Describe why the election of 1824 was called a “Corrupt Bargain” by Jackson supporters.
Explain one way in which voting rights were expanded.
Explain how the “Tariff of Abominations” accentuated sectionalism.
Describe how Andrew Jackson handled the issues concerning Indian relations.
Key Terms and Vocabulary:
nationalism popular vote nominating convention
sectionalism electoral vote spoils system
corruption campaign(ing) abomination
Nationalism and Sectionalism: pages 302-305
1) Recall: prior to Jackson’s election as president the nation became more sectionalized. What is sectionalism and what issues divided the country?
Nationalism: a strong sense of pride and loyalty to one's country
Sectionalism: disagreements between regions of a country
Divided by slavery, economics (factories versus agriculture)
2) The election of 1824 showed the divisions in the country (p. 305). Although Jackson won the popular vote, what was the outcome of the election? How did Jackson’s supporters refer to it?
Jackson had the popular vote, but not enough electoral votes, which were split between 4 contenders. He lost when the election when House of Representatives voted for John Quincy Adams, with the support of Henry Clay. Jackson’s supporters called it the “Corrupt Bargain”
President John Quincy Adams: The son of John Adams (2nd president) was not very popular. He proposed financing the arts and sciences, supporting the rights of Native Americans, and working with Latin American Republics. Congress blocked everything and the Protective Tariffs put into place in his administration hurt the economy of the South.
Jacksonian Democracy: pages 322-324
1) The Expansion of Democracy: Who had the right to vote in the early years of our nation?
Rich, white men who owned land
2) How was America in the early 1800’s changing?
North Industrialized: developed factories, continues to change economics and culture.
3) Who became the hero of the small farmers, frontier settlers and slave owners? Why?
Andrew Jackson: He was a war hero from the South. He was a populist and a reformer (wanted to change government). He believed in the rights of the “common man”. He rose to success through hard work and determination . He believed a president should be strong, determined, dominant
4) What voting reforms were put into place which led to Jackson’s victory in 1828?
5) What new party formed around Jackson, who did he pick as running mate (VP), and who did he run against?
Democratic party – Jackson,
V.P. = John C. Calhoun
National Republicans formed in support of John Quincy Adams
5) Describe the 1828 campaign for the presidency:
Very personal – the personal traits of each man were argued in public with Jackson seen as the man of the people, and JQA a cold intellectual who benefitted from his father’s (John Adams) connections.
Parties held Nominating Conventions which allowed more people to engage in politics. Before this only party leaders made decisions with little local input.
6) Draw a picture of Jackson’s inauguration: think –
Who is in the crowd celebrating? How did they celebrate?
Include the idea “…to the victor belong the spoils…”
Celebrating Jackson’s win. The celebration gets out of hand, becomes mob-like, and the White House is trashed.
“To the Victor belongs the spoils…” Jackson rewards loyal followers and people who helped his campaign with jobs in government
7) As president, Jackson relied on two sources for advice. Who were they?
Cabinet and Kitchencabinet. The kitchen cabinet was a group of more trusted friends and advisors who met with Jackson in the White House Kitchen. the regular Cabinet was filled with men to whom Jackson made political promises – he did not trust them
Biography: Andrew Jackson: page 325
Pick three interesting facts about Andrew Jackson. Write them here. Then choose one and explain why you find this fact interesting.
Born N. & S. Carolina Border; Lived in Tennessee; Lived in a mansion called “The Hermitage”; No formal education, but became a successful lawyer; Tennessee’s representative to congress and senate; He led attacks against Creek and Seminole Indians; One Battle of New Orleans; Served as President from 1828 to 1837; Vetoed many bills; Believed in a strong Union; When south tried to nullify or reject tariffs, he threatened to send in troop to make them comply
Jackson’s Administration: pages 326 – 331
Key Terms: Tariff of Abominations Nullification Crisis Whig Party
1) Describe the differences between the three regions of the United States:
1:North: economy based on manufacture, supported tariffs because American good could be sold at lower prices than Brit. goods
2: South: Economy based on Agriculture, slavery, opposed tariffs because it increased price of imported goods
3: West: Emerging economy, supported internal improvement to make transportation easier, and encourage settlement
2) The Tariff of Abominations, signed into law under JQ Adams on imports from GB, favored the North and hurt the South. Describe how it helped the North and hurt the South:
1. Congress placed high tariffs on imported goods before Jackson came into office
2. Angry Southerners called this the “Tariff of Abominations” because it increased the price on goods from G.B.
3) The tariff added fuel to growing sectionalism in the country because the tariff benefitted North and hurt South
3) What is the main idea of the State’s Rights Doctrine, put forth by VP John C. Calhoun?
Calhoun argued for state’s rights: since the states formed first, they should have greater power than federal government
4) What does nullify mean? What did supporters of nullification believe?
Nullify = Cancel
They believed states had the right to abolish/remove/cancel laws or tariffs which they believed was unconstitutional
5) Jackson responded to the nullification crisis by trying to lower tariffs, but it was not enough for South Carolina. How does S.C. respond to the Crisis?
Calhoun resigns as VP and is replaced by Martin Van Buren.
South Carolina passes the Nullification act, which declared tariffs “null and void”. they also threatened to secede from the union
6) What is Jackson’s response to S.C.? How does Henry Clay create a compromise?
Jackson threatens S.C. condemns the nullification act and he declared he would enforce the law, using the army if necessary
Clay’s compromise: lower tariffs little by little over the next few years. S.C. agrees after seeing how serious Jackson is about maintaining the union
7) In this famous political cartoon from Jackson’s presidency, we see Jackson doing battle with the many headed snake (hydra) representing the banking industry and the politicians who supported it. What did the artist believe about the federal bank and what should be Jackson’s role as president?
He believes Jackson should take on the many headed hydra of the banking system – even though it will be difficult and he will make many enemies: bankers and politician who support or benefit from the federal banking system. Hydra - remove one head, two take its place. Although Jackson believed strongly in federal power, he did not support the federal bank
8) In McCulloch v. Maryland, how did the Supreme Court rule?
Maryland tried to battle the Fed. Bank by passing laws to tax the bank. the bank cashier, James McCulloch as a federal agent refused to pay.
The case went to the supreme court and the supreme court upheld the constitutionality of the Federal Bank – the constitution allows for a bank – loose interpretation
9) What powers does Jackson use as president to weaken and get rid of the Federal bank?
When the Fed. Bank tried to renew its charter (permission to function), Jackson campaigned against the bill and vetoed it when it crossed his desk (presidential check). Congress could not over-ride the veto so the bank was greatly weakened. In addition, Jackson transferred money from the federal bank to state banks. Even though this led to a financial crisis in the country, the federal bank was greatly weakened.
10) Economic troubles followed the weakening the Federal Bank, but Jackson remained popular with voters. A new party formed called the Whig party, which opposed Jackson’s policies. Jackson chose not to run in 1836, and his VP Martin Van Buren won an easy election. However, the Whigs gained in power with the increasingly poor economy under Van Buren and defeated him in 1840.
Named after British Political Party which opposed the monarchy (king)
Win when the economy collapsed under Van Buren – Van Buren is blamed for Jackson’s poor economic policies
Indian Removal: pages 332-336
Key terms: Indian Removal Act Bureau of Indian Affairs
Worcester v. Georgia Trail of Tears
1) American settlers continued to move into or demand Indian territory through the United States. Jackson strongly supported the rights of settlers. He pressured congress to pass the _______________________, which did what?
Indian removal Act of 1830: which authorized the removal of N.A. from east of the Mississippi River to the West.
2) Congress then established Indian territory in what is now ____________. How did John C. Calhoun justify the removal of Native Americans to the West?
Oklahoma: Calhoun argued that it would protect N.A. from conflicts with settlers
3) What was the purpose of the Bureau of Indian Affairs?
Created to help manage removal of N.A. to West .
4) Describe the difficulties experienced by different Indian Tribes as they dealt with removal?
Their leadership was not respected (Choctow gov’t was disbanded by Miss.); Moved during harsh season without thought on how it might affect old and young; On trek many died of disease, starvation; cold – no planning; When the Creek resisted they were arrested, chained and moved; sorrow and heart-ache; cultural effects – attached to land of ancestors;
5) How did the Cherokee attempt to deal with the issues of removal they were facing? Give examples:
Adopted contemporary culture of white people – created a written language, went to school, educated, developed their own government modeled on US, published newspapers and books, adopted the religion, thought they would be left alone, trusted the treaties that were signed
6) The discovery of _____________ resulted in attempts to remove the Cherokee from their native lands.
7) In order to remain in Georgia, the Cherokee sued the state of Georgia in the court case __________________________________.
The Supreme Court agreed with the Cherokee and declared:
Georgia ignored treaty rights, attacked Cherokee communities and forced Cherokee off their land. Cherokee sued Georgia claiming Georgia had no power over their territory.
Worcester vs. Georgia: Supreme court ruled that the Cherokee nation was a distinct community and the laws of Georgia had no force
8) However, Georgia did not listen and continued removing the Cherokee. Jackson also did not agree with the Court and famously said, “John Marshal has made his decision; now let him enforce it.”
What oath did Jackson violate by not supporting the Supreme Court’s decision?
President would uphold or enforce the laws of the nation –Jackson refused to support the pro-Cherokee decision, so the Georgians were free to disobey the constitution.
9) In the spring of 1838 U.S. troop began to move all Cherokee to Indian Territory. This 800 mile forced march was called the Trail of Tears.
Almost 18,000 Cherokee died on this march.
10) Look at the Map on pages 336-337. Many different tribes were forced to relocate in alien lands. In a well-developed paragraph answer the following question:
How do you think this affected the lives and livelihood of the Native American who were relocated? Include specifics!