Rotation: a transformation in which a geometric figure is turned around a fixed point
Reflection: a transformation in which a geometric figure is reflected across a line to create a mirror image
Translation: A transformation in which a graph or geometric figure is picked up and moved to another location without any change in size or orientation.
Similar – Shapes that are the same shape but different sizes. Their angles are congreuent and their sides are proportional.
Congruent: Shapes that are the same shape and size. Their angles are congruent and their sides are congruent
Variable: a letter or symbol that represents a quantity
Horizontal: movement from left to right
Vertical: movement up and down
Cell: basic unit of structure and function of a living thing; the smallest unit of life that conducts all life functions
Atom: smallest part of an element; basic building block of all substances
Element: atoms of the same kind that cannot be broken down further by physical or chemical means; a pure substance
Compound: substances made of two or more elements chemically combines; a pure substance
Mixture:composed of two or more different substances that retain their own individual properties; are combined physically
Law of conservation of matter: a scientific law which states that mass/matter cannot be created or destroyed; in a chemical reaction, the total mass of the reactants equals the total mass of the products
Independent variable: the variable in an experiment that is changed purposely by the scientist
Dependent variable: the variable in an experiment that changes as a reaction to the independent variable
Enlightenment- The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement of the 17th and 18th centuries which sought to apply “reason” to society and thereby better understand and improve society. In politics/government – (governments’ structure, purpose, and execution) was one of the areas where “enlightened” philosophy was applied. The political philosophy of the Enlightenment presented a view that provided a direct challenge to absolutism and therefore influenced the development of limited government. 7th grade studies the ideas of Locke, Rousseau, Montesquieu, and Voltaire when studying the Enlightenment. See end of document for their ideas.
Absolutism- As 7th grade SS covers it, it is a system of unlimited government in Europe in the 1600s and 1700s, in which the kings of several countries are absolute monarchies since there were no real restrictions to control the actions of the monarchs against citizens and citizens had no recourse against the monarch; the kings had total or absolute power. These monarchies based their power on the idea of “divine right,” or the idea that their power came directly from God. Decisions made by the rulers were therefore not questioned by the citizens. Though absolutism was the basis of most governments in Europe at that time France and Russia in the 16 and 1700s are two main nations that 7th grade looks at that practiced absolutism. Both created an absolutist system that concentrated power in the hands of the monarch. Rights and freedoms were severely limited and the few which did exist could be cast aside through the actions of the monarch.
Constitution- A constitution is a document or documents or even traditions that create a limited government as the relationship between the people and their government. This embodies John Locke’s idea of a social contract, as a constitution is an agreement between the government and the people. According to this agreement, the role of constitutions is to place limits on the government’s power by specifically outlining what powers the government does or does not have, or what the government can or cannot do. Therefore, by specifying these powers, the government cannot be unlimited or possess all the power. A constitution is the “law” which establishes the structure and operation of government and details the relationship of the people to their government. Constitutions are critical because they provide the government legitimacy in ruling.
Mercantilism- An economic system in which governments sought to control and
regulate trade so as to create a favorable balance of trade – i.e. the value of their exports would be greater than the value of their imports. By establishing a favorable trade balance, nations could then build their supplies of gold and silver and thereby build wealth for the mother countries in Europe.
Capitalism- Capitalism is an economic system based upon the private ownership of resources and production that is driven to make a profit. During the 17th and 18th centuries, changing economic activities began to alter the economic structure of Europe and lent itself to the establishment of capitalism.
Nationalism- Nationalism is the belief that one’s greatest loyalty is to a shared culture (including aspects of common history, language, religion, and nationality) rather than to a leader or border. In the context of 7th grade SS, nationalism begins to form during the Napoleonic wars as people learn the ideas of the Enlightenment and want to be ruled by leaders of their own nation and not the French or a monarch who is not of their nation such as the different nationalities under the Austrian Empire. Rebellions occur across Europe a few years after the Congress of Vienna of 1815. The first revolt was by the Greeks against the rule of the Ottoman Empire which led to the nation of Greece. Later other revolts sparked by the French Revolutions of 1830 and 1848 spread across Europe and though most failed some had success. The main nations that are formed and that 7th grade looks at are uniting of the different Italian kingdoms into the modern country of Italy and the different Germanic kingdoms led by Prussia into the country of Germany.
Socialism- Is looked at for the first time in 7th grade SS as a response to the terrible conditions workers and people faced during the Industrial Revolution. Socialism in this time was an economic system opposite of capitalism that says the government, not business owners, should plan the economy in order to promote equality and end poverty belief that such a system would provide for the greater welfare of the masses of working class people and allow the government to plan the economy in order to promote equality and end poverty. Private ownership of business would be seriously limited or eliminated and the government would use the wealth from industry to better citizens and society. Socialism at that time offered workers more protection than capitalism did and it also promised that it would better distribute wealth according to need.. The extremes of socialism were the theories of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which called for the workers (the proletariat) to overthrow the wealthy (the bourgeoisie) and establish a dictatorship of the proletariat
John Locke of England is considered one of the great political philosophers of the Enlightenment. Influenced by the Glorious Revolution, Locke saw the state of nature as a good place and the social contract as a voluntary agreement to enhance life. Locke believed all humans were born with natural rights, or rights belonging to all, and therefore presented a challenge to absolutism. According to Locke, the social contract was an agreement between the citizens and their government, and the government’s responsibility was to protect the rights of the people. Locke argued that if the government did not protect these rights, then the people had the right to break the contract by abolishing the government and creating a new one. Locke’s ideas developed into the concept of the consent of the governed, or the belief that a government gets its approval or “consent” from the people. Locke’s writings had a strong influence on American patriots like Thomas Jefferson and in his writing of the Declaration of Independence.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau- of France had a similar belief about the state of nature but his viewpoint was different about the role of government. Since Rousseau saw society as the corrupting influence on people, it was the role of government to protect the “general will” of the people. As such, it was the government’s duty to implement policies deemed beneficial for the general populace, or by basing decisions on majority rule. Roussea’s view of the social contract therefore would also create a limited governement as the government’s power would be limited by what the majority of citizens wanted. Rousseau’s ideas, along with those of Locke, formed the foundation for the idea of popular sovereignty which is used in limited governments today. Popular sovereignty, like consent of the governed, dictates that governments get their power and legitimacy based on what the people or citizens want. American colonists largely rejected Rousseau, but his writings would later provide part of the foundation for totalitarian governments.
Baron de Montesquieu of France focused on governmental organization by promoting the ideas of separation of powers and checks and balances. By creating a separation of powers, a government must be limited as each branch checks the others’ powers. Montesquieu greatly admired the English system of limited government from which he garnered these concepts. These concepts did not originate with him, but he was largely responsible for popularizing them and he advocated modifying the English system of the time of having two branches, executive and legislative, to having three branches: the executive (monarch), legislative (Parliament), and judicial (courts). The influence of his ideas is readily apparent in the U.S. Constitution.
Voltaire: the pen name of François-Marie Arouet, of France focused on civil liberties, mainly freedom of speech and freedom of religion. Voltaire’s influence on limited government therefore mainly is in the area of rights of the citizens. He wrote many books and plays to demonstrate the use of reason and voice his views on social reform, often showing his dislike of religious intolerance, advocating a separation of church and state, and modeling the right to express personal opinion through free speech.
Theme: an idea or insight about life and human nature that gives the story meaning
Plot: the events that happen in a story
Conflict: struggle between the protagonist and an opposing force
Dynamic Character: a character who changes in an important way through the course of a story
Static Character: a character who stay the same
Round Character: a character that the reader learns more about than most or all other characters, especially the types of things that change. Round characters are complex.
Flat Character: a character that the reader learns very little about. Flat characters are not complex and usually are built around one quality or plot need.
Central Idea: the most important point or focus of a passage
Supporting detail: details, facts, examples, statistics, or quotes that support a central idea
Conventions: Spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, and paragraphing. The writer should use conventions to enhance the readability of the paper. Spelling should be correct on all words. Punctuation should be smooth and guide the reader through the paper. Capitalization should be used correctly. Paragraphing should reinforce organization. The writer may manipulate conventions for effect.
Phrase: A small group of related words within a sentence or clause. A phrase functions as a part of speech. It cannot stand alone because it does not contain both a subject and a verb.
Clause: A clause is a group of related words containing a subject and a verb. A clause can stand alone as a simple sentence.
Reflection: Looking back at ones writing to find points of strength and weakness. This is done to improve upon one’s writing.
Voice: the author's style, the quality that makes his or her writing unique, and which conveys the author's attitude, personality, and character.