The australian naval institute

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1. The Australian Naval Institute has been formed and incorporated in the Australian Capital Territory
The main objects of the Institute are:

a. to encourage and promote the advancement of knowledge related to the Navy and the
Maritime profession

b. to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas concerning subjects related to the Navy and
the Maritime profession.

c. to publish a journal

2. The Institute is self supporting and non-profit making. The aim is to encourage discussion, dissemin­
ation of information, comment and opinion and the advancement of professional knowledge concerning
naval and maritime matters.

3. Membership of the Institute s open to

a. Regular members — Members of the Permanent Naval Forces of Australia

b. Associate Members — (1) Members of the Reserve Naval Forces of Australia.

  1. Members of the Australian Military Forces and the Royal Australian Air Force both permanent and reserve.

  2. Ex-members of the Australian Defence Forces, both permanent and reserve components, provided that they have been honourably discharged from that force

  3. Other persons having and professing a special interest in naval and maritime affairs.

c. Honorary Members — A person who has made a distinguished contribution to the Naval or maritime

profession or who has rendered distinguished service to the Institute may be elected by the Council to Honorary Membership

  1. Joining fee for Regular and Associate members is $5. Annual Subscription for both is $15

  2. Inquiries and application for membership should be directed to -

The Secretary. Australian Naval Institute, P.O. Box 18, DEAKIN, ACT 2600


As the Australian Naval Institute exists for the promotion and advancement of knowledge relating to the Naval and maritime profession, all members are strongly encouraged to submit articles for publication. Only in this way will our aims be achieved


In writing for the institute it must be borne in mind that the views expressed are those of the author and not necessarily those of the Department of Defence, the Chief of Naval Staff or the Institute

Registered for Posting as a Publication — Category B




Chapter News 2

Correspondence 2

From the Editor 3

From the Secretary s Desk 4

Kamarkazie 4

President's Report 5

Proposed Constitutional Changes 6

Financial Statements 7

The Integration of Helicopters into RAN Air-Capable Ships

by Commander I.M. Mclntyre RAN 9

Naval Manpower in the 1980 s

by Rear Admiral D.W. Leach AO.CBE, MVO. RAN 15

A Museum as a Memorial

by Margaret Browne and Jeffery Williams 21

Australian Defence 26

Notice of Special General Meeting 27

Sailors and Wrans 27

The Young Turks

by Commander A.W. Grazebrook RD. RANR 30

New Members 35

Ships and the Sea 36

Early Days in Flinders Navel Depot

by Captain SB. de Courcy-lreland RN, Retd 37

Journal Back Issues 44

Washington Notes 46

Nobody asked me, but 48

Book Reviews 50

Journal Binders 54

Naval Institute Insignia 55

Application for Membership 56

Articles or condensations of articles are not to be reprinted or reproduced without the permission of the Institute. Extracts may be quoted for the purposes of research, review or comment provided the source is acknowledged.

The front cover shows the Australian War Memorial and the surrounding Canberra area at the time of its opening in November 1941

Australian War Memorial

Journal o/ the Australian Naval Institute — Page 1


To allow members lo take advantage ot the various chapter meetings held in their areas, the names and addresses ot the

relevant Conveners will be published at regular intervals

Sydney Chapter -

Melbourne Chapter -

Caplain P H James RAN,


RAN 5 aft College


Balmoral NSW 2891

Comrnxtore V A Parker RAN Retd

456 Balcombe Rd

Beaumaris VIC 3193

(Ph 992 731)

Canberra Chapter

Captain L G. Fox RAN Reld 7 Pope St, Hughes ACT 2605

3^ «^CS£



Dear Sir.

The statement under the photogiaph ot HMAS COOK on page 5 ol the August 1981 Journal is incorrect

Being one ot the commissioning crew ot HMAS COOK, the ship commissioned on the 28th October 1980 at Williamstown

Yours faithfully

Brian Gornnge





I was interested in the comments made by Commander Bassett in Ihe November and May jour tals and would like to lake issue with him

First the Pacific Defence Reporter and the Naval Review both use pseudonyms The latter publication was founded in October 1912 to promote the advancement and spreading within the Service ot knowledge relevant to Ihe higher aspects ot the Naval Profession': an aim not dissimilar to our own The Naval Review is now in its 69th Edition and like our own pumal is run by an independent group ol members This is in contrast to the US Naval Institute which has the Chief of Naval Operanons as President The Review is rather refreshing in that, to steal a line from one of its own book reviews, it does not have a call a wood a tree complex Though the Review is fairly moderate now. it has been involved in severe controversy and at times been nearly banned for presenting contrary views lo the estab­lishment The influence of this journal in the twenties and thirties was probably far more than all of those mentioned by Commander Bassett

My second issue is Commander Bassett s need to know Master Ned s authority What tori The logic ot an argument is independent ol the authority presenting it A midshipman can stale 1-1 2? wilh the same authority as an admiral (probably more so as the midshipman is more likely lo be exposed to advanced number theory) Authority is required if the argument is supposed to be an insider's view, or depends lor its torce on facts, statements or events not generally available If generally available information is constructed into an argument then logic determines whether the argument stands or falls on its own merits This is the reason Peter Mitchell Essays and university examinations are marked without the authors identity being known Content counts. Ihe author doesnt It Master Neds identity is needed to substantiate his argument then perhaps Ihe ANI Journal has outlived its usefulness If the argument is fallacious, attack the argument

In so far as Ihe use ol pseudonyms is concerned there are at least two valid reasons why a member may wish to remain anonymous The most obvious is the (ear of professional pre­judice. Although one hopes we have come further than the RN had when the Navaf Review was formed, some authors may leel that lo express their differing opinions in some sensitive issues could single Ihem out for official sanction This sanction may be administered quite unconsciously by their superiors in thai it may build up a feeling of resenlmenl against the opinionated junior Whether this happens is a matter of debate but it it inhibits people expressing their opinions then it inhibits open discussion which is after all one ol the aims of the institute In the case ol junior officers and sailors the use of pseudonyms also allows them to express their opinion and force the rebuttal to be based on the arguments presented rather than being dismissed on the grounds of midshipmen don I know anything This certainly seemed to happen in the Masler Ned ADFA articles It anyone doubts thai this form of dismissing junior officer contributions does not happen in professional journals. I refer him lo page 82 of Ihe January Edition of Ihe USUI Proceedings Admiral Rickover dismisses Ihe Journal s contributions on leadership (including the Astor Memorial Essay) as sophomore drivel A quick check of the USNi Proceedings over ihe last few years indicates that a fair number of fhese sophomores are in the Lieutenant Commander to Captain category

Page 2 — Journal ot the Australian Naval Institute

A further poini is thai there is, I believe, a certian anti-intellectualism in the lower deck and amongst the |umor otticers The young writer may expose himself to more ragging from his peers than he would every expect to suffer from officialdom

While I have never felt the need to use a pseudonym. I can understand why some would prefer to do so If that is what is necessary to contribute to the debate then so be it We may be better off knowing what opinions and ideas are around than who holds them

S.P LEMON Lieutenanl RAN



Dear Sir,

In his article Coalburning Bulkcarners lor Australia (Vol 7. No. 2 of May 1981) Captain John Noble made a statement which I question Namely

King Coal will soon make his first trip to sea under the

Australian Flag".

Whilst not wishing to cloud the issue (no pun intended) or detract Irom Captain Noble s article, may I point out lhat Ihe BHP

Co Ltd. operated many of its fleet as coalburners into the late 1950 s They were only one of the many coastal companies that operated coal burning ships

BHP built many of its ships as coalburners and operated them as such Apart Irom Iheir E Cass (purchased Irom outside sources) their Chieltain Class (IROM MONARCH. DUKE. KING and BARON) and their Yampr Class (IRON YAMPl. KIMBERLEY. DERBY and WYNDHAM) were built and operated as coalburners

If I recall correctly the Chieltams were built in the mid 1940 s and the Yampis in Ihe early 50 s My recollections of three years service with BHP (1954 through 1956) is that all their 12 ships were coalburners IRON KNIGHT, purchased from the Canadian National Railways in approximately 1954. was their first oil burner

Further recollections are that the Chieltain class were hand fired coalburners and Ihe Yampi class were chain grate coal fired.



The Special General Meeting of the Institute held prior to the Annual General Meeting on Friday, 20 November 1981, passed an Amendment to the Constitution which established the Journal Editor as an office-bearer of the Institute. During the subsequent Council elections, a frequent contributor to the Journal, Commander Robin Pennock, was elected unopposed to the position of Editor. The need for an election for this position provided an appropriate time to handover editorial duties.

These duties have not been as hard as they could have been during the past two and a half years due both to a reasonable supply of contributions for the Journal and to the enthusiastic band of volunteers working in support of the Journal. Members outside of Canberra may not be aware that we undertake the tasks of sub-editing, proof-reading and making up the dummy (the cut and paste) of each journal ourselves. Then there are other onerous duties, such as drumming up advertising, finding photographs and other illustrations, and the mailing and distribution of each edition. Thank you to the members of the Editorial Sub-Committee and the other workers who have helped with these tasks during my period as Editor.

The work with the production of the Journal is becoming more demanding as its size and distribution grows. It is to be hoped that there is always a ready supply of volunteers from the ranks of the AN I members in Canberra to undertake the work required.

Major articles in this Journal include one dealing with the problems of operating helicopters from small ships, the Chief of Naval Personnel's talk to the Canberra Chapter earlier this year and some edited reminiscence by an RN loan officer of the early days of the RAN's major training establish­ment, HMAS CERBERUS. Tony Grazebrook reviews the careers of the so-called Young Turks' who established the Naval Review in the UK. We are also pleased to be able to mark the 40th anniversary of the Australian War Memorial by publication of an article dealing with the origins and history of an institution so well known to the Australian public.

Finally, this Journal has a good number of minor articles covering a wide range of subjects. The attention of readers is drawn particularly to the Book Review columns where there are reviews of several recent publications which should be of interest to ANI members.

Journal ol the Australian Naval Institute Page 3


Subscriptions are now due and I hope that all members will pay their $15 promptly. It seems to take me all year to collect the money and there are always members who will only pay after receiving two reminder notices. So please, if you read this and haven't yet paid your dues please do so now. This way you will save me a good deal of time and the Institute a large sum of money.

The Council has asked me to seek suggestions from members as to an appropriate design for an ANI tie. If you have any (noughts please let me know We are limited to two or three colours for cost reasons.

Regular members should have received of now. a letter setting out further proposed amend­ments to our Constitution. I hope that these members will consider the issues raised in the letter as they will certainly affect the direction of the Institute in the coming years. If you cannot attend the Special General Meeting on 19 February 1982 you may inform me of your views and I will pass them on to the Council.

Kamarkazie sketch by Geotf Volmer

The original has recently been presented to the Chief Petty Officer's Mess, HMAS CERBERUS. Victoria.

Page 4 — Journal olthe Australian Naval Institute


Delivered at the Annual General Meeting of the Australian Naval Institute held on Friday, 20 November 1981 at Canberra. A.C.T.

This last year 1980/81 has again been one of progress for the Australian Naval Institute; our financial position is sound, membership has continued fo grow, and the Institute has continued to receive wider recognition.

There can be little doubt that this healthy situation is due in large part to the outstanding success of Seapower 81 held in April and opened by our Patron, His Excellency, the Right Honourable Sir Zelman Cowen AK. GCMG, GCVO, KStJ. QC. Governor General of the Commonwealth of Australia and Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Force Eminent speakers, such as Admiral of the Fleet, the Lord Hill-Norton, Sir Arthur Tange, Admiral Sir Anthony Griffin, and Sir Ronald Swayne, guaranteed interest from members while the theme of the Seminar and the number of distinguished speakers from industry ensured both strong support from industry and pleasing publicity. The Seminar also attracted many new members.

As I predicted last year in my Report, Seapower 81 was an important milestone in the history of the Insitute. The success of the Seminar was due, in large part, to the work of many, but the efforts of Commodore Berlyn and Captain Cooper deserve special mention. I might add that the comprehen­sive Seminar report which they have prepared will ensure that the lessons learned from Seapower 81 will not be forgotten and that those directing the next seminar will have a reliable guide to success.

While the Seminar dominated the Councils activities throughout the year, the Journal and its financing have been closely monitored. Increasing costs for printing and postage have been matters of concern but every effort has been made to contain costs while, at the same time, maintaining the high standard of the Journal which continues to promote the Institute both within and without the RAN. The Institute is very grateful to the editor. Captain Bateman, for the time and effort he and his assistants have put into production

I would like to take the opportunity to encourage members to submit articles to the Journal so that the high standard already set and the variety of articles might be maintained. There is a wealth of knowledge and experience amongst members of the Institute and I would like to see this shared between members — the Journal to members may not be avoidable unless members advise without delay their change of address.

As I mentioned earlier, our membership has continued to grow steadily; we have at present over 560 financial members. There is nevertheless scope for further considerable increase in our membership. By the late 1980s, membership could be in excess of 1000. This, and other factors, has again led the Council to place considerable emphasis during the year on addressing the longer term aspects of management and the need to develop policy objectives to safeguard the future. Pre­liminary consideration has been given to a number of matters relating to administrative capacity. The Council has concluded that, providing there is some restructuring and a greater spread of duties between Councillors and that the voluntary self-help measures, which have been characteristic of the Institute to date, continue, there should be no need in the immediate future to introduce new measures to cope with administration. Should the time come that it is judged such measures are essential for the continued survival of the Institute, it will be inevitable that substantial increases in subscription rates will need to be considered.

The careful management of our financial resources will become more important as more demands are placed on them. Throughout this year, the Financial Sub-Committee has considered a wide range of matters including the preservation of our investment reserves against inflation, the finances of the Journal, reprinting of Volume 1 Number 1 of the Journal, and financial assistance to our Chapters.

The various Chapters have not been as active during 1980-81 as your Council would have hoped but there are understandable reasons, not the least of which was the timing and scope of the Seminar in which the Canberra Chapter was very much involved. In August, the Chief of Naval Personnel, Rear Admiral D.W. Leach, addressed the Canberra Chapter on the subject of Naval Manpower in the 1980s'. A copy of his address has been forwarded to the Journal Editor in the hope that members may have the beneift of reading its content.

During the year, a proposal was placed before your council to extend Regular Membership to include members of the Citizen Naval Forces/Australian Naval Reserve engaged in full-time service

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