Executed by Henry Vlll when More refused to recognize the king as the head of the Church of England
Prelude to Reformation Church and Religion on the Eve of the Reformation
The nobility and wealthy middle class dominated the highest church offices
Pluralism and the attendant problem of absenteeism plagued era.
Economic forces led to growing rift between the higher and lower clergy.
Parish priests often accused of ignorance & corruption.
Viewed process of salvation mechanically
Quest for a tranquil spirituality (EX: Modern Devotion Movement)
Venerated religious relics
Martin Luther and the Reformation in Germany
Born into a German peasant family (son of a miner)
At his father’s urging, Luther studied law upon graduation from the Univ. Of Erfurt
In 1505, while caught in a terrible storm, Martin Luther vowed that if he escaped the storm alive, he would become a monk
While a monk, Luther focused on learning more about attaining salvation (obsessed with own sins)
Had difficulty with church’s solution for attaining salvation—penance or confession (sacraments)
Became a doctor of theology in 1512 and became a professor at the Univ. Of Wittenberg
Did not believe one could achieve salvation from “good works”
Believed salvation could be achieved by faith alone
Believed Bible was the Sole Authority in religious matters
Luther came into open conflict with the Church over the sale of indulgences which he opposed
Responded to sale of indulgences by posting his “95 Theses” in Wittenberg deploring their existence and indicting the church for selling them in the 1st place
Reiterated that justification could be achieved by faith alone
Church used jingle in response, “as soon as the coin in the coffer rings, the soul from purgatory springs”
12. Debated Catholic theologian Johann Eck in Leipzig in July 1519
Eck, a capable adversary, forced Luther to move beyond indulgences and deny the authority of popes and councils
Luther realized the debate probably spelled the end of his career within Catholic Church
13. Moved further away from Church by publishing the pamphlets in 1520
Address to the Nobility of the German Nation (written in German) called for German princes to overthrow the papacy in Germany and establish a reformed German Church
The Babylonian Captivity of the Church (written in Latin)
--Attacked system of the church
--Called for the clergy to marry
c. On the Freedom of a Christian Man
-- Reiterated that faith alone not good works brings salvation through Jesus
14. Outraged by his ideas, the church excommunicated Luther in January 1521
15. Summoned to appear at the Diet of Worms convened by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Luther remained obstinate
Expected to recant, Luther refused stating that “my conscience is captive to the Word of God”
An enraged &indignant Charles V ordered Luther’s works to be burned & branded him an outlaw within the empire
Development of Lutheranism
After a brief period of hiding, Luther began to organize an independent church in 1522
Between 1520 and 1560, 16,000 students graduated from Luther’s Univ. of Wittenberg and began spreading his teachings all over Germany
Pro-Luther pamphlets portrayed Pope as anti-Christ and attacked Church greed.
Lutheran message well received throughout Germany.
Christian humanists such as Erasmus broke with Luther when it became apparent that he no longer had any interest in reforming the Catholic Church but wanted to establish his own new church.
Luther faced most controversial challenge from the Peasants’ War of the mid 1520s.
Mistreated peasants in southern Germany looked to Luther for support against the oppressive local lords.
In his pamphlet, Against the Robbing and Murdering Hordes of Peasants, Luther made it clear with whom he sided with when he called on German princes to crush the peasant uprising.
Luther believed it was okay to challenge a misguided church, but not to revolt against political authorities.
German princes, whom Luther relied on for the growth and maintenance of his reformed church, ruthlessly massacred peasants at Frankenhausen on May, 1525.
Church and State
In his new reformed church, Luther kept only two Catholic sacraments---baptism & communion (Lord’s Supper)----denied existence of transubstantiation
Unlike the Catholic Church, Luther’s church emphasized importance of the Bible at the expense of church decrees.
Relied on secular princes to protect and nurture his “Protestant” movement
Instituted new religious services to replace Catholic mass including:
Preaching word of God
5. Married former nun Katherina von Bora, in 1525, which served as an example to his ministers who he encouraged to marry.
Germany and Reformation: Religion and Politics
Empire of Charles V (Hapsburg Dynasty)
Kingdom of Naples (Southern Italy)
He is quoted as saying, “I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men, and German to my horse.”
Rivalry with France (Primary concern of Charles V)
King Francis I (Valois Dynasty of France) became involved in land dispute with Charles V over territories in Southern France, the Netherlands, the Rhineland, Northern Spain, and Italy.
Conflict sparked a 24 year era of periodic fighting between Hapsburg and Valois families called the Hapsburg-Valois Wars (1521-1544)
Conflict with France prevented Charles V from dealing with Lutheran problem.
Conflict with Papacy
Charles V expected support from Church because of his hardliner views against Lutherans within his empire.
Fearing Hapsburg dominance of Italy, not only did the Church not give Charles the support he was looking for on the Lutheran question, but also Pope Clement VII backed Francis I in his war with Charles V.
April, 1527, Spanish soldiers sacked Rome and Charles and Clement VII reached an understanding.
Surging Ottoman Turks
Ottoman leader Suleiman the Magnificent defeated King Louis of Hungary (Charles’ brother-in-law) at the Battle of Mohacs in 1526.
Ottoman Turks overran most of Hungary and moved into Austria as far as Vienna before being repulsed in 1529.
Neither the Catholic Church nor German princes, who swore loyalty to Charles V, went out of their way to help him deal with the Lutherans because both feared his power was already too great.
Charles V demanded that his subjects who were Lutheran return to the Catholic Church by April 15, 1531. (Diet of Augsburg,1530)
Forced to compromise with Lutherans so he could focus on military challenges from France and Ottoman Turks from 1532 to 1545