Visiting Lecturer, University of the Witwatersrand
Years after apartheid hasended in South Africa, the country is still dealing with its effects on those who suffered at its ugly hands. For about ten years a number of apartheidvictims have been struggling to obtain relief in the United States of America (“U.S.”) from several corporations who “aided and abetted” apartheidscrimes against humanity, without any final resolution to date. In 2002, a number of plaintiffs, all victims of the apartheidregime, instituted action in the U.S. Federal District Courts for damages under the Alien Tort Claims Act (the “ATCA”).1The plaintiffs sought, and today still seek, reparations from a number of major corporations that conducted business in South Africa during apartheid.Although this matter is being litigated in the U.S. courts, the factual basis for the litigation rests on events that occurred in South Africa, and it involves corporations that conducted business in South Africa during apartheid.Without the ATCA, this litigation would not have been possible in the U.S. courts.
The purpose of this article is to consider whether, after more than ten years of litigation, the South African apartheidlitigation may be soon drawing to a close, or whether many more years of litigation on these complex claims appears to be on the horizon. In order to achieve this purpose, this article, firstly, provides a brief look at the ATCA and its historical development. Secondly, the South African apartheidlitigation instituted in the U.S. courts under the ATCA, and its progression, is set out. Thirdly, recent developments regarding corporate accountability under the ATCA are canvassed. Lastly, in light of the recent developments regarding corporate accountability, the future of the South African apartheid litigation is addressed.
2 THE ALIEN TORT CLAIMS ACT
The ATCA was originally adopted in 1789 as part of the Judiciary Act in the U.S. The ACTA reads as follows:
“The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action by an alien for a tort only, committed in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the United States.”
The ATCA confers subject matter jurisdiction on a Federal Court when a plaintiff, who is an alien, sues for a tort based on an act that violates either the law of nations or a treaty of the U.S.2 In this context, “tort” means wrongs people have suffered or “personal injuries such as piracy theft”3. A number of authors have, in modern times, given attention to the word “tort” and what precisely it means, but, despite this scholarly attention, consensus on the understanding of what Congress intended to say has proven elusive.4The law of nations is defined by customary usage and clearly expressed principles of the international community, but not all violations of international law are actionable under the ATCA. Generally, the only violations actionable under the ATCA are human rights violations of a high intensity.5Victims from around the world have brought claims in the U.S. courts, under the ATCA, for human rights violations including torture, genocide, summary execution, and arbitrary detention.6
For almost 200 years, the ATCA lay relatively dormant. From its adoption in 1789 until 1980 only two courts based their jurisdiction on the ATCA7. In 1980, this inactivity changed when the Second Circuit issued an opinion in Filartiga v Pena-Irala8allowing a claim under the ATCA, stating “that courts must interpret international law not as it was in 1789, but as it has evolved and exists among the nations of the world today”.9Torture, perpetrated under colour of official authority, was found to violate international law resulting in such conduct falling within the jurisdictional mandate of the ATCA. The basis for such a conclusion was found in the international community’s unambiguous consensus against torture.10An act of torture, committed outside the territory of the U.S. and involving only non-American citizens both as victim and perpetrator, provides a sufficient basis for a successful civil action to be brought before a Federal Court under the ATCA.11Following on from the Filartigajudgment, the courts in the U.S. continued to interpret the ATCA and lay down rules and limits for such claims.
In the Forti v Suarez-Masoncase12, the court found that the ATCA provides a cause of action and jurisdiction, and the “law of nations” test was developed. The “law of nations” test requires an international law norm to have a “universal, definable, and obligatory” character in order for a violation of the norm to constitute a violation of the law of nations, therefore, providing a legal ground for civil action under the ATCA13. In Sosa v Alvarez-Machainthe U.S. Supreme Court had its first opportunity to consider and comment on the ATCA. The Supreme Court found that Congress intended the ATCA “to furnish jurisdiction for a relatively modest set of actions alleging violations of the law of nations. Uppermost in the legislative mind appears to have been offences against ambassadors, ... violations of safe conduct, ... and individual actions arising out of prize captures and piracy”.14It was found that these were the only examples that Congress had in mind at the time of the adoption of the ATCA, and no further torts were considered at that time.15The Supreme Court found that the ATCA granted jurisdiction only for a limited number of common law actions alleging violations of the law of nations.16
The Supreme Court went further finding that a cause of action could not be found in or created by the ATCA. The ATCA was found to be purely jurisdictional, providing jurisdiction only if a cause of action is found in common law and only for a limited number of violations of international law which may result in personal liability17. Judicial restraint was however called for when recognising causes of action under federal common law18. “[F]ederal courts should not recognise private claims under federal common law for violations of any international law norm with less definite content and acceptance among civilized nations than the historical paradigms familiar when [the ATCA] was enacted”.19The Court provided some guidance and stated that, in determining which norms of international law merit the creation of a private tort remedy, “courts should require any claim based on the present-day law of nations to rest on a norm of international character accepted by the civilized world and defined with a specificity comparable to the features of the eighteenth-century paradigms we have recognized”.20 The Court pointed out that other principles serve to limit the availability of relief for violations of international law, which include the international law doctrine that a claimant must exhaust all domestic (or internal) remedies before resorting to a foreign forum, the policy of deference to other political branches, the opinion of the U.S. or foreign governments towards the case, and the case’s potential effect on foreign relations of the U.S.21
To fit within the limits of the ATCA today, violations of international law must be understood as those “accepted by the civilized world and defined with a specificity comparable to the features of the eighteenth-century paradigms”, such as piracy and crimes against ambassadors22. The narrower interpretation of the ATCA in the Sosadecision curtailed the reach of the ATCA, but it did leave the door open for foreigners to use the ACTA to institute action in the U.S. for certain human rights abuses which may have been committed elsewhere in the world.23 At present, the ATCA provides one of the few opportunities for litigants to seek redress in a country other than where the violation has taken place.
3 THE SOUTH AFRICANAPARTHEIDLITIGATION
During 2002 a number of South Africans, all victims of the apartheidregime, commenced legal action in the U.S. courts under the ATCA, seeking reparations from several major corporations conducting business in South Africa during apartheid.24Numerous separate actions were filed by three groups of plaintiffs in multiple Federal District Courts. These suits were filed against a number of multinational corporations for “aiding and abetting” crimes against humanity committed during apartheid25.The Khulumaniplaintiffs, being one group of plaintiffs, lodged a complaint against twenty-three corporations, alleging various violations of international law.26The Ntsebezaand Digwamajeplaintiffs, being the other two groups of plaintiffs, lodged class actions “on behalf of the ‘victims of apartheidrelated atrocities, human rights’ violations, crimes against humanity and unfair discriminatory forced labor [sic] practices’”.27
The litigation commenced by these three groups of plaintiffs faced strong opposition from the South African Government under the Thabo Mbeki leadership. The Mbeki Government was of the opinion that the “proceedings interfere with a foreign sovereign’s effort to address matters in which it has the predominant interest”, and that they should be dismissed28. President Thabo Mbeki, in his address to Parliament on 15 April 2003, stated that:29
“we wish to reiterate that the South African Government is not and will not be party to such litigation. In addition, we consider it completely unacceptable that matters that are central to the future of our country should be adjudicated in foreign courts which bear no responsibility for the well-being of our country and the observance of the perspective contained in our constitution of the promotion of national reconciliation.”
The Mbeki Government in South Africa held the view that the issues raised in the ATCA litigation in the U.S. courts were essentially political in nature, that it would discourage direct foreign investment, and that the relief sought was inconsistent with the country’s approach to achieving its long-term goals.30
A similar standpoint was adopted by the U.S. Department of State. The U.S. Department of State submitted a “Statement of Interest” asserting that “continued adjudication ... risks potentially serious adverse consequences for significant interests of the United States”.31 This statement made by the U.S. Department of State was based on the fact that the Government of South Africa had, on several occasions, made clear its view that these cases did not belong in the U.S. courts and that they threatened to disrupt and contradict the laws, policies and processes of South Africa aimed at dealing with the aftermath of apartheid.32
This opposition to the litigation by the South African Government continued until 2009 when the Minister of Justice and Constitutional Development for the Republic of South Africa, Jeffrey Thamsanqa Radebe, addressed a letter to Judge Scheindlin of the District Court. In this letter, he states that:33
“[t]he Government of the Republic of South Africa, having considered carefully the judgment of the United States District Court, Southern District of New York, is now of the view that this Court is an appropriate forum to hear the remaining claims of aiding and abetting in violation of international law.”
This decision not to oppose the litigation represented a marked change in the South African Government’s stance on the litigation, and only came after the claims had been significantly narrowed by the courts.34The U.S. Government also indicated a change of heart towards the end of 2009, when they filed a brief as amicus curiaesupporting the plaintiffs.35
Although a number of claims were lodged in various District Courts in the U.S., there was a transfer of all the cases to the Southern District Court of New York (the claims are collectively referred to as the “ApartheidLitigation”).36Following the transfer, a majority of the parties cited as defendants in the actions requested a dismissal of the litigation37. Judge Sprizzo, in ruling on the motions to dismiss, held that the plaintiffs failed to establish subject matter jurisdiction under the ATCA and granted the defendant’s motions to dismiss38. It was said that the ApartheidLitigation cases were based on a “political question”, which a court should not interfere with, and that the aiding and abetting of violations of human rights is not itself a crime against humanity and therefore cannot be the basis of jurisdiction under the ATCA.39
The plaintiffs, unhappy with the dismissal of the ApartheidLitigation, appealed to the Second Circuit. On 12 October 2007, a three-judge panel dismissed the appeal in part and upheld the appeal in part.40It was said that the District Court had erred in holding that aiding and abetting violations of customary international law cannot provide a basis for ATCA jurisdiction.41The Second Circuit reinstated the plaintiffs’ ATCA claims, expressly holding that “a plaintiff may plead a theory of aiding and abetting liability under the ATCA”, but the case did not manage to yield a common theory of aiding and abetting42. Instead, each of the three judges (Katzmann, Hall and Korman) on the panel set out separate opinions and provided different standards to be used in an analysis of torts recognised under the ATCA, each judge interpreting differently Sosa’srequirements for how a cause of action in ATCA suits should be identified.43While recognising aiding and abetting liability, Judges Katzmann and Hall left the District Court without a standard to apply to determine which torts are to be recognised under the ATCA: customary international law or federal common law as the basis for aiding and abetting liability under the ATCA.44The judges did not make a ruling on the merits of the ApartheidLitigation; instead, the cases were remanded back to the District Court (and Judge Sprizzo) to make a decision on whether the claims against the defendants should be successful.45
The dispute regarding the standard to be applied to determine what torts should be recognised under the ATCA was not new to the U.S. courts in the ApartheidLitigation. Prior to the judgment handed down on 12 October 2007, several courts had held that the ATCA covers aiding and abetting liability, therefore agreeing with the Second Circuit in the Apartheid Litigation.46However, other courts had declined to interpret the ATCA as imposing such liability47, or had avoided the issues by deciding cases on narrower grounds.48
Following the reinstatement of the ATCA claims, the defendants petitioned the Supreme Court for a writ of certiorari.49However, given that some of the Supreme Court judges had conflicts of interests in their own investments, a number of them had to recuse themselves, leaving the Supreme Court unable to constitute the necessary quorum.50As a result, the matter was sent back to the Southern District Court of New York, with the appeal judgment still in force, in order for the pleadings to be addressed and a decision to be made as to whether the claims against the corporations could be successful on the facts.51
Back in the District Court with Judge Sprizzo, the plaintiffs filed two amended, consolidated complaints during October 200852. The plaintiffs’ amended claims were constructed to meet both the standards for aiding and abetting liability under the ATCA enunciated by Judge Katzmann and Judge Hall. In a repeat performance, all the defendants, except one, filed a further motion to dismiss the ApartheidLitigation, which motion was heard by Judge Scheindlin53. During April 2009, Judge Scheindlin handed down her ruling, narrowing down the claims by partly granting the motion to dismiss and partly denying the motion. It was decided that the plaintiffs could proceed with their claims against five defendants only, namely, Daimler A.G.,54Ford,55General Motors,56IBM,57and Rheinmetall58(collectively referred to as “the five defendants”).59The claims against the international banks and other corporations operating in South Africa during apartheidwere dismissed. The court rejected the defendants’ arguments that the prudential doctrines of political question and comity called for the dismissal of the ApartheidLitigation.60According to Judge Scheindlin, the Apartheid Litigation would not interfere with U.S. foreign policy or important U.S. governmental interests or the TRC process.61In conclusion, Judge Scheindlin stated:62
“[w]hat remains of these consolidated cases is vastly different from the dozen actions first filed in 2002 and 2003. Corporate defendants accused of merely doing business with the apartheid Government of South Africa have been dismissed. Claims that a corporation that aided and abetted particular acts could be liable for the breadth of harms committed under apartheid have been rejected. What survives are much narrower cases that this Court hopes will move toward resolution after more than five years spent litigating motions to dismiss.”
Unsatisfied with the judgment allowing the case to proceed against them, the five defendants lodged an appeal against the April 2009 District Court’s opinion. The five defendants filed a petition for writ of mandamus and a request for permission for interlocutory appeal with the Second Circuit.63The defendants sought to raise the proprietary of the District Court’s refusal to dismiss the case on the grounds of comity and political question.64The plaintiffs requested the court to dismiss the appeal on the ground that the Appellate Court did not have jurisdiction.65On 11 January 2010, the Second Circuit heard the appeal against the April 2009 judgment. The arguments put forward by legal representatives for both sides focused on two main themes:66
(a) Whether a corporation can be held liable for crimes committed using the commodities and equipment that the corporation manufactured and sold to the apartheidregime knowing what the commodities and equipment were to be used for (i.e. corporate accountability); and
(b) What the current status of the Statements of Interest was that was submitted to the District Court in 2003 by the South African and the U.S. Governments respectively.67
The Second Circuit, after hearing the appeal, reserved judgment. This decision has not yet been handed down by the Second Circuit and is eagerly being awaited by the parties to the ApartheidLitigation.68
The latest development on the ApartheidLitigation can be described as a somewhat surprising event. One of the five remaining defendants, General Motors, filed for bankruptcy protection before a New York bankruptcy court shortly after the economic crisis in 2008. A claim was filed on behalf of a punitive class,69comprising of plaintiffs from the ApartheidLitigation, which was heard and disallowed by the bankruptcy court. The disallowing of the claim meant that General Motors had no legal obligation towards the punitive class claimants, and due to its liquidation status, was no longer a defendant who was part of the main action. More than a year after the bankruptcy court effectively excluded General Motors from the Apartheid Litigation, a without prejudice offer was received from General Motors. A settlement of US$ 1.5 million was agreed upon between General Motors and the named plaintiffs.70
During the long wait for the appeal judgment to be handed down, other cases have considered the issue of corporate liability under the ATCA. Disagreement has emerged, and it appears that it is not obvious that corporations can be held accountable under the ATCA. This dispute, and the result ultimately reached, may have a significant impact on the ApartheidLitigation given that the four remaining defendants are all corporations.