The age of the crusades



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Christian divisions' rivalry of Norman and

Provencal (the Si/ly Lance), 1099. Match to Jerusalem (Genoese con­voy and lood supply), siege, cap tare, and horrors oi the s01 the papal legate lelt the organization o: the government oi Jerusalem to feudal lay­men Godfrey of Bouillon, elected king, assumed the title of Advocate of the floly Sepulcher (for pious reasons) The mam body of the crubaders soon streamed back home The Norman eSort to dominate the

f

overnment through their patriarch Dago-ert led to his deposition by the anti-Nor­man party and Jerusalem became a feudal kingdom rather than theocracy under papal domination The government (as revealed b> the Assizes of Jerusalem, the most com­plete feudal code e\Unt) vtas narrowly feudal, the king a teudal suzerain, not J so-vereign, the tenants-m-chiet dominant Besides lie teudal organization there were burgher and CvdesidStical organizations; with their own courts

Continued divisions among the Moslems and the weakness ot the Greeks tavored the progress ot the Latin states the Kingdom of Jerusalem, in dose commercial alliance \vith. the Italian towns (.Genoa., Pisa, and later Venice), profiled by the commerce thrcragh its ports and extended south to tap the Red Sea trade The otner states the County of Edessa (.established by Baldwin), the Principality of Aatioch (established by Bohemund), and the County of Tripoli (.set up by Raymond of Toulouse), were fiefs ol Jerusalem (divided into four great baron­ies and into lesser fiefs). The departure of the mam body of the crusaders left the franks without enough reinforcement to prevent then onentauzation and decline. After the capture ot Jerusalem (,1187) the Kingdom of Jerusalem ceased to be an organized state.

Moslem unification in Syria was com­pleted by the Ataoeg-, (regents) of Mosul and signalized by the capture of Edesta, (1144) Mosul soon mastered Eg>pt, Sal-aim emerged supreme in Egypt (1171), quickly reduced Damascus and Aleppo, and brought Syria and Egypt under a single

efficient rule 1147-1149. THE SECOND CRUSADE

Bernard of Clairvaus:, persuaded by Pope Eugemus III, somewhat against his will, preached (1145) the Second Cru­sade Emperor Conrad III and King Lotus VII 01 Fiance took the Cross To avoid conflicts the two monarchs went by separate routes; there never was coherent direction or unity of command The Nor­man Roge of Slaty prof ted by tite Second '

Crusade to seize the Greek islands and to attack Athens, Thebes, and Corinth Xoth-mg ot importance was achieved by the Second Crusade and the movement was

discredited throughout Europe, 1184. Salidin's sf-eady advance led to a

great appeal to the west. King Philip II ot France and Henry II of England declined the crown of Jerusalem, but ]ev«d a Saladin tithe (1188) to finance a crusade. Christian attack on a caravan (said to be es* corting Saladin's bister; provoked Saladin's, holy wai (1187-1189.) capture of Jerusalem (1187) without a sack (S4.kdm's humanita nanism) and reduction of the Latin states to the cities of Antioch, Tyre, Tripoli anfl

a small area about each,

1189-1192 THE THIRU CRUSADE Prc

cipitated by the fall of Jerusalem a completely lay and royal aiUir deapiU tlic efforts ot the papacy to retain control It was supported pwtly by the Saladm i.the and was led by the three greatest monarch*, of the day (i) Frederick Barbarossa (a veteran of the Second Crusade) ah emperor the traditional and theoretical mihury leader of Christendom, headed a well or ganized and disciplined Gtrman contingent, starting from Regensburg (nSgj, which marched \ia Hungary, entered Asia Minor and disintegrated after Frederitk vvas drowned (1190), (2} Sang Richard I of England and (3) King Plihp II of France, nho wi*nt by sej. Already pohf.mil m lU they quarreled in winter quarters, in Siuly (i 190-1191,), .Richard turned aside in ihe spring and took Cyprus which he sold to Guy de Lusignan The quarrels of J1 tulip and Richard continued in the Holy Lar^i, and Philip returned to France after the capture of Acre (iigij Hichard's ncsjo^ tutions •with Srtladm (R.idi.Lrd proposed £ marriage of ins sitter Joanna to Saladin's brother, who was to be invented with Jeru salem) resulted (noa) in a three->e.ir ('•utt. allowing the Christians a coabUl strip ix tween Joppa and Acre and access to Je ru salem. Captivity of Ejch.ird (1192-1 ^4) and heavy ransom to the Lmperor IItnr> VI The Third Crusade endud the gokic i

age of the crusadcb

1202-1204 THE FOURTH CRUSADE Emperor Henry VI, King of Smly (by virtue ot his marriage to the Nornun Constance) and heir of the traditional Nor man plan of creating an empire on the ruips of the Greek Empire, was determined to continue his father Frederick's cruhtde, and began to encroach on the Greek kinds homage of Cyprus and Lesser Armenia. (1195), the marriage of Henry's brother Philip to Irtae, daughter of the


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