The arab-israeli conflict



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UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

POLITICAL SCIENCE 333

THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT

SPRING 2009
Professor: Nadav Shelef

Email: shelef@wisc.edu

Phone: 263-2280

Office: 414 North Hall

Office hours: Tuesday, 1-3, and by appointment
Course Description

This class will provide an in-depth understanding of the Arab-Israeli conflict and it evolution over time. Our goal is to develop an appreciation of the complexities and dynamism of this conflict through an examination of its origins, the actors involved, and the key historical and political factors that have shaped it.


Structure of the course

The class will contain both lectures and critical intensive discussions of the assigned readings. The lectures will be primarily oriented to providing contextual and introductory material for each of our topics.


Course Requirements

There will be no examinations in this course. Students are expected to attend each class ready to contribute to the discussion and to have done the readings assigned for each topic prior to class. To that end, students are required to submit a 1-2 page critical reaction to the readings each week. Reaction papers are to be emailed to the professor by 9 am on the morning on which they are due. Please include your full name in the title of the file. In addition to the weekly response papers, each student will write a research paper (20-25 pages) that evaluates a general claim about Arab-Israeli relations or some politically important aspect of the conflict. Close consultation with the professor in the choice of topic and the development of research design is expected. Paper topic proposals with preliminary bibliographies must be turned in by February 26th. The final papers are due on May 11th. Late papers will be penalized half of one letter grade for every day they are late.


Grading Criteria

Final course grades will be assigned according to the following weights:

Attendance and discussion participation 20 percent

Critical reaction papers 20 percent

Research paper 60 percent
Critical reaction papers

Critical reaction papers are not simply summaries of the readings. I want you to demonstrate that you have read and given serious thought to the material for that week. To do so, in addition to summarizing the arguments in the reading, include your own reactions to them, describe their implications in the context of the other readings we’ve done that week or previously and point out their limitations. An effective reaction paper demonstrates knowledge of all assigned readings, but may focus on one significant element (theme, argument, issue). You might consider the following questions as you write your reaction papers:



  1. What are the principal arguments or points of view offered in the readings? What are they trying to explain? Are they successful?

  2. What assumptions do the readings make? Are they plausible? How would you refute them?

  3. Is the evidence offered by the readings to substantiate their argument relevant, effective, and convincing? What are its weaknesses?

  4. What are the broader implications of the readings?

  5. How does this reading compare/contrast to, or expand on, other material presented in this class, other classes, or your outside experience?

  6. What questions remain unanswered once you’ve finished reading this week’s reading? What should have been addressed?

Regardless of the particular strategy you adopt for these assignments, your reaction papers should also be concise, well-written, and carefully proofread.


Research Paper

The research paper will provide you with an opportunity to explore nationalism or ethnic relations in a particular context in significant depth. I am relatively open about the scope of topics that can be chosen. However, if you have trouble coming up with one, I would be happy to assign a research topic to you.


The paper itself should be 20-25 pages double-spaced using 12pt Times New Roman font. Citations must be provided in footnotes using the Chicago Manual style. For information see, http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/DocChicago.html
A good paper both informs and persuades; to do this it must be logically organized, clearly argued, and well documented. Avoid writing a paper that merely restates the readings or repeats the lectures or discussion sections. You need to do some original thinking, research, and analysis in this paper. Stay away from normative arguments or political polemics. This is hard work. You are strongly encouraged to meet with me to discuss the progress of your paper throughout the semester.
Style Counts! Spelling mistakes as well as errors of syntax and grammar are unacceptable. At best they are evidence of sloppy work. At worst they make your argument impossible to understand. While style does not replace substance, a poorly written or organized paper makes it difficult to get to your argument. I encourage you to consult the UW Writing Center’s “Writer’s Handbook” for more information about style, organization and references. http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/index.html
There are also a number of excellent guides on the web that I encourage you to consult about how you could go about writing an analytical research paper. Some good sites include:

  • How to Research a Political Science Paper, by Peter Liberman: http://qcpages.qc.edu/Political_Science/researching.html

  • Writing Political Science Papers: Some Useful Guidelines, by Peter Liberman,: http://qcpages.qc.edu/Political_Science/tips.html

  • Reading, Writing, and Researching for History: A Guide for College Students, by Patrick Rael: http://www.bowdoin.edu/writing-guides/

  • Writing a Research Paper, by Sarah Hamid: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/workshops/hypertext/ResearchW/index.html

  • An accurate summary of some things not to do, which (unfortunately) students commonly do, can be found at Advice on How to Write a Bad Paper.

Here is a rough explanation of how to understand the grading of the papers: 

A: This is an outstanding paper. It is well organized around a clear and insightful argument that is logically organized and well-supported with evidence from the historical record and the scholarly literature. The paper considers alternative arguments, deals with countervailing evidence, and weighs their relative merits. It also convincingly shows that its main argument is better/more complete than the alternatives. This paper also shows how and why the question it pursues and the answer it offers are significant and important. There are few (or no) spelling or proofreading problems and the paper is well and appropriately documented.
AB: High quality in terms of style and content. The paper has a clear thesis statement, good organization and supporting evidence. It shows a solid grasp of the issues at stake and is well written. This paper shows evidence of original thought and planning. While it makes some reference to the scholarly literature it does not fully engage it.
B: The paper shows a decent understanding of the phenomenon and the overall argument is relatively clear although it may tend more toward summary than analysis. While the wider literature is acknowledged, the paper does not add its own insights. However, there may be significant grammatical and syntax errors, organizational problems, and the references to the literature may be perhaps a bit narrow, superficial or insufficient.
BC: The paper conforms to some of the requirements, but falls short on many, or is seriously marred by crucial shortcomings, including, but not limited to, poor organization, poor grammar or a poor understanding of the question. While there is some attempt to deal with the question, the argument is unclear and/or it is not adequately supported by appropriate evidence. There is little attempt to anchor the argument in the literature on the topic.
C: The paper attempts to pose and answer a question but does not actually do so. In other words, it has no argument. It may also be plagued by, among other problems, poor organization, poor writing, over-generality, lack of evidence or its inappropriate, selective or partial use.
F: The paper does not meet the requirements of the assignment and/or is so poorly written as to be unintelligible or has plagiarized from a published text or another student. Note also that an adequate paper that is not on an appropriate topic also falls within this realm
I will take into consideration papers whose final draft shows substantial and significant improvement over earlier drafts. Note, to take advantage of this you have to complete drafts of your paper early enough to get feedback. I require at least 3 weekdays to get a draft back to you with comments. In other words, don’t wait until the last moment to start your paper.

Academic Conduct

This class is geared to maximize our joint exploration of important topics in the history and politics of the Arab-Israeli conflict. Serious scholarly discussion becomes impossible when diatribe and invective displace scholarly analysis. As a result, when posing questions or responding to others, students are expected to demonstrate an appropriate level of respect despite what might be deep disagreements.


The paper you are required to write will require you to cite other people’s work. Plagiarism will not be tolerated! If you are caught turning in work that is not your own or using another author’s work without properly citing it, you will receive an F on the assignment. If you have any questions about what constituted academic dishonesty, please consult the Dean of Students Web page, at http://www.wisc.edu/students/saja/misconduct/UWS14.html
Required Readings

Many of the required readings for this course are in the course reader, which is available at the University Book Store. A copy of the reader has been placed on reserve at the College Library. The books can be purchased at the University Book Store. or found on reserve at the College Library.


The following books are required for the course:
Gelvin, James L. 2007. The Israel-Palestine Conflict: One Hundred Years of War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Bucaille, Laetitia. 2004. Growing Up Palestinian: Israeli Occupation and the Intifada Generation. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Laqueur, Walter and Barry Rubin, eds. 2008. The Israel-Arab Reader. New York: Penguin Books. (7th, updated edition).
The following recommended books have been placed on reserve at College Library:

Morris, Benny. 1991. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1999. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Tessler, Mark. A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1994.

COURSE SCHEDULE

January 20: Introductions: making sense of conflicting accounts


Eric Hobsbawm. “The nation as invented tradition: introduction” in The Invention of Tradition. Eds. Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., 1-14

Verdery, Katherine. 1993. “Whither ‘Nation’ and ‘Nationalism’?” Daedalus 122(3): 37-46.

Scham, Paul L. 2006. "The historical narratives of Israelis and Palestinians and the peacemaking process," Israel Studies Forum, 21(2): 58-84.

Isacoff, Jonathan B. March, 2005. "Writing the Arab-Israeli Conflict: Historical Bias and the Use of History in Political Science," Perspectives on Politics 3(1): 71-88.

Nusseibeh, Sari. March, 2005. “A formula for narrative selection: comments on “writing the Arab-Israeli conflict” Perspectives on Politics 3(1).

January 22: Historical Background


Gelvin, The Israel-Palestine Conflict, ix-x, 1-45.

January 27-29: Zionism and Israeli Nationalism


Gelvin, The Israel-Palestine Conflict, 46-75, 144-155.

Avineri, Shlomo. 1979. "Zionism as a National Liberation Movement," The Jerusalem Quarterly, 10: 133-144.

Laqueur, Walter and Barry Rubin, eds. 2001. The Israel-Arab Reader. New York: Penguin Books, 3-10.

Chaim Weizmann and Ben-Gurion testimony before the Peel Commission

Oz Almog, The Sabra: Jew The Creation of the New, trans. by Haim Watzman (Berkeley and London: University of California Press, 2000), 35-45.

Zerubavel, Yael. 1995. Recovered Roots: Collective Memory and the Making of Israeli National Tradition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 3-36.


February 3-5: Palestinian and Arab Nationalism


Gelvin, The Israel-Palestine Conflict, 92-115, 196-212

Laqueur, Walter and Barry Rubin, eds. 2001. The Israel-Arab Reader. New York: Penguin Books, 21-23, 51-55, 93-96, 117-139.

Khalidi, Rashid. 1997. Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness. New York: Columbia University Press, 9-34.

Issa, Khalaf. 1991. Politics in Palestine: Arab Factionalism and Social Disintegration, 1939-1948. Albany: State University of New York Press, 231-248.

Shemesh, Moshe. Spring, 2004. “The Palestinian Society in the Wake of the 1948 War: From Social Fragmentation to Consolidation,” Israel Studies, 9(1): 86-100.

Sayigh, Yezid. 1997. “The Armed Struggle and Palestinian Nationalism,” in Avraham Sela and Moshe Maoz, eds. The PLO and Israel: From Armed Conflict to Political Solution, 1964-1994. New York, St. Martin’s Press, 23-35.


February 10-12: The dynamic of the mandate and the logic of partition


Gelvin, The Israel-Palestine Conflict, 76-91, 116-126.

Laqueur, Walter and Barry Rubin, eds. 2001. The Israel-Arab Reader. New York: Penguin Books (Sixth, updated edition), 41-51.

Husseini testimony before the Peel Commission

Jabotinsky, Vladimir (Ze’ev). “The Iron Wall,” and “The Ethics of the Iron Wall” (13)

Katz, Shlomo. July, 1946. “Understanding Jewish Resistance in Palestine: The Aims and Methods of the Hagana.” Commentary, 45-50.

Hadawi, Sami. 1991. Bitter Harvest: A Modern History of Palestine. New York: Olive Press, 56-63, 84-96.

David Ben-Gurion, “Britain’s Contribution to Arming the Hagana,” Jewish Observer and the Middle East Review, September 20, 1963.

Leonard Mosely, 1955. Gideon Goes to War, 55-64.

Khalidi, Rashid. 2006. The Iron Cage: The Story of the Palestinian Struggle for Statehood. Beacon Press: Boston, 31-64.

UNSCOP Recommendation, Jamal al Husayni and Hillel Silver reactions, in Smith, Charles. 2001. Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict (6th edition), Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 217-223.

Gilbert, Martin. 2002. The Routledge Atlas of Arab-Israeli Conflict: The Complete History of the Struggle and the Efforts to Resolve It. New York: Routledge, 5, 8, 22, 36,

February 17-19: Triumph and Catastrophe: different understandings of the 1948 war


Gelvin, The Israel-Palestine Conflict, 126-143

Ben-Gurion, David “Freedom and Independence” in Rebirth and Destiny, 274-280.

Zeev Sharef, “Meeting of the National Administration and the Formation of a Provisional Government of Israel, May 12, 1948: Memoir,” in Rabinovitch and Reinharz, eds. Israel in the Middle East, 63-70.

Nathan Alterman, “The Silver Platter”

Elon, Amos. 1981 (1971). The Israelis: Founders and Sons, 189-204

Alami, Musa. October, 1949. “The Lesson of Palestine,” Middle East Journal. 3(4): 372-405.

Rogan and Shlaim, eds. The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948, 79-101

Bar-On, Mordechai. 2006. “Conflicting Narratives or Narratives of a Conflict: Can the Zionist and Palestinian Narratives of the 1948 War Be Bridged?” in Israeli and Palestinian Narratives of Conflict: History’s Double Helix, edited by Robert I. Rotberg. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 142-168.



February 24-26: The refugee question


Gelvin, The Israel-Palestine Conflict, 155-164

“Palestinian Refugees,” PASSIA – Special Bulletin, Jerusalem, May 2004. (16)

Syrkin, Marie. January, 1966. "The Arab Refugees: A Zionist View," Commentary, 23-30.

Kleiman, Ephraim. 1986. “Khirbet Khiz’ah and Other Unpleasant Memories.” Jerusalem Quarterly. 40: 102-118.

Karsh, Efraim. May 2001."The Palestinians & the Right of Return", Commentary, 25-31.

Morris, Benny. 1986. “The Causes and Character of the Arab Exodus from Palestine: The Israel Defense Forces Intelligence Branch Analysis of June 1948.” Middle Eastern Studies, 22: 5-19.

Teveth, Shabatai. September 3, 1989. “Charging Israel with original sin,” Commentary 88: 24-33. (Section II optional)

Khalidi, Rashid. 2001. "The Palestinians and 1948: the Underlying Causes of Failure," in Eugene L. Rogan and Avi Shlaim, eds. The War for Palestine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 12-36.

Stein, Kenneth W. "One Hundred Years of Social Change: The Creation of the Palestinian Refugee Problem," Silberstein (ed.), New Perspectives on Israeli History, pp. 57-81.

Galtung, Johan and Ingrid Eide. 1976. “Some Factors Affecting Local Acceptance of a UN Force: A pilot project report from Gaza,” in Johan Galtung, ed. Peace, War, and Defense: Essays in Peace Research, Volume 2. Copenhagen: Christian Ejlers., 242-245, 258-263. (rest is optional)

Shikaki, Khalil. 2006. “Refugees and the Legitimacy of Palestinian-Israeli Peace Making,” in Elie Podeh and Asher Kaufman, eds. Arab-Jewish Relations: From Conflict to Resolution? Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, 363-374.

March 3-10: Arab-Israeli wars 1956-1982


Gelvin, The Israel-Palestine Conflict, 165-195.

Laqueur, Walter and Barry Rubin, eds. The Israel-Arab Reader. (New York: Penguin Books, 2001). (Sixth, updated edition). 89-93, 96-116, 143-166, 254-257, 269-276

Dayan, Moshe. 1955. “Israel’s Border and Security Problems.” Foreign Affairs, 33: 250-267.

Yost, Charles W. 1968. “The Arab-Israeli War: How It Began.” Foreign Affairs, 46: 304-320

Safran, Nadav. 1981. Israel: the Embattled Ally. Cambridge: Belknap Press., 224-228, 235-239, 257-277, 278-286, 312-316.

Sadat, Anwar. 1977. In Search of Peace: An Autobiography. New York: Harper and Row, 232-237, 241-270. (pp.238-240 are optional)

Bartov, Hanoch. 1974. “Israel after the War: 2: Back to Abnormal.” Commentary, 57: 41-45

Horowitz, Dan. “The Israeli Concept of National Security,” in A. Yaniv (ed.), National Security and Democracy in Israel (Boulder, 1993), pp. 11-53.



March 12: Palestinians under Israeli Rule:


Kimmerling, Baruch and Joel Migdal. 1993. Palestinians: The Making of a People. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, “steering a path under occupation,” 240-261.

Rosenfeld, Maya, 2004. Confronting the Occupation: Work Education, and Political Activism of Palestinian Families in a Refugee Camp, Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 211-265.

Bucaille, Laetitia. 2004. Growing Up Palestinian: Israeli Occupation and the Intifada Generation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, chapters 4, 79-110.

Roy, Sara. Spring, 1991. “The Political Economy of Despair: Changing Political and Economic Realities in the Gaza Strip,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 20(3):58-69.



March 17: NO CLASS – SPRING BREAK

March 19: NO CLASS – SPRING BREAK


March 24-26: The Intifadas

Gelvin, The Israel-Palestine Conflict, 212-228.

Bucaille, Laetitia. 2004. Growing Up Palestinian: Israeli Occupation and the Intifada Generation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1-29, 111-150

Abu-Amr, Ziad. 1990. “The Politics of the Intifada,” in Michael C. Hudson, ed. The Palestinians: New Directions, Washington, DC: Center for Contemporary Arab Studies, Georgetown University, 3-23.

Tamari, Salim. 1989. “What the Uprising Means,” in Zachary Lockman and Joel Beinin, eds. Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising Against Israeli Occupation. Boston: South End Press, 127-138.

Dowty Alan, and Michelle Gavierc, 2001. “The Al-Aqsa Intifada: Revealing the Chasm,” MERIA Journal, 5(3): 38-48.

Shikaki, Khalil. January/February 2002. “Palestinians Divided,” Foreign Affairs, 81(1): 89-105.

March 31: Impact of the conflict on Palestinian society…


Rosenfeld, Maya, 2004. Confronting the Occupation: Work Education, and Political Activism of Palestinian Families in a Refugee Camp, Palo Alto: Stanford University Press, 33-42, 80-103

World Bank. March 18, 2002. “Fifteen Months: Intifada, Closures and Palestinian Economic Crisis,” 3-19, 31-37.

Yezid Sayigh, Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement 1949-1993. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997, 663-692.

April 2: Library Session (MPSA)

April 7: … and on Israeli society


Ezrahi, Yaron. 1998. Rubber Bullets: Power and Conscience in Modern Israel. Berkeley: University of California Press, 175-205.

Kimmerling, Baruch. 1983. "Making Conflict a Routine: The Cumulative Effects of the Arab-Jewish Conflict Upon Israeli Society," Journal of Strategic Studies, 6(3): 13-45.

Bleich, Gelkopf, and Solomon, “Exposure to terrorism, stress-related mental health symptoms, and coping behaviours among a nationally representative sample in Israel”,

Michael, Kobi. Spring 2007. “Military Knowledge and Weak Civilian Control in the Reality of Low Intensity Conflict -- The Israeli Case,” Israel Studies, 12(1):28-52.


April 9: No class

April 14-16: The Great Debates I: What to Do with the Occupied Territories in Israel?


Allon, Yigal. Oct. 1976. “Israel: The Case for Defensible Borders,” Foreign Affairs, 55: 38-53.

Netanyahu, Benjamin. 1993. A Place Among the Nations, New York: Bantam Books: 256-293.

Oz, Amos. 1984. In the Land of Israel. New York: Vintage Books, 103-123.

Yehoshua, A.B. 1971. “The New Left and Zionism,” in Who is Left? Zionism Answers Back, Jerusalem: Alpha Press.

Lustick, Ian S. 1981. “Israel and the West Bank after Elon Moreh: The Mechanics of De Facto Annexation.” Middle East Journal, 35(4):557-577.

Lochery, Neil. 2007. “The politics and economics of Israeli disengagement, 1994-2006,” Middle Eastern Studies, 43(1):1-19.



April 21-23: The Great Debates II: Acceptance of Israel among the Arabs?


Laqueur, Walter and Barry Rubin, eds. The Israel-Arab Reader. (New York: Penguin Books, 2001). (Sixth, updated edition), 354-359.

Lukacs, Yehuda, ed. 2000. The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: A Documentary Record, 1967-1990. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 454-455, 463-466

Arab (Saudi) Peace Initiative

Muhammad Muslih, 1990. "Towards Coexistence: An Analysis of the Resolutions of the Palestine National Council," Journal of Palestine Studies 19(4) 3-29.

Sela, Avraham. 2005. “Politics, Identity And Peacemaking: The Arab Discourse On Peace With Israel In The 1990s,” Israel Studies, 10(2):15-71.

Khashan, Hilal, Summer, 2000. “Arab Attitudes Toward Israel on the Even of the New Millenium,” The Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, 25(2):131-229. 131-132, 135-136, 138-140, 144-148, 157-161, 164-187, 191-199, 204-209, 217-221. (intervening sections are optional)

Shikaki, Khalil. January 2006. “Willing to Compromise: Palestinian Public Opinion and the Peace Process,” USIP Special Report, 1-16.

Tessler, Mark. 2006. “Narratives and Myths about Arab Intransigence Toward Israel,” in Israeli and Palestinian Narratives of Conflict: History’s Double Helix, edited by Robert I. Rotberg. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 174-191.



April 28: Religion and the Arab-Israeli conflict


Oz, Amos. In the Land of Israel. (New York: Vintage Books, 1984), 51-73

Hamas Charter

Mishal, Shaul. “How Hamas Thinks,” 1-18.

Budeiri, Musa. “The Palestinians: Tensions between Nationalist and Religious Identities,” in Rethinking Nationalism in the Arab Middle East, ed. James Jankowski and Israel Gershoni. New York: Columbia University Press.

Peretz, Don. Fall, 1990. “Secular-religious tension within the Palestine resistance movement,” Middle East Focus, 13-17.

Tessler, Mark and Jodi Nachtwey. 1999. “Palestinian Political Attitudes: an Analysis of survey Data from the West Bank and Gaza,” Israel Studies 4:22-43.

Shamir, Michal and Asher Arian, June, 1999. “Collective Identity and Electoral Competition in Israel,” American Political Science Review, 93(2):265-277.

April 30-May 7: Peace Processes past and future


Gelvin, The Israel-Palestine Conflict, 229-255.

Janice Gross Stein, “The Widening Gyre of Negotiation: From Management to Resolution in the Arab-Israeli Conflict,” Davis Occasional Papers, No. 68, March 1999, pp. 1-30.

Laqueur, Walter and Barry Rubin, eds. The Israel-Arab Reader. (New York: Penguin Books, 2001). (Sixth, updated edition), 222-228, 411-428, 562-565, 573-580.

Bucaille, Laetitia. 2004. Growing Up Palestinian: Israeli Occupation and the Intifada Generation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, chapters 2-3.

Said, Edward. The End of the Peace Process (New York, 2000), 108-112, 312-321, 327-330.

Gary Sussman, “The Challenge to the Two-State Solution,” MERIP #231 (Summer 2004), 8-15.

Alpher, Joseph. 1996. “Israel: The Challenges of Peace,” Foreign Policy, 101:130-145.

Lustick, Ian S. May/June 2002. “Through Blood and Fire Shall Peace Arise,” Tikkun Magazine, 17(3): 13-19

Dowty, Alan. 2006. "Despair is not enough: violence, attitudinal change, and ‘Ripeness’ in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict," Cooperation and Conflict, 41(1): 5-29.

Rynhold, Jonathan. Spring 2004. “Israel’s Fence: Can Separation Make Better Neighbours,” Survival, 46(!): 55-76.

Ben-Porat, Guy. Spring 2006. “Markets and Fences: Illusions of Peace,” The Middle East Journal, 60(2):311-328.


May 11: Papers Due!



Recommended Readings for PS 333

Making sense of conflicting accounts

Kimmerling, Baruch. 1995. “Academic history caught in the crossfire,” History & Memory, 7(1): 41-48.

Ram, Uri. 1995. The Changing Agenda of Israeli Sociology: Theory, Ideology and Identity.

Horowitz, Dan, and Moshe Lissak, Winter 1977. “Ideology and Politics in the Yishuv,” The Jerusalem Quarterly, 12-26.

Isacoff, Jonathan. Writing the Arab-Israeli Conflict. New York: Lexington Books.

Shapira, Anita, “Politics and Collective Memory: The Debate over the "New Historians" in Israel,” History & Memory, 7(1).

Silberstein, The Post-Zionist Debates.
Historical Background

Morris, Benny. 1991. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1999. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Tessler, Mark. A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1994.

Origins of Israeli and Palestinian national movements: Zionism and Israeli Nationalism


Avineri, Shlomo. 1981. The Making of Modern Zionism: The Intellectual Origins of the Jewish State. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Elon, Amos. 1983 (1971). The Israelis: Founders and Sons. New York: Penguin Books.

Kolatt, Israel, 1975. "The Organization of the Jewish Population of Palestine and the Development of its Political Consciousness Before World War I," Studies in Palestine During the Ottoman Period. Jerusalem: Magnes Press, pp. 211-245.

Penslar, Derek J. 2005. “Herzl And The Palestinian Arabs: Myth and Counter-Myth,” Journal of Israeli History 24(1): 65-77.

Sachar, Howard. 2007. A History of Israel: From the Rise of Zionism to Our Time (Third Edition, Revised and Updated). New York: Random House.

Shafir, Gershon. 1989. Land, Labor, and the Origins of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict 1882-1914. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Shapira, Anita 1992. Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force 1881-1948. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Shapira, Anita. October 2000. “From the Palmach Generation to the Candle Children: Changing Patterns in Israeli Identity,” Partisan Review.

Zerubavel, Yael. Summer, 2002. “The Mythological Sabra and Jewish Past: Trauma, Memory, and Contested Identities,” Israel Studies, 7(2).

Origins of Israeli and Palestinian national movements: Palestinian and Arab Nationalism


Antonius, George. 1938. The Arab Awakening.

Adler (Cohen), Raya. 1988. “The Tenants of Wadi Hawarith: Another View on the Question of Palestine,” International Journal of Middle East Studies, 20: 197-220.

Cobban, Helena. 1984. The Palestine Liberation Organization.

Dawisha, Adeed. Arab Nationalism In The Twentieth Century.

Doumani, Beshara. 1995. Rediscovering Palestine: Merchants and Peasants in Jabl Nablus, 1700-1900. Los Angeles: University of California Press.

Graham-Brown, Sara Palestinians and their Society, 1880-1946.

Haim, Sylvia. 1974. Arab nationalism: an anthology. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Hourani, Albert. 1991. A History of the Arab Peoples. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Issa, Khalaf. 1991. "The Reasons for the Disintegration of Palestinian Society with an Emphasis on the Persistence of Factionalism," Politics in Palestine. Albany: State University of New York Press, pp. 231-248.

Jamal, Amal. 2005. The Palestinian National Movement: Politics of Contention, 1967-2005. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Johnson, Nels. 1982. Islam and the Politics of Meaning in Palestinian Nationalism. London: Kegan Paul.

Khalidi, Rashid. “Palestinian Peasant Resistance to Zionism Before World War I,” in Edward Said and Christopher Hitchens, Blaming the Victims.

Khalidi, Walid Before Their Diaspora: A Photographic History of the Palestinians, 1876-1948.

Khalili, Laleh.2007. Heroes and Martyrs of Palestine: the Politics of National Commemoration. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kimmerling, Baruch and Joel Migdal. 1993. Palestinians: The Making of a People. New York: Free Press.

Kimmerling, Baruch. April, 2000 “Process of Formation of Palestinian Collective Identities: The Ottoman and Colonial Periods,” Middle Eastern Studies, 36(2): 48-81.

Lesch, Ann Mosely. 1979. Arab Politics in Palestine, 1917-1939: the Frustration of a National Movement. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Lynd, Staughton, Sam Bahour and Alice Lynd. 1994. Homeland: Oral Histories of Palestine and Palestinians. New York: Olive Branch Press.

Mandel, Neville J. 1976. The Arabs and Zionism before World War I. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Mattar, Philip, Spring 1988. “The Mufti of Jerusalem and the Politics of Palestine,” Middle East Journal, 42(2): 227-240.

Muslih, Muhammad. Summer, 1987. “Arab Politics and the Rise of Palestinian Nationalism,” Journal of Palestinian Studies 64.

Muhammad Y. Muslih, The Origins of Palestinian Nationalism, (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988).

Porath, Yehoshua. 1974. The Emergence of the Palestinian-Arab National Movement. London: Cass.

Porath, Yehoshua. 1977. The Palestinian Arab National Movement, 1929-1939.

Robinson, Glenn E. Building a Palestinian State: The Incomplete Revolution, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997.

Quandt, William B., Fuad Jabber and Ann Mosely Lesch. 1973. The Politics of Palestinian Nationalism. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Sayigh, Rosemary. Spring 1977, “The Palestinian Identity among Camp Residents,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 6(3):3-22.

Sayigh, Yezid. 1999. Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian Movement, 1949-1993. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sela, Avraham and Moshe Maoz, eds. 1997. The PLO and Israel.

Swedenburg, Ted. 1995. Memories of Revolt: the 1936-1939 Rebellion and the Palestinian National Past. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Tessler, Mark. A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1994.

The dynamic of the mandate and the logic of partition


Abboushi, W.F. “The Road to Rebellion: Arab Palestine in the 1930’s.” Journal of Palestine Studies. 6 (1977).

Arlosoroff, Chaim. 1948. “Reflections on Zionist Policy.” Jewish Frontier, 7-11.

Bauer, Yehuda. 1970. From Diplomacy to Resistance: A History of Jewish Palestine, 1939-1945. Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society of America.

Cohen, Aharon. 1970. Israel and the Arab World. New York: Funk and Wagnalls.

Finkelstein, Norman G. “Disinformation and the Palestine Question: The Not-So-Strange Case of Joan Peters’s From Time Immemorial,” in Blaming the Victims, 33-69.

Galnoor, Itzhak. 1995. The Partition of Palestine: Decision Crossroads in the Zionist Movement. Albany: State University of New York Press.

Hirst, David. 1977. The Gun and the Olive Branch: The Roots of Violence in the Middle East. London: Faber and Faber.

Hyamson, Albert. 1950. Palestine Under the Mandate. London: Methuen.

Karsh, Efraim. 1997. Fabricating Israeli History: The "New Historians". London: Frank Cass, 143-164, 176-193 (pp.164-176 optional).

Kimche, Jon. 1960. A Clash of Destinies: The Arab Jewish War and the Founding of the State of Israel. New York: Praeger.

Kimmerling, Baruch. "A Model for Analysis of Reciprocal Relations Between the Jewish and Arab Communities in Mandatory Palestine," Plural Societies, Vol.14. Nos. 3/4, 1983, pp. 45-68.

Kolatt, Israel. “The Zionist Movement and the Arabs.” Studies in Zionism. 5 (1982).

Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1999. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1991.

Nashif, Taysir, Summer 1977. “Palestinian Arab and Jewish Leadership in the Mandate Period “ Journal of Palestine Studies, 6(4):113-121.

Porat, Yehoshua. “Palestinian Historiography: A review article,” The Jerusalem Quarterly 5 (Fall, 1977).

Shapira, Anita, 1992. Land and Power: The Zionist Resort to Force, 1881-1948, (Oxford University Press.

Stein, Kenneth W. 1984. The Land Question in Palestine, 1917-1939. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.

Stein, Kenneth W., "Palestine's Rural Economy, 1917-1939," Studies in Zionism, Vol. 8, No. 1, 1987, pp. 25-49.

Sykes, Christopher. 1973. Crossroads to Israel, 1917-1948. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Tessler, Mark. A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1994.



Triumph and Catastrophe: different understandings of the 1948 war


Falah, Ghazi “The 1948 Israeli Palestinian War and its Aftermath: The Transformation and De-Signification of Palestine’s Cultural Landscape,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 86(1996): 256-285.

Gringauz, Samuel. “Jewish Destiny as the DP’s See It: The Ideology of the Surviving Remnant.” Commentary. 4 (1947).

Hadawi, Sami. 1991. Bitter Harvest: A Modern History of Palestine. New York: Olive Press.

Handal, Natalie. “Mahmoud Darwish: Palestine's Poet of Exile” The Progressive May 2002

Karsh, Efraim. 1997. Fabricating Israeli History: The "New Historians". London: Frank Cass.

Khalidi, Rashid. Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness.

Kimmerling, Baruch and Joel S. Migdal, The Palestinian People: A History. Cambridge. MA: Harvard University Press, 2003, Chapter Five.

Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1999. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. 1991.

Pappe, Ilan. 1992. The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947-1951. London: I.B. Tauris.

Sa'di, Ahmad H. Summer, 2002. “Catastrophe, Memory, and Identity: Al-Nakbah as a Component of Palestinian Identity,” Israel Studies, 7(2): 175-198.

Shlaim, Avi. 1990. The Politics of Partition: King Abdullah, the Zionists and Palestine, 1921-1951. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Tal, David. “The Historiography of the 1948 war – the missing dimension.” Journal of Israeli History.

Tal, David. War in Palestine, 1948: Strategy and Diplomacy.

Tartakower, Arieh “The Making of Jewish Statehood in Palestine,” Jewish Social Studies 10 (1948): 207-222.

Tessler, Mark. A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1994.

Zurayk, Constantine. 1956. The Meaning of Disaster. Beirut: Khayat. 1-8, 13-18, 21-39, 69-74.



The refugee question


Badr Al-Haj, “Khalil Raad—A Jerusalem Photographer,” The Jerusalem Quarterly, 11-12(2001).

Dar Al-Fata Al-‘Arabi and Jaff a Research Center (eds), Jaffa, the Perfume of a City ( Jaff a, 1991) [Arabic].

Fischbach, Michael, R. 2003. Records of Dispossession: Palestinian Refugee Property and the Arab-Israeli Conflict. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hitchens, Christopher “Broadcasts,” in Blaming the Victims, 73-83.

Kanafani, Ghassan. Men in the Sun.

Khalidi, Walid. 1992. All that Remains: the Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948. Washington, DC: Institute for Palestine Studies.

Kidron, Peretz “Truth Whereby Nations Live,” Blaming the Victims, 85-96.

Kimche, Jon. “Deir Yassin and Jaffa” from Seven Fallen Pillars (London: Secker and Warburg, 1950)

Masalha, Nur. 2005. Catastrophe Remembered: Palestine, Israel and the Internal Refugees. London: Zed Books.

Morris, Benny. 1948 and After.

Morris, Benny. 2004. The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem Revisited. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Morris, Benny. October, 1986. “Yosef Weitz and the Transfer Committees, 1948-49,” Middle Eastern Studies, 22(4):522-561.

Nazzal, Nafaz. 1978. The Palestinian Exodus from Galilee, 1948. Beirut: Institute for Palestine Studies.

Nazzal, Nafez Abdullah. “The Zionist Occupation of Western Galilee, 1948.” Journal of Palestine Studies. 3 (1974).

Rubinstein, Danny. 1991. The People of Nowhere: The Palestinian Vision of Home. New York: Times Books.

Said, Edward. 1980. The Question of Palestine. New York: Vintage Books.

Sanbar, Elias. “Out of Place, Out of Time,” Mediterranean Historical Review, 16 (2001): 87-94

Sayigh, Rosemary. 1979. Palestinians: From Peasants to Revolutionaries. London: Zed Press.

Segev, Tom. 1986. 1949: The First Israelis. New York: The Free Press.

Shapira, Anita. Fall 2000 “Hirbet Hizah: Between Remembrance and Forgetting,” Jewish Social Studies, 7(1):1-62

Shenhav, Yehouda. “Arab-Jews, Population Exchange, and the Palestinian Right of Return,” in Exile and Return: Predicaments and Struggles of Palestinians and Jews, Ann M. Lesch and Ian S. Lustick, eds. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press)

Teveth, Shabtai. 1990. "The Palestine Arab Refugee Problem and Its Origins," Middle Eastern Studies, 26: 214-249.



Arab-Israeli wars 1956-1982


Mark Tessler, A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1994 (selections)

Morris, Benny Israel’s Border Wars: 1949-1956 (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1993)

Golani, Motti. Israel in Search of a War: The Sinai Campaign 1955-1956 (Portland, OR: Sussex University Press, 1998).

Oren, Michael B. 2003. Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East. New York: Ballantine Books.

Segev, Tom. 1967.

Ashkar, Riad. “The Syrian and Egyptian Campaigns.” Journal of Palestine Studies. 3 (1974).

Khalidi, Ahmed and Hussein Agha. “The Syrian Doctrine of Strategic Parity.” The Middle East in Global Perspective. Judith Kipper and Harold H. Saunders, eds. (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991). pp. 186-218.

Troen, Ilan and Moshe Shemesh, eds. 1990. The Suez-Sinai Crisis, 1956: Perspective and Reappraisal. London: Frank Cass.



Palestinians under Israeli Rule: Arabs in the Occupied Territories…


Abu-Kishk, Bakir “Arab Land and Israel Policy,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 11(1981): 124-35.

Arnon, A. and J. Weinblatt. June, 2001. “Sovereignty and economic development: the case of Israel and Palestine,” The Economic Journal, 111(472): 291-308.

Ashrawi, Hanan. 1996. This Side of Peace. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Farsoun, Samyh K. and Masseer H. Aruri, 2006. Palestine and the Palestinians. Boulder: Westview Press.

Fischer, S. Alonso-Gamo and von Allmen, June, 2001. “Economic developments in the West Bank and Gaza Since Oslo,” The Economic Journal, 111(472).

Gazit, Shlomo. “Early Attempts at Establishing West Bank Autonomy: the 1968 Case Study.” Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy. 3 (1980).

Jamal, Amal. 2005. The Palestinian National Movement: Politics of Contention, 1967-2005. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Quandt, William B., Fuad Jabber and Ann Mosely Lesch. 1973. The Politics of Palestinian Nationalism. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Rosenfeld, Maya Confronting the Occupation: Work, Education and Political Activism of Palestinian Families in A Refugee Camp. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2004.

Roy, Sara. Autumn, 1987. “The Gaza Strip: A Case of Economic De-Development,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 17(1): 56-88.

Slyomovics, Susan The Object of Memory: Arab and Jew Narrate the Palestinian Village (Philadelphia)

Tessler, Mark. A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1994.


Arab Citizens of Israel

Asa’d Ghanem. 2001. The Palestinian-Arab Minority in Israel, 1948-2000. Albany: SUNY Press.

Forman, Geremy and Alexandre Kedar, “From Arab Land to ‘Israel Lands’: The Legal Dispossession of the Palestinians Displaced by Israel in the Wake of 1948”

Kretzmer, David. 1990. The Legal Status of the Arabs in Israel. Boulder: Westview Press.

Lustick, Ian S. 1980. Arabs in the Jewish State: Israel's Control of a National Minority. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Masalha, Nur. 2005. Catastrophe Remembered: Palestine, Israel and the Internal Refugees. London: Zed Books.

Rabinowitz, Dan “The Common Memory of Loss: Political Mobilization among Palestinians Citizens of Israel,” Journal of Anthropological Research, 50(1994): 27-49.

Rouhana, Nadim. 1997. Palestinian Citizens in an Ethnic Jewish State. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Sa’di, Ahmad H. “National Identity, Conflict and Presentations: The Palestinians in Israel,” in Gottfried Brauer, Peter Fenn, Amos Hoffman, Izhak Schnell and Gerhard Stephan (eds), Nationality—Identity—Education (Hamburg)

Smooha, Sammy, 1984. The orientation and politicization of the Arab minority in Israel. Haifa, Israel: University of Haifa, Jewish-Arab Center, Institute of Middle Eastern Studies.


The Intifadas

Dowty, Alan. Spring, 2004. “Impact of the Aqsa Intifada on the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict,” Israel Studies Forum, 19: 9-28.

Schiff, Zeev and Ehud Yaari. 1990. Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising - Israel's Third Front. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Farsoun, Samih K. and Masseer H. Aruri, 2006. Palestine and the Palestinians. Boulder: Westview Press.

Ron, James. November, 2000. “Savage Restraint: Israel, Palestine, and the Dialectics of Legal Repression,” Social Problems, 47(4): 445-472.

Morris, Benny. Righteous Victims

Roy, Sara. Spring, 1991. “The Political Economy of Despair: Changing Political and Economic Realities in the Gaza Strip,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 20(3): 58-69.

Inbar, Ephraim. Fall, 1991. “Israel’s Small War: The Military Response to the IntifadaArmed Forces & Society, 18(1): 29-50.

Lockman, Zachary and Joel Beinin, eds. 1989. Intifada: The Palestinian Uprising Against Israeli Occupation. Boston: South End Press. (especially appendix with “Communiqués”)

Sayigh, Armed Struggle and the Search for State, pp. 607-637


Impact of the conflict on Palestinian and Israeli Society

Kimmerling, Baruch. 1985. The Interrupted System: Israeli Civilians in War and Routine Times. New Brunswick and London: Transaction Books.

Roy, Sara M. 1995. The Gaza Strip: The Political Economy of De-Development. Washington DC: Institute for Palestinian Studies.

Sayigh, Rosmary. 1984. Palestinians: From Peasants to Revolutionaries. London: Zed Books.

Safran, Nadav. 1981. Israel: the Embattled Ally. Cambridge: Belknap Press.
What to do with the Occupied Territories?

Mark Tessler, A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1994 (selections)

Morris, Benny. 1999. Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881-1999. New York: Knopf.

Grossman, David. 2002 (1988). The Yellow Wind. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Aronoff, Myron J. 1989. Israeli Visions and Divisions: Cultural Change and Political Conflict. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. (selections)

Feige, Michale. 1998. "Peace Now and the Legitimation Crisis of 'Civil Militarism'," Israel Studies, 3(1): 85-111.

Geneva Accords, 2003 http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=351461

Lustick, Ian S. 1993. Unsettled States, Disputed Lands: Britain and Ireland, France and Algeria, Israel and the West Bank-Gaza. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Yishai, Yael. 1987. Land or Peace: Whither Israel? Stanford: Hoover Institution Press.

Hazony, Yoram. 2000. The Jewish State: Struggle for Israel's Soul. New York: Basic Books.

Ari Shavit, “On Gaza Beach,” New York Review of Books, July 18, 1991.

Sprinzak, Ehud. 1999. Brother Against Brother: Violence and Extremism in Israeli Politics from Altalena to the Rabin Assassination. New York: The Free Press.

Yehosuha Arieli, July, 1969. “Annexation and Democracy,” New Outlook, 97-103.
Acceptance of Israel Among the Arabs?

Muslih, Mohammed. “Moderates and Rejectionists within the Palestine Liberation Organization.” The Middle East Journal. (Spring 1976).

Fuad, Ajami, The Dream Palace of the Arabs.

Sela, Avraham and Moshe Maoz, eds. 1997. The PLO and Israel., ch. 5

Tessler, Mark and Jodi Nachtwey. 1998. “Islam and Attitudes Toward International Conflict: Evidence from Survey Research in the Arab World,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 62?:619-636.

Nachtwey, Jodi and Mark Tessler. 2002. “The political economy of attitudes towards peace among Palestinians and Israelis,” Journal of Conflict Resolution, 260-285.

Shamir, Jacob and Khalil Shikaki. 2002. “Determinants of Reconciliation and Compromise among Israelis and Palestinians,” Journal of Peace Research, 39: 185-202.

Shamir, Jacob and Khalil Shikaki. 2005. “Public Opinion in the Israeli-Palestinian Two-Level Game,” Journal of Peace Research, 42: 311-328.

Shikaki, Khalil. 1996. “The Peace Process, National Reconstruction, and the Transition to Democracy in Palestine,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 2-14.

Boutros-Ghali, Boutros “the Arab response to the challenge of Israel,” in A.L. Udovich, ed. The Middle East: Oil, Conflict and Hope, 231-251.

Ahmed, Muhammad Sayyid. 1976. After the guns fall silent.

Brown, Nathan. 2002. “The International controversy regarding Palestinian textbooks,” Lecture Delivered at the Georg-Eckert Institute for International Textbook Research, 9 December 2002. (For links to the ensuing debate see, http://www.geocities.com/nathanbrown1/Response_CMIP.html)


Religion and the Arab-Israeli conflict

Abu-Amr, Ziad. 1994. Islamic Fundamentalism in the West Bank and Gaza: Muslim Brotherhood and Islamic Jihad. Bloomington: Indiana University Press

Ahmad, Hisham. 1994. From Religious Salvation to political transformation: the rise of Hamas in Palestinian society.

Budeiri, Musa. “The Palestinians: Tensions between Nationalist and Religious Identities,” in Rethinking Nationalism in the Arab Middle East, ed. James Jankowski and Israel Gershoni. New York: Columbia University Press.

Hroub, Khaled. 2000. Hamas: Political Thought and Practice (Washington, D.C.: Institute for Palestine Studies,).

Jamal, Amal. 2005. The Palestinian National Movement: Politics of Contention, 1967-2005. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 103-120.

Gershoni, Israel. July, 1986. “The Muslim Brothers and the Arab Revolt in Palestine, 1936-39,” Middle Eastern Studies, 22(3): 367-397.

Lustick, Ian S. 1994. For the Land and the Lord: Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press.

Newman, David. “From Hitnachalut to Hitnatkut: The Impact of Gush Emunim and the Settlement Movement on Israeli Politics and Society,” Israel Studies, 10(3): 192-219.

Peace Processes: past and future


“Reflections on the Peace Process and a Durable Settlement: A Roundup of Views,” 1996. Journal of Palestine Studies, 26(1):5-26

Abbas, Mahmud. 1995. Through secret channels.

Agha, Hussein and Robert Malley, “Camp David: The tragedy of errors,” New York Review of Books, 9 August 2001. (Camp David II from Palestinian perspective)*

Beilin, Yossi. 1999. Touching Peace: From the Oslo Accord to a Final Agreement. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Benn, Aluf “Grasping for Peace,” Foreign Policy, January/February 2002, pp. 82-84.

Clinton, Bill. My Life (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2004), pp. 911-916.

Cohen, Stephen, et. Al. 2003. “Is a two-state solution still viable?” Middle East Policy 10(2).

Dowty, Alan “Israel under Sharon: The Tunnel at the End of the Light,” Policy Briefs, Joan B. Kroc Institute for International Peace Studies, No. 6, June 2001, pp. 1-4.

Grossman, David Death as a Way of Life.

Haberman, Clyde, “Dennis Ross’s exit interview,” New York Times Magazine, March 25, 2001.

Hanieh, Akram. Winter 2001, “The camp david papers,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 30(2):75-97.

Horowitz, Dan. “The Israeli Concept of National Security,” in A. Yaniv (ed.), National Security and Democracy in Israel, (Boulder, 1993), pp. 11-53.

Human Rights Watch, Erased in a Moment: Suicide Bombing Attacks against Israeli Civilians (2002). http://www.hrw.org/reports/2002/isrl-pa/ISRAELPA1002.pdf

Indyk, Martin, "Peace Without the PLO," Foreign Policy, Summer 1991, pp. 30-38.

Kemp and Pressman, Point of No Return, 9-34,

Laura Z. Eisenberg and Neil Caplan, Negotiating Arab Israeli Peace (Bloomington, 1998.

Lustick, Ian S. 1990. “Changing Rationales for Political Violence in the Arab-Israeli Conflict.” Journal of Palestine Studies, 20(1): 54-79.

Lustick, Ian. 1997. "Ending Protracted Conflicts: The Oslo Peace Process Between Political Partnership and Legality," Cornell International Law Journal, 30: 741-758.

Ma’oz, M. and A. Sela (eds.). The PLO and Israel: From The Road to the Oslo Agreement and Back?” New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.

Makovsky, David. 1996. Making Peace with the PLO.

Morris, Benny. “Camp David and After: An Exchange (1. An Interview with Ehud Barak). New York Review of Books June 13, 2002.

Palestinian Center for Policy and Survey Research (PSR) - Survey Research Unit: PSR Polls among Palestinian Refugees, (Jan-June 2003), released 18 July 2003.

Parry, Nigel Misrepresentation of Barak's offer at Camp David as "generous" and "unprecedented"

Quandt, William B. 2001. Peace Process: American Diplomacy and the Arab-Israeli Conflict Since 1967. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Rabe, Hans-Joachim. 2004. “Palestinian Territories: From state Building to Crisis Management,” in Volker Perthes, ed. Arab Elites: Negotiating the Politics of change.

Rabinovich, Itamar Waging Peace: Israel and the Arabs 1948-2003.

Rabinovich, Itamar. 1991. The Road Not Taken: Early Arab-Israeli Negotiations. New York: Oxford University Press.

Rabinovich, Itamar. 1999. The Brink of Peace. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Rand Corporation, Helping a Palestinian State Succeed (Rand, 2004)

Robinson, Glenn E. Building a Palestinian State: The Incomplete Revolution, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997.

Ron Pundak, “From Oslo to Taba: What Went Wrong?”

Ross, Dennis September 20, 2001. “Camp David: an Exchange,” New York Review of Books.

Ross, Dennis The Missing Peace: The Inside Story Of The Fight for Middle East Peace (New York, 2004).

Ross, Dennis. 2001. "From Oslo to Camp David to Taba: Setting the Record Straight," Wahington Institute for Near East Studies.

Ross, The Missing Peace, pp. 549-758.

Roy, Sara. Spring, 1999. “De-development Revisited: Palestinian Economy and Society Since Oslo,” Journal of Palestine Studies, 28(3):64-82.

Said, Edward. 1995. The Politics of Dispossession.

Said, Edward. 2001. The End of the Peace Process: Oslo and After. New York: Vintage.

Salame, Ghassan, "Inter-Arab Politics: Return of Geography," in William B. Quandt (ed.), The Middle East, Ten Years After Camp David, 1988, pp. 319-353.

Savir, Uri. 1000 Days

Sayigh, Armed Struggle and the Search for State, 638-662.

Sela, Avraham. 1998. The Decline of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: Middle East Politics and the Quest for Regional Order. Albany: SUNY Press.

Shlaim, Avi. "The Lost Steps," The Nation, Aug 30, 2004.

Sonntag, Deborah Quest for Mideast Peace: How and Why It Failed, New York Times, July 26, 2001, 1-8

Stein, Kenneth W. and Samuel W. Lewis, 1991.Making Peace among Arabs and Israelis: Lessons from Fifty Years of Negotiating Experience. Washington, DC: USIP. v-viii.

Stein, Kenneth, "Continuity and Change in Egyptian-Israeli Relations, 1973-1997," Israel Affairs, Spring/Summer 1997, pp. 296-320.

Tessler, Mark. A History of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1994.

Zartman, William. “Negotiations as a Mechanism for Resolution in the Arab-Israeli Conflict,” Davis Occasional Papers, No. 72, August 1999, pp. 1-20.



Zisser, Eyal. June 2001. “The Israeli-Syrian negotiations, what went wrong?” Orient 42(2):225-251.







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