1-4 July 2013 New Lanark, Scotland List of Abstracts Allison, Mark (Ohio Wesleyan University, USA)
Society is a Beautiful and Simple Science: The Aesthetics of Owenite Socialism
The socialist culture of late nineteenth-century Britain is frequently characterized as “aesthetic” or “artistic.” Owenite socialism, by contrast, is regularly described as “Spartan,” “austere,” or even “utilitarian.” The great scholar of Owenism, J. F. C. Harrison, maintained that “Owenites did not produce creative works of high literary quality, nor did they make any distinctive contributions in other art forms. There was nothing like the work of William Morris and the artistic socialists of the 1880s, nor was there anything resembling the communitarian architecture and furniture of the Shakers.”
I want to challenge these characterizations and make a case for the aesthetic character of Owenite socialism. It is true that if we cast about for a robust discourse of aesthetics, or for the Owenite’s answer to William Morris, we come up empty. But such exertions only distract us from what is hiding in plain sight: the aesthetic substratum of Owen’s communitarian vision itself. In this paper, I read several versions of the Plan, as well as topographical and architectural diagrams of the “Villages of Unity and Mutual Co-operation,” in order to argue that Owen’s social theory itself contains a constitutive aesthetic dimension. My goal is call into question certain longstanding generalizations about Owenism—and, ultimately, the division between an early “ascetic” and late “aesthetic” British socialism.
Anastasopoulos, Nicholas(National Technical University of Athens, Greece)
Architecture typologies and cities: embodiment or impediment to utopias
Vidler, Harvey and others comment on the ability that building types, planning and spatial features have, to crystallize social forms and to sustain particular social orders and behaviors. Indeed a concrete space, such as a city, not only is the materialization of a certain type of society or -according to systems thinking theories- a system of organization, but it also favors and predisposes certain types of behaviors and social patterns, which in turn define a certain system of society. In this line of thought, if we generalize the impact that space has in yielding utopian or dystopian conditions then it may be that cities are programmed to [re]-produce certain types of societies. While architecture may be a necessary tool for giving utopia shape and form, Harvey refers to the Utopianism of Spatial Play as an attempt to resolve society’s ills through spatial planning (together with the Utopianism of Social Process) as categories which contain flaws and limitations within their structure (Harvey, 2000).
This paper examines conditions that may be breeding utopias or dystopias and attempts to define the relationship between architecture and urban space and the predispositions or obstacles to imagining utopias. It attempts to explore the binary complexities between architecture and utopian thought mostly in contemporary cities and it reflects upon what it takes to get out then of the closure vicious circle (according to Harvey) which perpetuates certain phenomena such as ghettoization, poverty and various dysfunctions and prevents citizens from visualizing and accomplishing change.
Balasopoulos, Antonis(University of Cyprus)
Fables of Revolution: Badiou, Plato and cinematic science fiction.
Despite his denunciation of “culture” as a degenerated surrogate of "art", despite also his almost exclusively high-culture framework of philosophical reference (from Mallarmé to Beckett, from Malevich to Pessoa), Alain Badiou has shown a surprising interest in science fiction as a genre capable of sustaining philosophical thought on the question of the subject, the world, and the possibility of revolutionary rupture. Taking as its starting point a discussion of Badiou's essay “Dialectics of the Fable”, where he discusses three popular science-fiction films (The Cube, Existenz, and The Matrix), this paper will explore what is at stake in Badiou’s philosophical privileging of cinema, on the one hand, and science fiction fable, on the other, within a broader project that focuses on the question of change, and more particularly of revolutionary change cum subjective conversion. It will subsequently focus on the surprising affinity between Badiou’s understanding of the radical implications of “world-making” in SF and Suvin’s established theory of “cognitive estrangement”, as well as on the philosophical grounds for Badiou’s understanding of cinema as a subtractive rather than a spectacular experience, and thus as one which allows the Idea to partake of the sensible. Central to this project is Badiou’s suggestion that there is a fundamental link between the element of fable (and thus of the Imaginary) and the experience of the Real embodied in the encounter with the Idea. “Utopia”, in this view, is simply “the Imaginary part of the Idea” and hence the very means through which a politically radical relationship to this Real can be sustained.
Baldo, Milene(Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, Brazil)
A utopia wherein nature is an instrument of state
The relation between human cultures and the natural environment around them –nature – appear to be concepts, apparently universals, completely linked to the most diverse cultures and eras and known as “landscape” and “garden”. It’s easily noted in many ancient texts such as Eden’s Garden, in Genesis, or even in The Epic of Gilgamesh.
After the Renaissance, when man changed the importance of God to the human existence, emancipating knowledge about himself and the world around, the desecration of the nature began to occur, which became an object of study for humanists such as Nicolaus Copernicus and, later, natural and experimental philosophers. This new relation established with ideal nature, previously most observed as landscape, began to be modified. The natural world, in the sixteenth century and mainly the mid-seventeenth century, became in that moment an object of experimentation.
I discuss the ideal relation with nature in the fiction The Blazing World (1666), by Margaret Cavendish, a natural philosopher of the seventeenth century. It is a utopia that complements her other publication Observations upon Experimental Philosophy (1666).In that work, Cavendish imputes the observation and investigation of the natural world as the centrepiece of society, giving him the central position in government. Thus, the ideal relation with nature ceases to be just the visualisation of the garden – whose main function is to be appreciated – to be the use and deep analysis of the garden, in favour of the interests of the state.
Bastos da Silva, Jorge(Universidade do Porto, Portugal)
Et in Utopiâ ego: A Reassessment of Robert Southey’s (Anti-)Utopianism
References to Robert Southey in general surveys of utopianism tend to be limited to the plans for the establishment of an egalitarian community on the banks of the Susquehannah which he entertained in his youth, together with Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Robert Lovell. The radical political stance which engendered Pantisocracy is supposed to have been abandoned, as Southey became a conservative and rather unappealing public intellectual, not to mention the Poet Laureate that was ridiculed by Byron. Biographers and experts in Southey’s work scarcely contribute to the much-needed revision of the misconception that he no longer had any interest in utopian ideas. Yet the author’s engagement with utopianism far surpasses the 1790s. Two late prose works and an epic poem are particularly significant in this respect. The fictional dialogues that make up most of Sir Thomas More: Or, Colloquies on the Progress and Prospects of Society (1829) signal the author’s interest in a broad variety of manifestations of the utopian mentality, from the Fifth-Monarchists to the Jesuit reductions in America, from proposals for universal peace to the ideas of Robert Owen. The Colloquies also entail a virtual identification of Southey with the figure of Thomas More, whose ghost is his interlocutor in the dialogues, and they suggest that Southey’s poem Madoc (1805) became the inspiration for hopes of a utopian stamp. In the partly-posthumous novel-miscellany The Doctor (1834-47), on the other hand, it is reported that the protagonist has devised a utopia, which he has called Columbia.
Belli, Jill(New York City College of Technology, City University of New York, USA)
Not Happiness, but Hope: Reframing the Current Debates on Well-Being
At the 2011 USS conference in Cyprus, I introduced my work on “the crisis facing the utopian impulse in light of the newly emerging field of Happiness Studies” and argued that we should “create not a politics of happiness but a pedagogy of happiness, one that encourages not prescription, but possibility.” Since that time, the desire to identify and promote happiness on the personal, public, and institutional levels has only intensified. This summer in New Lanark, I will continue to explore what I consider the troubling and conservative implications of this “happiness turn” (Ahmed), consequences that stem, in part, from the way “hope” is often viewed and instrumentalized in current discussions of happiness; when “hope” is mentioned in the context of positive psychology and happiness studies, it is with an aim of subduing it and managing it scientifically. In stark contrast to this docile view of optimism and hope, Ernst Bloch in his trilogy The Principle of Hope rejects “false optimism,” which “disguises the future as past, because it regards the future as something which has long since been decided and thus concluded” with “militant optimism,” which holds transformative power. Building on Bloch’s radical view of hope, I argue for an important – and necessary – intervention into the current discourse and debates about well-being: a shift away from the glorification of terms and values such as happiness, optimism, positive thinking, and resiliency and a renewed emphasis on critical pedagogy, consciousness-raising, collaboration, humanization, and radical hope.
Blaim, Artur (Maria Curie Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland)
Another Utopia Falls - Representing the Failure of Utopian Projects in Two Cinematic Adaptations of William Golding's Lord of the Flies
The paper focuses on the contrastive comparison of the translation into visual images of the projected paradisiacal/proto-utopian space of the exotic island in the two adaptations of Lord of the Flies and its gradual transformation into the ultimately dystopian space reflecting in a metonymic way the ultimate dystopia of the post-apocalyptic world. The initial appropriation of natural space (originally continuous and undivided) suggesting the gradual reconstruction of the pre-war model of liberal, democratic mode of social organisation gradually gives way to the emergence of spaces of conflict and fear paralleling the tensions, divisions and hostilities that brought about the presumed annihilation of the outside "adult" world.
Blaim, Ludmiła Gruszewska(University of Gdańsk, Poland)
Topography of Noise in Two Film Adaptations of Kurt Vonnegut’s “Harrison Bergeron”
The paper will focus on techniques of acoustic and visual noise exploitation in two radically different film adaptations of Kurt Vonnegut’s dystopian short story “Harrison Bergeron” (1961): a 1995 cable television film under the same title,dir. Bruce Pittman, and a short film entitled 2081, dir. Chandler Tuttle, which premiered in 2009. It will be argued that the discrepancies in topographies of image and acoustic noise – shifts in their distribution within the egalitarian dystopia as presented in the three texts – not only affect the dystopianizing factor of the fictional world but also contribute to producing filmic metalepsis by making noise part of the viewer’s experience. The main point of interest in the semiotic analysis of the adaptations will be the space between and behind visible and invisible screens and cameras mediating noise. The paper will also discuss Harrison Bergeron (film) within the context of juvenilization of the American cinema.
Botelho, Teresa (Nova University of Lisbon/ CETAPS, Portugal)
Stumbling on Joy, Yielding to Fear: The Garden as a Utopian Possibility and Dystopian Nightmare in Amy Waldman’s
Atkinson (2007) has argued that representations of the garden within the utopian tradition have focused on its significance as a site of refuge (and of apathy), stemming from a reading of “gardening as decidedly apolitical, escapist or compensatory” ( 237), and argues for a reevaluation of this trope, in tune with the alternative representations of gardens as sites for collective action and resistance, pointing to the post-apocalyptic self-sufficient plots in Octavia Butler’s Parables to the Green Guerillas of New York and the community garden movements. This paper considers a new line of investigation, suggested by Amy Waldman’s use in the novel The Submission (2011), of the commemorative public garden to symbolize, question and trouble the link between a garden and its creator, constructing a political parable that exposes the non-neutrality of a landscape when designed by an identity-burdened architect. The hypothesis of the novel – the selection, in a blind competition, of a Garden of Remembrance and Healing where people may “stumble on joy” as a monument to the victims of 9/11, which is revealed, upon disclosure of its author, to have been designed by an American Muslim architect – generate parallel lines of inquiry that this paper will address. These result from a diegetic debate that turns a utopia of harmony into a dystopia of fear and division, and from an extradiegetic conversation about public art, national and cultural garden models, contemplation and action.
Botto, Maria Isabel Donas(Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal)
Remains of an industrial past: two Portuguese nineteenth-century model villages.
This paper centers on the origins and current state of two industrial villages created by enlightened industrialists in 19th century Portugal: Vista Alegre, in the north, and São Domingos, in the south. Vista Alegre, a porcelain factory founded in 1824 by José Ferreira Pinto Bastos, included from the beginning plans for a village in its extensive grounds – a “bairro operário” (workers’ quarter), equipped with a small hospital, a school, a theatre and a cooperative shop.
S. Domingos is a mining complex where gold and silver were extracted in Roman times and where copper mining started on a large scale in the 1850s. In this later phase, the English family who owned the mine had an industrial village built which also included a workers’ quarter and a separate residential area for the “Englishmen”, as well as houses for the professional class (such as doctors and engineers), a small hospital, a school and a church.
In different ways, these two planned communities stand out even by European standards as early examples of advanced views on the living conditions of industrial workers – in a country which even by the eighteen-fifties could hardly be said to have started on the road to industrialization. After a brief account of the historical and social circumstances of their creation, this paper focuses on a comparison between the two villages, looking at the significance of the employers’ choices in terms of spatial arrangement – the overall plan, the layout of the houses, aesthetic/stylistic choices, localization, organization of green spaces, etc. In the second part, I’ll address the significance of current options for museumification or gentrification, which in different ways the two villages may be seen to exemplify.
Brasil, Manuela Salau(Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, Brazil)
Owing to Owen: Contributions to Solidarity Economy The ideas and experiments of Robert Owen transcend his time. In the nineteenth century, Owen started a series of ground-breaking experiences in which he and his followers were the protagonists. New Lanark seems to epitomise that trajectory, and other experiences followed to build what is now recognized as the vast and important legacy of this utopian socialist. In Brazil, the ascent of cooperative ideals and practices, essentially connected to Owen's heritage, has been observed since the last years of the past century. Denominated solidarity economy, this movement revives and renews the principles that were born from those experiences, which compels us to deepen our knowledge of them. That is the main purpose of the present paper, which seeks to draw parallels between the philosophy of Robert Owen and the principal achievements of the Owenites regarding co-operativism, and compare them with the propositions and practices of solidarity economy. This will allow us not only to highlight the vigour of Owen’s work, but also to examine to what extent solidarity economy can take advantage of those historical experiences while taking into account the distinct historical moments in which they developed. Finally, the present paper reaffirms the persistence of social utopias and acknowledges the role of those who, integrating theory and practice, allow for utopias to be permanently reinvigorated.
Bridges, Andrew(Claremont Graduate University, USA)
A Harmony Found in Determinism: How the Negation of Free Will Structures Utopian Communities
The philosophical problem of free will has been in debate since its inception, but the very idea that humans do not possess free will strikes many as dystopian. This troubling possibility about the human condition contains implications for society that are arguably dystopian as well; but however dystopian such implications may appear, it is all the more dystopian to insist that society instead correspond to the implications of free will, when it is in fact illusory. Structuring a society based on the principles of determinism, as opposed to the values of free will, can provoke dystopian sentiments (the most notable example of such a structure would likely be found in Walden Two); however, nurturing a society based on the values of free will, when free will is illusory has greater dystopian ramifications. In this paper I examine the claims Robert Owen makes concerning free will and the formation of human character in The Book of the New Moral World, and I consider how the denial of the existence of free will has led to both utopian and dystopian ideas for intentional communities. I argue first that determinism, although it suggests a lack of genuine free will, also appears to supply the necessary structure for the intentions of an individual, or a community to be brought to fruition; second, that communities which acknowledge that individuals are determined have greater potential for yielding utopian results.
Burns, Tony (University of Nottingham, UK)
On the Possibility of a Constructive Dialogue Between Marxism and Anarchism: The Case of Ursula K. Le Guin.
In this paper I explore the issue of whether Marxism and anarchism are necessarily incompatible with one another and attempt to defend the view that they are not, using the work of Ursula K. Le Guin as an example, to illustrate the point. I am particularly interested in the ethical basis of Le Guin’s anarchism, as we find it expressed in The Dispossessed: An Ambiguous Utopia, which is widely considered to be her most significant contribution to utopian literature. Some commentators have suggested that Le Guin takes this ethic from the work of Kropotkin. I shall argue that Le Guin’s views on this subject have a striking affinity with those of Bakunin, and also with the thinking of Hegel, to whom Bakunin was indebted. The ‘anarchist ethics’ of both Bakunin and Le Guin can be associated with Young Hegelianism.
It has been suggested in the past that Marx and Marxism does not offer an ethical critique of existing (capitalist) society. There have, however, been at least some commentators who have argued against this view, holding that there is indeed a distinct Marxist ethic. There is disagreement, however, as to the specific nature of this ethic. Some have associated Marxist ethics with Kant and Kantianism. Others have maintained that so far as ethics is concerned Marx is a follower of Aristotle. I shall suggest that one fruitful way of thinking about Marxism and ethics is to locate Marx’s views, also, against the background of Young Hegelianism.
If we do this then it is possible to discern an hitherto unacknowledged affinity between Marxism and Anarchism so far as questions of ethics are concerned. This ethic outlook provides us with a good indication of at least one of Marx’s reasons for criticising the social relations which prevail in capitalist society, although this has sometimes been overlooked. I shall propose that this is something towards which anarchists ought to respond positively. However, turning the point around, it also provides us with a reason for thinking that, in their turn, Marxists can and should be sympathetic towards the anarchist critique of the exercise and abuse of power in existing social institutions, along the lines suggested by Le Guin, Bakunin and Young Hegelianism – although this kind of critique is not something that is usually associated with Marxism.
Butt, Amy(bpr Architects, UK)
Between the imaginary and the built: Dystopia as architectural critique
The 1970s was a period of architectural upheaval that saw the first demolitions of post-war tower-block housing which had swept across Britain, a built form inspired by the utopian ideals of modernism which had become a physical manifestation of a failed attempt at social improvement.
This paper posits that science fiction authors of the 1970’s responded to this common rejection of the utopian promise implicit in the high rise through what Moylan terms critical dystopias, exploring the debased society which would exist within an extrapolated future high-rise. They offer a narrative view of a potential future which critically examines the impossibility of a utopian ideal.
A range of SF novels will be considered in this paper following the edict of Frederic Jameson who argues that only in SF can the ‘reality principle’ which cripples high art be discarded. The works of JG Ballard which directly address the built environment, such as ‘High Rise’, will be examined alongside the novels of James Blish, Samuel Delany, Norman Knight and Robert Silverberg in order to build up insight into an imagined city. A common architectural language is shared by both the real and the imaginary, and offers a method of critique of the lived present through these imagined futures.
SF provides an unobstructed glimpse into the emotional connection between man and space, and through these novels undercurrents of personal reactions to the built are brought into the light and exposed as truly heart stopping fears about the future of cities.
Castilho, Maria Teresa(Faculdade de Letras da Universidade do Porto, Portugal)
Going back to the past to dream the future in Speilberg’s"Lincoln"
In this historical moment of accelerated rhythms, conflicts and crisis, Hollywood, focusing and revisiting specific times, events and moments in American history, seems to be pervaded more than ever by the dream of America as a model community. Going back to the past in 2012 and 2013, Hollywood has reasserted alternative ways of being in the world and thus continue dreaming about the future in longing and hope.
Coates, Chris (Independent Scholar, UK)
A myth-busting tour of communal living in Britain 1939 - 2000 or There ought to be a law in favour of it.
This traces the idea of an alternative society that would replace the so called 'straight' society, from its roots in wartime pacifist groups through the 1960's & 70's communes movement up to the present day. Taking in along the way; The Friends of the Future, the Invisible Insurrection of a Million Minds and the manifesto for the creation of a federal Society based on the Free Commune.
Coleman, Nathaniel(Newcastle University, UK)
Upturned Boat: The Possible Utopianism of the New Scottish Parliament Building
The motto: “Work as if you live in the early days of a better nation” (attributed to Scottish author and artist Alasdair Gray, but actually drawn by him from Canadian Dennis Lee’s long poem Civil Elegies, in which he writes: “And best of all is finding a place to be in the early years of a better civilisation”), sets the stage for my consideration of the new Scottish Parliament building (1999-2004), designed by Catalonian architect Enric Miralles (1955-2000), as possibly the first building of a better nation (or a better civilisation). Despite attracting criticism for being completed behind schedule and far exceeding its construction budget, the Parliament building, which has attracted relatively little commentary, is a manifestation of Scotland’s difference (in terms of social justice, perhaps: no university tuition fees, free prescriptions, etc.) relative to its dominant southern neighbour. Gray’s borrowing of his motto – which adorns the building – from a Canadian poet (preoccupied with the dominance of Canadian consciousness by the USA) begins to reveal the Parliament as an expression of civic (rather than ethnic) nationalism; its design by a Catalonian architect further encourages this assertion. If Catalonia is to Spain as Canada is to the USA, Scotland is to England in an analogous manner. As a European building with a regional accent (encompassing Miralles’s place of origin, the Borders and Scotland alike), the Parliament is more assertively cosmopolitan than the Palace of Westminster. If the Scottish Parliament building can sustain these readings, it is arguably utopian as well
Copson, Lynne(University of Edinburgh, UK)
Excavating the Architecture of Social Theories: Topographies of Harm
At the heart of all social theory lies a utopian impulse towards the practical realisation of a better society, despite a contemporary rejection by many of those working within the social sciences towards such a characterisation of their project. Recently, within a context of increasing dissatisfaction to ‘piecemeal’, ‘scientific’ approaches to social research and reform, Ruth Levitas (2005; 2007; 2008) has developed the idea of a ‘utopian method’ as a means of moving beyond the confines of established methodological approaches within sociology and abstract political theory.
Against this backdrop, this paper presents a case-study of this method in action. Consisting of three aspects (archaeology, architecture and ontology), the utopian method is employed here to reveal the implicit architecture of the good society underpinning zemiology (an emerging theory of ‘social harm’) in contrast to the institutional architecture implied by existing criminological approaches to harm. Drawing on an archaeological unearthing of the notion harm underlying each of these perspectives, the paper considers the architectural (or institutional) means by which these different perspectives imagines the reduction or eradication of harm in the good society, along with the assumptions they each make regarding human ontology. In so doing, the paper advances that, via the application of the utopian method, implicit visions of the good society inhering in different social theories are not only rendered explicit, but, crucially, can be subjected to normative evaluation. Consequently, it is argued, this method provides that a genuinely ‘utopian’ social theory not only can, but must, be realised.
Davis, Laurence(University College, Cork, Ireland)
Green imperatives, democratic politics, and the grounded utopian imagination
Andrew Dobson notes in his classic work Green Political Thought (Routledge, 2000, 3rd edition) that accusations of authoritarianism are never far from the surface where green social change is concerned. Such accusations, he contends, are not entirely unjustified, for at least two reasons: first, because of a strong catastrophic tendency in green politics which suggests that the environmental crisis is so dire that no one could reasonably be expected to accept voluntarily the kinds of measures that would be needed to deal with it; and second, because the ecological-political belief that there is a right way to live the green Good Life is incompatible with the value pluralism normally associated with (liberal) democracy. In short, the sort of green politics necessary for a transition to an ecologically sustainable society may well conflict with democratic values and procedures because of the imperative nature of such a politics.
In this paper I investigate the alleged tension between green and democratic politics, and explore possible ways of relieving it suggested by ecological utopian texts. My primary argument is that while certain forms of green politics may well be incompatible with certain models of democracy, green democracy of the sort portrayed in what I term 'grounded utopian' texts is not a contradiction in terms, and indeed may be our best hope for navigating the fraught transition to an ecologically sustainable world.
De Geus, Marius (University of Leiden, Netherlands)
Concepts of nature and visions of sustainability in the ecological utopian tradition
In our era of large-scale environmental degradation and increasing climate problems, there is a need for counter images of an alternative ecologically sustainable society, one that protects and respects nature. Often it is forgotten that in the utopian tradition one may find instructive visions, as well as evocative images of a sustainable society. It appears that society is letting an opportunity pass by, by not fully recognizing the true value that lies in the utopian tradition.
In this contribution I shall investigate whether ecological utopias are capable of providing a meaningful contribution to the quest for an environmentally responsible and sustainable society, and in what specific ways. What is the significance of the various 'ecotopias' for current interpretations of mankind's attitudes to nature, and the modern social debate on ecological sustainability?
First, I shall focus on the concept of nature in Henry Thoreau's Walden, William Morris's News from Nowhere, and Murray Bookchin's The Ecology of Freedom. How different are their specific views on nature and what is the impact on their more comprehensive social and political theories?
In the second part I shall concentrate on four distinctive concepts and interpretations of ecological sustainability, as exemplified in the work of Bernard Skinner, Aldous Huxley, Ernest Callenbach and Ursula Le Guin. To what extent can their visions lay the foundations for a truly fundamental social debate on sustainability, so as to enrich the debate with otherwise neglected ideas and challenging perspectives for action?
Dodova, Borjana(Film & TV School, Academy of Performing Arts, Czech Republic)
The City Inside A House
As the construction technologies and elevators allowed to add more floors and build the buildings higher, a special kind of architectural dream emerged: To have everything that one needs for a living in one place. This is the main idea that inspired Le Corbusier's urban planning. Any symmetrical tower of his Cartesian skyscraper contains a space for both the administration and the housing units.
In my paper I would like to dwell more deeply on two radically different realization of this utopian concept. On one side I would like to talk about the capitalistic Waldorf-Astoria Hotel of the 1930s with its luxurious permanent apartments. The multiplicity of many ingeniously designed floors allowed to combine business, residential and social functions into one schizophrenic whole. My other example of a city in a house is the Col-House (Collective house, Koldům), a living complex comprising of 352 housing units for 1400 workers which was built during the late 1950s in Litvínov in the former Czechoslovakia. This product of socialistic social engineering was an experiment in communal living.
Paradoxically both projects - the highly individualistic hotel and the collective living house - arose from a similar question: What kind of building should be built so that no one would have to leave his or her home?