The 1920s-30s and World War II -- Terms and Concepts:
Weimar Republic – The name given to the postwar German government (because it was created in the city of Weimar). Because this government accepted the Versailles Treaty, many Germans never supported the government.
Surrealism and Dadaism – These movements founded in the 1920s were part of the reaction to the destruction of the Great War. Dada was a word coined to represent absurdity and dadaists were people who argued that since traditional values had led to the war, then artists may as well reject all values in their work. Surrealistswere similar, arguing that, since rational thought had led to the war, then art should be based on the subconscious images of the human mind. This concept helped create “modern art” and also showed the growing influence of Freud’s ideas on human emotions. The French writer Andre Breton helped form the surrealist movement and was active in Dadaism. Part of the Nazi ideology was aimed at suppressing these ideas.
Dawes Plan – A plan to help Europe recover financially from the losses of the Great War. Designed by an American diplomat, it rested on lending Germany enough money to recover and make its Reparationspayments in Europe.
Locarno Treaty – Signed in 1925 by the major European powers, this treaty attempted to reconcile Germany with its former WWI enemies, each nation promising to limit their armies and air forces to reduce chances of another war.