in each of the owning player's Initial and Reserves Operations Phases. Any unit (of the owning player's choice) violating them is eliminated at those moments. Units moving through fully stacked hexes suffer no penalty.
XIII. Attacks, Combat Resolution, Retreats, and Tactical Advances after Combat:
A. Commitment of units to attack:
1. Unless a combat result makes it eligible to conduct a breakthrough attack, no unit may attack more than once per game-turn. On the other hand, a unit may be attacked more than once by different "waves" of attackers - even during the same Attack Phase.
2. A unit may only attack a hex (or hexes) adjacent to the hex it is in. Although a unit must be unDispersed to be able to attack, it does not have to be in supply at the moment it attacks.
3. An Attacker's unit does not have to attack a Dispersed Defender's unit it is adjacent to. Even an unDispersed Defender's unit it is adjacent to does not have to be attacked in the same wave, unless:
a. The Attacker's unit is, in fact, attacking (some other Defender's unit) and the unDispersed Defender's unit in question is a German army or
Soviet front unit, or ...
b. ... the attacking unit is attacking an unDispersed German army to which the unDispersed Axis unit in question is also adjacent.
4. In the same attack or in separate attacks, attackers' units stacked in the same hex may attack stacks of defender's units in more than one different, adjacent hex. See also Rule 3. above.
A group of units may attack defending units in more than one hex, as
long as all the attacking units in the attack can attack - are adjacent
to - all of the attacked defending units.
5. All defending units in a hex as a combined whole.
6. The combat factors of units which are in the same attack wave but are attacking from different hexes may be combined in their attack against a mutually adjacent enemy-held hex. Any resulting breakthrough attack must be made immediately. Its unit(s) may be combined with another initial attack - but not with breakthrough units from a different initial attack - against the next hex it is attacking.
If an early wave of attackers cleared the hex of enemy units, then the units of any wave scheduled to attack it later may advance on into (or through) the hex as well, using whatever the combat result
7. Once committed, Soviet units - must - attack. Unless the attack was already used to block a potential retreat, Axis units' attacks may be cancelled at any time prior to the die actually being cast. See Rule XIII.F below.
B. "No Retreat!" Orders:
1. If "No Retreat!" orders are in effect, a D1 result just becomes an E result: the defending unit does not have to retreat. However, an R2
result then becomes a DE result, and a DE becomes a DE. The new results
are also applied to exhange ratios (or eliminations, instead).
2. The Axis Player may give "No Retreat!" orders to any individual German unit(s) in any individual battle. The Soviet Player may only give "No Retreat!" orders to all his units (at the very start of the game-turn) or to (all the) units on or adjacent to an individual victory city.
C. Combat odds calculation sequence for an individual attack:
1. Attack factors of all attacking units in a given wave are totalled. The attacker may choose to use a unit at less than is full attack/combat factor.
2. Total defending units' defense factors (and include bonus factors to unDispersed defending units for major cities, cities, fortresses, forests hills, mountains, and tank factories).
3. Calculate the "basic" combat odds in the customary manner: the proportion of the attack wave units' total attack factor strength to the defenders' total defense factor strength is matched to odds ratio on the Combat Results Table (CRT) which is nearest but no greater.
EXAMPLES: 5 attack factors to 1 defense factor yields 5:1, 5 to 3 would most match 3:2, and 2 attacking 5 would most match 1:3.
4. Attacks having basic combat odds greater than the maximum (10:1) allowable ratio are reduced to that ratio before any further modification.
Attacks having final combat odds below minimum (1:6) odds are not allowed.
5. Any applicable combat odds column shift modifications (due to rivers, invasion surprise, Soviet 1941/42 Winter Offensive, etc.) are now made, yielding the final combat odds.
6. Before the Attacker casts the die to determine the combat result, he must ask the Defender if "No Retreat!" orders are in effect for the defending units.
D. Armor Overrun:
In the proper weather and terrain, ("pure") armor and armored cavalry units - can overrun/ELIMINATE infantry, shock infantry, mountain infantry, motorized infantry, or front units on an "R2" combat result - if they are at least 2 times all of the defending units' terrain-modified defense factors. Armor, cavalry, and mechanized units cannot be Armor-Overrun.
The factors of any defending "pure" armor units present must be subtracted from the Attacker's total of overruning armor combat factors.
E. Combat Results:
Individual attacks can be made in any sequence the Attacker wishes. Cast a single die. Cross-index the die roll against the appropriate combat odds column on the Combat Results Table to find the combat result, beneath. Read the odds one column higher, against any Dispersed defending units.
AE = Attacking units (of the Attacker's choice) in this wave, which are at least equal to the factor-modified, effective strength of the defending units (which are not voluntarily retreating) are ELIMINATED. Any other, surviving attacking units are Dispersed.
DAE = Same as for AE, except that the defending units are now Engaged.
AD = All attacking units are Dispersed.
AD = Defenders Engaged and attackers Dispersed.
E = All defending units are Engaged - faced toward the opponent.
NOTE: In any of the above combat results, the Defender may voluntarily retreat any or all of his units 1-2 hexes, suffering dispersal in the process.
D1 = The Defender must retreat his units 1-2 hexes, and they are Engaged.
R2 = Defending units are retreated 0-2 hexes by the Attacker or are eliminated if they could not be retreated the full 2 hexes.
DE = Defending units are ELIMINATED.
DE = Defending units are ELIMINATED, and Attacking units may immediately make BREAKTHROUGH ATTACKS with Attacking units, after they have tactically advanced.
Instead of the combat results less severe than AE or DE, the Attacker may
choose to "exchange." Attacking units having attack factors at least equal
to the strength ratio necessary to eliminate some or (if possible) all of
the defending units (or, more specifically, their factor-modified defense
factors) are lost.
The ratios (attacker's losses : defender's) are as follows: R2 = 1:2, D1 = 1:1, E = 2:1. EAE and AD become AE, and EAD becomes EAE.
The Soviet Player must decide before the die is cast (and he knows the result), whether or not to exchange. The Axis Player may decide afterwards.
NOTE: In Axis attacks, the Axis Player may never use Hungarian, Italian, or Romanian units for exchange. In defense exchange decisions, he may do so.
G. Tactical retreats after combat:
1. Tactical retreats - like tactical advances and breakthrough attacks - must be made immediately after each combat, if they are to be made at all. Retreated defending units - whether they are retreated by the Attacker or by the Defender - are Dispersed.
2. The defender may voluntarily retreat his units from a hex after a non-Rn/DE combat result, if he chooses to do so. (Attacking units would then be eligible to advance!) Any "refit" dispersal of - unless the die roll was "5" or "6" - or loss to attacking units would be nullified if the defender retreated all his units from the attacked hex.
The defender can retreat some of his units and leave others behind, as he wishes, and he can retreat different units into different hexes.
b. ... is (with every retreated hex) farther from the attacked hex.
c. ... is not occupied by an enemy unit.
d. ... is not the ZOC of an unDispersed enemy unit - unless that is already occupied by a friendly unit. (A unit may retreat into the ZOC of a Dispersed enemy unit only in its first hex of retreat.)
e. ... is not itself under an (as yet unresolved) attack which could(possibly) result in the hex being occupied by the attacking units.
f. ... is not adjacent to any of the hexes from which the unit was attacked, unless the hexes are separated by a hex-side the attacker would not be allowed to attack across at full (un-halved) strength.
5. If possible, a retreating unit should be retreated into a hex which is at that moment serviced by friendly supply and/or not fully stacked.
6. The next worse combat result is used for any defending unit unable to retreat. A unit forced to retreat off the mapboard (or into the sea) is ELIMINATED. However, the Attacker may not retreat a unit off the mapboard or into the sea, if there is another retreat route available.
7. Attacking units are never forced to retreat by combat results, and tactical advances after combat by defending units are prohibited.
H. Tactical Advances after Combat:
1. Attacking units tactically advance after combat whenever the defended hex is vacated, voluntarily or by force through elimination or retreat. Attacking units must tactically advance units having attack factors at least equal to the factor-modified defense factors of the defenders, if the combat result was an exchange. Attacking units are not required to tactically advance after combat, otherwise. Defending units may never tactically advance after combat.
2. All infantry and rifle armies and Soviet fronts may tactically advance only 1 hex. All other units (including Soviet shock armies) may advance a number of hexes equal to their their "Bad Weather MF." In Mud, Soviet "pure" armor and cavalry may advance 2 hexes - all others 1. In Snow, Soviet units may advance the same as in Good weather, but Axis units are limited to 1 hex.
In any case, units may not advance more hexes than the least number of hexes retreated by the defender. In the case of a DE or DE result, advancing units are only limited by the hex limits described above.
3. Armor, armored cavalry, and mechanized units may ignore the ZOCs of all enemy units except German armies and Soviet fronts, when tactically advancing on an R2 or exchange result. Any unit may ignore the ZOCs of all enemy units except German armies and Soviet fronts if the defenders
are eliminated outright by a DE or DE result.
4. As long as the advancing combat factor requirement described in 1. above is satisfied and as long as they are not moving through an UnDispersed Enemy unit's ZOCs, units may instead make a 1-hex advance into an empty hex adjacent to the vacated hex. However, if advancing more than 1 hex, the first hex entered must be the vacated hex.
I. BREAKTHROUGH Bonus ATTACKS:
A DE combat result means that any of the participating attacking units may
individually or together, or join in on an initial attack already allocated
against other enemy units in the same Operations phase. They may not be
combined with units from other battles also making breakthrough attacks. A
unit may not make more than one Breakthrough Attack per game-turn.
J. Reserve Phases: After the initial operational phase is over, the Axis and then the Soviet players may move and/or attack with any units which haven't yet moved and/or attacked. However, the weather-modified basic and then bonus operational movement factor of each unit is penalized a number of factors equal to which reserve phase in which it is used. (Thus, a 3-3 Soviet army would have no basic/engaging movement at all in the 3rd Reserve Phase. It would only have its Operational Movement Bonus left to move.)
Even if the reserve phase is so late that an unDispersed unit cannot move to attack, it could still attack any enemy units already adjacent to it.
For a unit to be in general supply, it must be able to trace a supply line no greater than 7 hexes (under friendly control and joined by hex-sides which could be traversed by that unit moving operationally or strategically at that instant) to the hex it occupies from any city or town under friendly control which can, in turn, trace a supply line of any length back to a
supply source hex.
An Axis unit's supply source hexes are any of the hexes in its own country along the western edge of the mapboard. (Italian and Hungarian units use German supply source hexes.) A Soviet unit's supply source hexes are any of the Soviet Union hexes along the eastern and southern edges of the mapboard.
Note that fortresses can act as independent supply sources for a limited number of units.
B. Isolation effects:
1. Soviet replacement cities and tank factories must be accessible to strategic land movement, as well as be in supply, to be able to produce replacement and tank production points.
2. During the owning player's Supply Status Determination Phase, units equal to at least half the un-modified factor strength of all the units in an unsupplied "pocket" (at that instant) are eliminated. A Soviet front may be replaced by an infantry army no greater than half its attack factor.
Fortresses and Soviet tank factories are not eliminated by isolation.
Parachute units cannot be eliminated by isolation, although they do add to isolated Soviet units' number total for survival calculation purposes.
C. At any time during the game, the Soviet Player may voluntarily reduce/replace a front unit with an army; however, he loses the strength difference. After the first game-turn, either player may voluntarily eliminate any of his own units at any time during his own player-turn.
D. Armored operational movement supply:
Additionally, a German Panzer/armored army must be able to trace a 7-hex supply line back to a German infantry army for it to be in operational movement supply, and German Panzer/armored, mechanized, and motorized infantry corps or divisions must be able to trace that 7-hex supply line back to a German Panzer (or infantry) army.
Any armored, mechanized, or motorized unit may move its full operational movement factor, even if it began its operational movement out of supply; however, it is Dispersed immediately after having done so (preventing it from then attacking).
E. Fuel Supply:
If an owning player cannot trace a supply line from one of his armor, mechanized, motorized, or armored cavalry units back to his fuel source at the start of his OMP, then that unit suffers a "fuel shortage," which means that it cannot move more than half of its operational movement factor and that it cannot execute Armor Overruns. The very instant a battle reopens the fuel lines, the unit can make Armor Overruns - weather and terrain permitting, of course.
The Axis fuel source is Ploesti (EE1), the Soviets' is Maikop (MM19) as indicated by the crude oil wells on the mapboard.
A. Control of the land:
Control of a land hex is gained by operationally moving a unit into or through it. At the start of a game, hexes are initially under the control of the side whose front line they are behind.
B. Control of the seas:
The Baltic Sea is controlled by the player who controls Koenigsberg. The Black Sea is controlled by the player who controls Sevastopol. The Sea of Azov is controlled by the player who controls both Rostov and Sevastopol.
THE BARBAROSSA FILE: Deep Battles in Russia, 1941-42
1997 Louis R. Coatney
B. SCENARIOS AND HISTORY BOOKLET (3Dec97)
INDEX Game Designer: Louis R. Coatney
Game Developer: Louis R. Coatney
Playtesters: Robert Scott Coatney
XVI. Game Length, Special First Turn Rules, Scenario Selection, and Strategic Options ..
A. Length of Game
B. Special First Turn Rules
C. Scenarios and Their Selection
1. Scenarios - Soviet Orders of Battle and Replacement Levels and Axis Game-Start Months
2. Scenario and Soviet Tank Factory Site Selection
XVII. Advice on Play of the Game .. 4
XVIII.Designer's Notes .. 5
XIX. Historical Notes .. 5
XX. Bibliography .. 7
XXI. Historical Orders of Battle and Set-ups .. 8
XVI. Game Length, Special First-Turn Rules, Scenario Determination, and Strategic Options:
A. Length of Game: THE BARBAROSSA FILE runs until one player achieves his victory conditions or - starting with 11Mar42 - until either player stops the game at the very beginning of one of his player-turns.
B. Special First-Turn Rules:
2. Activation of Military Districts (M.D.s): The Soviet Player may not move or attack with units - except when retreating - until their military district "activates." See the scenarios for the Phase of activation or activation die rolls made in each (Initial or Reserves) phase for each M.D, until it finally activates.
3. In military districts that have not yet activated, Soviet units receive no combat odds downward shift bonus for defending behind river hex-edges which run along the border.
4. Soviet units are set up before Axis units, and in the game-start setup, there may be no more than 1 Soviet unit per hex.
5. Regardless of the scenario, the Soviet Player must have a sum total of 48 units and dummy markers set up on the board, face down, at the game-start.
After both sides have set up their units, Soviet dummy markers are removed from the game as soon as an Axis unit is adjacent to them or at the end of the first Axis operational movement phase, in any case.
6. There are no Axis or Soviet replacements in the first game-turn.
C. Scenarios and Their Selection:
Unless a specific scenario can be agreed upon by both players - or is designated for a tournament - or unless the Axis Player allows the Soviet Player to choose whatever scenario he wants (secretly), the Soviet Player casts the die twice to determine (secretly) which order of battle scenario and which replacement level scenario he will have to use.
NOTE on nonhistorical redeployments: In all cases, Rumanian units must begin the game in Rumania, and the Hungarian and Italian units must start the game in the Third Reich. In tournament play, neither player should take more than 10 minutes to setup, so pre-game setup schemes should be thought out and written down in advance, whenever possible.
1. Scenarios - Soviet Orders of Battle, Deployments, and Replacement Levels and Axis Game-Start Months:
a. Soviet Orders of Battle Scenarios:
1) Historical - See the last page for historical unit locations.
Kiev and Baltic M.D.s activate in the Initial Phase; Odessa, Western
and Reserve M.D.s in the 1st Reserves Phase.
To win, the Axis must take 4 victory cities.
2) Historical Order of Battle with "Local" Nonhistorical Setup:
Units dispersed in the 1Jun41 and/or 22Jun41 scenarios are still
dispersed. M.D.s now activate on a 3-6, except Reserve which is 4-6.
The Soviet Player may redeploy any of his "frontier" units which are adjacent to the 1941 border, as long as each frontier hex is occupied by at least one of his units.
The Axis Player may redeploy his undispersed starting forces anywhere on his side of the USSR border. Any number of German units may now begin the game in Rumania.
To win, the Axis must take 4 victory cities.
3) Historical Order of Battle with Strategic Nonhistorical Setup:
Units dispersed in the 1Jun41 and/or 22Jun41 scenarios are stilldispersed. M.D.s activate on a 3-6, except Reserve which is 4.6.
Historical scenario Soviet units may be set up anywhere within the Soviet Union, except that the dispersed units must still be on their designated hexes. German units may then be freely set up anywhere in Germany and Rumania.
To win, the Axis must take 3 victory cities.
4) Stalin's Fortress: The 1. MosMotRifDiv and all 3-and 4-factor Soviet mechanized corps are removed from the Historical order of battle, and the Stalin Line's bonus is increased to 1 factor to mechanized corps, 2 factors to armies, and 3 factors to fronts.
Units are freely placed as in 3), above. Historical units which are dispersed in the 1Jun41 and/or 22Jun41 scenarios and still in the game are still dispersed. M.D.s now activate on a 4-6, except Reserve which is still 5-6.
To win, the Axis must take 3 victory cities.
5) From Marshal Budyonny's Stables: 2-factor armies, mechanized corps, and the 1. MosMotRifDiv are all removed from the Soviet historical order of battle, and the special "B" units are added. (With the exception of the 1.MosMotRifDiv, the removed Historical units may
enter the game as replacement units.)
Units are freely placed as in 3), above. Historical units which are dispersed in the 1Jun41 and/or 22Jun41 scenarios and still in the game are still dispersed. All M.D.s now activate on only a 5-6.
To win, the Axis must take 4 victory cities.
6) The Tukhachevsky Twist: All the mechanized corps are removed from the historical order of battle and replaced by the Tukhachevsky Twist mechanized corps. (The 1.MosMotRifDiv is retained and 7. and 8. parakorps added.) From amongst _all_ the scenarios' infantry units
(including the shock armies), the Soviet Player may select 60 replacement factors worth of infantry units, and he retains the historical cavalry corps. Similarly, any Soviet unit (except 1.MosMotRifDiv) may be brought (back) into the game as a replacement.
Units are freely placed as in 3), above. Historical units which are dispersed in the 1Jun41 and/or 22Jun41 scenarios and still in the game are still dispersed. All M.D.s now activate on 2-6.
The Axis victory requirement is now only 2 Soviet victory cities.
b. Soviet Strength Scenarios:
2) The Guderian Estimate: The maximum possible number of infantry replacement factors per turn is 8. The Soviets' armor reserve is 6. If this strength scenario is in effect, the Axis must take 2 more victory cities than what the order of battle scenario selected
otherwise requires - to win.
3) Hitlerian Fantasy - "Fantasia a la Adolf": The infantry replacement divisor is 5. There is now an armor replacement divisor of 3, and the Soviets have no armor reserve. If this strength scenario is in effect, the Axis must take 5 more victory cities than what the order of battle scenario selected otherwise requires - to win.
c. Axis Invasion Date:
1) If the Axis invade on 11Jul41, no units are dispersed on either side, and the Soviet replacement rates are not halved in the first turn.
2) If the Axis invade on 22Jun41 - the historical date of invasion - Axis and Soviet units with an uppercase "D" in their upper lefthand corners are Dispersed.
3) If the Axis invades on 1Jun41, he must cast a die to determine the weather: an even number produces Good weather; odd brings Mud. Units with a lowercase "d" in their upper lefthand corners are ALSO
2. Scenario and Tank Factory Site Selection Method:
a. The Axis Player casts the die. If he rolls an odd number, he may (or may not) choose to invade on a date different from 22Jun41. An even number means he must stick with 22Jun41.
b. Soviet Order of Battle Scenarios: The Soviet Player secretly writes down a letter - from A to F - and openly casts the die. The final number
(recorded by the Axis Player) is determined by this table:
Number cast Final number: A B C D E F
1 1 2 3 4 5 6
2 2 3 4 5 6 1
3 3 4 5 6 1 2
4 4 5 6 1 2 3
5 5 6 1 2 3 4
6 6 1 2 3 4 5
The final number determines the Soviet order of battle scenario to be used, from 1.a.1) to 1.a.6), above.
c. Soviet Infantry Replacements: The Soviet Player similarly (and secretly) writes down a second letter after the first and openly casts the die to determine his infantry replacement levels. A final number of 1-3 brings the 1.b.1) Historical replacement rates. 4-5 produces the 1.b.2) replacement rates estimated by Guderian, and a 6 validates Adolf Hitler's 1.b.3) fanntasies.
d. Soviet Tank Factory Site Selection: Finally, the Soviet Player (similarly and secretly) writes down a third letter after the first two and casts the die to determine which cities his tank factories will be located in:
1) Historical: Leningrad, Moscow, Kolomna, Kharkov, and Stalingrad.
2) Leningrad, Moscow, Gorki, Kiev, and Krasnodar.
3) Minsk, Moscow, Gorki, Kursk, and Stalingrad.
4) Leningrad, Moscow, Gorki, Kharkov, and Rostov.
5) Kalinin, Moscow, Kolomna, Stalino, and Stalingrad.
6) The Historical locations, again.
XVII. Advice on play of the game:
At first glance, the victory conditions would seem to dictate a win or lose decision. Actually, the location of the Victory Determination Phases in the game-turn sequences and the vulnerability of the Leningrad and Sevastopol rail lines make a 1941 draw quite possible.
Remember that the basic principle of Blitzkrieg/"Lightning" warfare was maneuver (and envelopment), not firepower and frontal assault. Hit them where they ain't, and always move east.
Do not lose any units to Soviet attacks. On the attack, a few units may have to be exchanged to clear deep, wide holes in the enemy line(s), but even Rumanians are vital to maintain a line.
If a game continues into 1943 and regular Soviet counteroffensives begin, keep Panzer reserves for counterattacks, in the best tradition of "mobile defense."
In 1941, do not waste good units attempting to save lost ones. When possible, withdraw just beyond the striking range of the German infantry armies. You can then counterattack and disperse any over-extended Panzer units and infantry
corps. Risks are often worth the chance of destroying one of these.
Try to draw front units as replacements for the defensive fortification bonus.
Conserve your resources for your winter counteroffensive. Never risk an early introduction of the Siberian Reserve, unless you are desperate and sure to lose the game otherwise.
XVIII. Designer's notes:
The German Panzerarmies were actually "groups" in 1941.
I omitted the Russo-Finnish Front (and the Axis and Soviet forces thereon), because that was a separate comapaign unto itself fought in special conditions toward limited objectives on the part of the Finns. Finland was one of Germany's most formidable, but least cooperative, allies.
The dispersal of tactically retreated defending units or poorly attacking units achieves many things: 1) it realistically establishes or disrupts operational momentum or inertia, 2) it encourages "at-all-costs" counterattacking, and 3) it reflects the vulnerability of unsupported breakthrough units.
Other aspects of the campaign - such as superior Axis airpower, communications and command control, and road-bound mobility - are generally factored into the units' combat factors and performance characteristics.
As to the emphasis on and unpredictability of scenarios in this game, the whole intent is to have the Axis Player genuinely unsure of exactly what he is getting himself into. Early in "Barbarossa," most Germans - not just Hitler - were anticipating quick victory ... or at least huge advances ... expecting the Soviets' replacements/reinforcements to slack off quickly after their initially colossal losses. However, superhumanly, the Soviets continued issuing men and
materiale past all reasonable expectations, and German morale nosedived with the arrival of winter.
Stalin imposed the idiotically vulnerable, historical 1941 "forward stance" dispositions on the Red Army for political motives (apparently to try to intimidate the Germans from invading), so the Soviet Player should be more vulnerable to reproval/removal - "liquidation" - for violating them and history.
The Stalin Line bad become little more than discontinuous surveyed defensive positions, even when it was being built, and the mediocre results of far better fortification lines around Moscow and Stalingrad, later, attest to its questionability. However, the "static defense" option was an option and should be included as a legitimate part of the Soviet Player's menu and repertoire.
In Dec40 Kremlin wargames, conservative Marshal Kulik reasserted his contempt for the late Tukhachevsky's mobile warfare doctrine and units, believing instead in steely Stalinist discipline of men and horses - heavy infantry and light cavalry units. If Stalin had been even more dictatorial, a "Budyonny's Stables" order of battle could have been the result, and the operational disparity between the German and Soviet units would have been even greater.
The scenario of what the Red Army could have been like if Red Army Marshal Tukhavchevsky had not been murdered is, of course, very hypothetical. However, that alternative order of battle's tank-supported infantry NPP (Nieposredst-viennoy Poddierzhki Piechoty) and deep penetration mechanized TDD (Tankovye Dalnovo Dieystviya) units would have met the Axis invaders dynamically - probably in a manner similar to von Manstein's (later) "mobile defense."
My own, favorite (strategic) feature of the game is still the Siberian Reserve Gamble. The "double the stakes" aura of risk-taking haunts the game - both before and after the Reserve's introduction. Since a Soviet Player only invokes this playing option when he realizes he has nothing to lose, it is "the great equalizer" in tournaments. A superior Soviet Player should not need it.
Please be sure to make copies of the Game Analysis and Log Form and to use them.
XIX. Historical notes:
This war caused the deaths of 30+ million Central and Eastern European men, women, and children - Slavs, Jews, Germans, and countless others - and the physical and psychological maiming of many more. If Hitler had defeated the Soviet Union, he could have gone on to conquer the world. The Soviet Union's ultimate victory gave it postwar control over Eastern Europe.
After Nazi Germany had beaten Great Britain to a cross-Channel standoff, Adolf Hitler looked toward the East ... toward his ideological enemy, the Soviet Union and the promise of "Lebensraum" - living space - it offered. Germany had beaten the western Allies in Northern France not only because of advanced German tactical doctrines in the combined, penetrating use of tanks and aircraft: German infantry was great in quality as well as numbers. (The German post World War I "baby boomer" generation was of prime age in 1941.)
Unfortunately for the Germans, they had no accurate idea of the size or composition of the Red Army in June 1941. For example, Hitler estimated the Soviets had about 3,500 tanks. Guderian - the German tank expert - estimated the total Soviet tank park was about 10,000. In reality, the Soviets had 22,500 tanks which they lost in the first 6 months of thee war. (While Russians
sometimes counter-claim that most of those were small, obsolescent vehicles, so too were most of the Germans'.) Similarly, the Germans had no idea of how vast an area they would have to conquer to gain victory, of how many divisions the Soviets could mobilize, or of how bravely the Red Army and Russian people would fight. (This strategic "fog of war" is exactly what THE BARBAROSSA FILE is trying to create for the Axis Player in the game.) In any case, Hitler was entirely correct in saying that when "Operation Barbarossa" started, the world would hold its breath.
Militarily, the Nazis' 22 June 1941 invasion of the USSR started successfully enough, thanks to superior radio communications and operational and tactical doctrines. Thanks to I.V. Stalin's purge of many progressive members of the Red Army officer corps in the late 1930s - pre-eminently, Marshal Tukhachevsky - there was a critical shortage of trained Soviet officers early in the war.
Distrusting the British and naively counting on Hitler to adhere to the 1939 Nonaggression Pact, Stalin refused to believe Anglo-American warnings that the Nazis would invade in 1941. On the first day of the invasion, Soviet commanders could not even get permission to shoot back.
Equally naive were people who, hating Stalin - about 20 million Soviet people had perished in Stalin's Great Terror - initially welcomed the Axis invaders as liberators. Instead, the Nazis racially persecuted Slavs, generally, and exterminated Jews entirely.
For example, after the Red Army and people of Leningrad had fought Hitler's armies to a standstill, he decided to destroy them by isolation, bombardment, and starvation. 1 million Leningraders died. Similarly, Nazis massacred many Russian villages (like Khatyn) in retaliation for partisan resistance.
The Nazi armies maintained the momentum that surprise had given them. In the first 6 months of The Great Patriotic War, the Red Army lost 3 million men killed or captured - most then died in Nazi concentration camps - and 22,000 tanks. (300,000 Americans died in combat in all of World War II.) Stalin's own son, Jakov, was captured. He apparently provoked his German guards into killing him, to prevent the Nazis from using his survival for propaganda.
However, for the first time, the German Wehrmacht was taking heavy losses and being denied objectives. The Nazis laughed at the crude manufacture of the new Soviet T-34 and KV tanks, but soon came to respect their superior designs.
The defense of Kiev by Soviet armies of Southwest Front commander Colonel General M.P. Kirponos forced Hitler to divert his spearheads to the south to isolate and annihilate them. Besides Leningrad, other Soviet cities resisting bravely that first year were Odessa, Sevastopol, Tula, and Rostov. When the German offensive against Moscow finally began, Soviet troops (reinforced from Siberia, since German Communist (and Soviet spy) Richard Sorge had reported that the Japanese were about to attack the Anglo-Americans) - and weather - stopped and then threw back the Nazis in the Winter of 1941/42. (It should be noted that Germans outnumbered Soviets in this battle.)
Russians of all ages, and other Soviet peoples, fought the Nazis heroically. The Soviets also received vital LendLease material assistance from the West. Throughout the Second World War, the Nazis were forced to commit most of their troops against the Soviets. The Red Army stopped, surrounded, and annihilated the German 6th Army at Stalingrad in 1942 - the most decisive land battle of the Second World War.
In 1943 and 1944, the Red Army defeated the Wehrmacht in a complex of great battles near the city of Kursk, in Belorussia, and in the Ukraine. In May 1945, the Soviet capture of Berlin climaxed Allied Victory in Europe.
An historical footnote:
Katyn (Forest) - hexagon M14 - is the site of the execution by Stalin's NKVD of over 4,000 Polish officers and cadets. 22,000 others similarly disappeared. In 1990 the Soviet government acknowledged Stalin's responsibility for the massacre so that this old wound between Poles and Soviets could heal.
KHatyn - hexagon L9 on the mapsheet - is the site of a beautiful memorial to the murdered men, women, and children of that Belorussian village, one of hundreds of similar Soviet villages massacred by Nazis during the Great Patriotic War.
There were accusations that KHatyn was selected for its memorial to obscure
the memory of Katyn, but both should be remembered, for everyone's sake. XX. Bibliography:
A. Soviet books:
Bednyagin, A. I. Kievskiy Krasnoznamyenniy: Istoriya Krasnoznamyennovo Kievskovo
Voyennovo Okruga, 1919-1972 [Kiev Red Banner: history of the Red Banner Kiev Military
District, 1919-1972]. Moscow: Military Printers, 1974.
Eremenko, A. I. The Arduous Beginning [V Nachalye Voina]. Moscow: Progress Publishers,
1966. [The original in Russian has better maps.]
Gribkov, A. I. Istoriya Ordyena Lenina Leningradskovo Voennovo Okruga [History of the
Order of Lenin Leningrad Military District]. Moscow: Military Printers, 1974.
Ivanov, S. P. Nachalniy Period Voini. [The beginning period of war].
Moscow: Military Printers, 1974.
Krupchenko, I. E. Sovietski Tankoviye Voiska [Soviet tank forces].
Moscow: Military Printers, 1973.
Pospelov, P. N. Great Patriotic War of the Soviet Union.
Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1974.
Radziyevskiy, A. I. Proriv (po Opitu Velikoi Otechestvennoi Voini, 1941-1945 Gg.)
[Breakthrough (on operations in the Great Patriotic War, 1941-1945 yrs.)].
Moscow: Military Printers, 1979.
Samsonov, A. M. Stalingradskaya Bitva [Stalingrad battle]. Moscow: "Nauka," 1968. B. Western sources:
The Avalon Hill Game Company. Stalingrad. Baltimore: 1964.
Coatney, Lou. German Eagle vs. Russian Bear.
Columbia Games Inc. East Front: The War in Russia, 1941-45. Vancouver: 1991.
Game Designers Workshop.
1941: Operation Barbarossa, designed by John Astell and Frank A. Chadwick.
Fire in the East. Normal: 1984.
JedKo. Russian CampaignÄÄ, designed by John Edwards. Australia: 1974?
Simulations Publications Incorporated. BarbarossaÄÄ. New York: 1971.
Tri-Game Enterprises. Russia's War, designed by Lou Coatney. New York: 1987.
My little solitaire The GreatPatriotic War was included.
Wide World Wargames. Dark Crusade, designed by Lou Coatney. Cambria: 1984.
Sturm nach Osten [i Shturmi na Zapad!], designed by Lou Coatney. London: 1979. 2. Books:
Bartov, Omer. The Eastern Front, 1941-45: German Troops and the Barbarisation of
Clark, Alan. Barbarossa. 1965.
Conquest, Robert. The Great Terror. 1968.
________. Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror Famine. 1986.
Erickson, John. Road to Berlin. 1983.
________. Road to Stalingrad. 1975.
Fugate, Brian, and James Goff. Operation Barbarossa. 1984.
Gilbert, Martin. The Holocaust. 1986.
Glantz, David M. The Motor-mechanization program of the Red Army during the Interwar
Years. Ft. Leavenworth KS: U.S. Army Soviet Army Studies Office, 1990.
Guderian, Heinz. Panzer Leader. 1952.
Manstein, Erich von. Lost Victories. 1958.
Mellenthin, Friederich W. von. Panzer Battles. 1956.
Seaton, Albert. The Russo-German War. 1971.
Simpkin, Richard. Deep Battle: the Brainchild of Marshal Tukhachevskii. London:
Brassey's Defense, 1987.
Stolfi, Russel H.S. Hitler's Panzers East: World War II Reinterpreted. Norman OK:
University of Oklahoma Press, 1991.
U. S. Department of the Army.
Effects of Climate on Combat in European Russia. 1952. Federal document D 114.19/3:
The German Campaign in Russia - Planning and Operations (1940-1942). 1955.
Federal document D 114.19/3:________.
Terrain Features in the Russian Campaign. 1951. D 114.19/3:
Young, Peter. Atlas of the Second World War. 1974.
Zawodny, Janusz. Death in the Forest: The Story of the Katyn Forest Massacre. 1962. 3. Articles:
Adams, Matthew H. "Operation Barbarossa: The Failure of German Intelligence."
Military Intelligence, Jan-Mar86, 33-39.
Anderson, Jeffrey W. "Operational Art on the Eastern Front." Military Review , Jun88, 45-53.
Erickson, John. "New Thinking about the Eastern Front in World War II." Journal of Military History, 56 (Apr92), 283-92.
Kells, Robert E., Jr. "Intelligence, Doctrine and Decisionmaking:
Josef Stalin and June 22, 1941." Military Intelligence, Jul-Sep85, 14-18.
2. Soviet (by Military District): Baltic: Kiev: Reserve: 8. Army G5 5. Army Q3 16. Army V9(d)
11. Army I5 6. Army S2 19. Army Z12(d)
27. Army G12(d) 12. Army X3 20. Army M15(D)
3. MexKor J6 26. Army S1(d) 21. Army R11(D)
12. MexKor F5(d) 4. MexKor T2 22. Army I14(D)
8. MexKor T1 24. Army J19(D)
Western: 9. MexKor U8(d) 28. Army F24(D)
3. Army L4 15. MexKor S5 1. MexKor D14
4. Army O4 2. KavKor Y5(d) 5. MexKor V13(d)
10. Army L3 3. Parkor V9 7. MexKor M21(d)
13. Army M9(D) 1. MsMtRfDv M17
6. MexKor M4 Odessa: 2. ParKor
11. MexKor M5(d) 9. Army DD4 5. ParKor B16
14. MexKor O5 18. Army AA5(d)
6. CosKav M3 2. MexKor BB5
4. ParKor M9 18. MexKor EE5(d) 2. KavKor 1. ParKor DD7 d = Dispersed in 1st turn of game begun in May 1941.
D = Dispersed in 1st turn of game begun in May or June 1941.
THE BARBAROSSA FILE MAKE COPIES OF THIS
1941 Game Analysis and Log Form BLANK FORM Game No. ___________________ Date and Time: ___________________ Axis Player's Name/Signature: ____________________/____________________ Soviet Player's Name/Signature: ___________________/____________________ Strategic Options Chosen: If Early Axis Invasion: Good or Mud May Weather? (Circle) Nonhistorical Redeployment, by: Axis?
(Circle) Soviets? Type: ____________ If Soviet Siberian Reserves prior to Jan 42, Jan 43
Month(s) of Entry: _______________
Was Oct/Nov 41 weather: Mud/Good or Good/Snow ? (Circle one) If Axis Player won, victory month (& year): ____________ If Soviet Player won, number of victory cities retained: _______ PLAYERS' ANALYSIS OF OPPOSING STRATEGIES AND DECISIVE
MOMENTS, SITUATIONS, AND FACTORS IN THE GAME: Axis Player:
For tournament credit, winning If possible, send copy to: