Test Unit 6 Name Chapter 6



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Test Unit 6 Name_________________________________________
Chapter 6

1. When an immigrant group adopts cultural and social modifications that permit it to operate effectively within its new social surroundings, the process is known as

a. affiliation.

b. acculturation.

c. assimilation.

d. accommodation.



Answer: B

2. Zelinsky's “doctrine of first effective settlement” refers to the

a. ethnic group native to a specific territory.

b. first group able to earn a living within a specific territory.

c. first group able to establish a viable, self-perpetuating society within an area.

d. first group leaving archaeological traces within a specific territory.



Answer: C

3. The index of residential dissimilarity is

a. a measure of the varying quality of housing within an urban area.

b. a statistic indicating the difference between housing demand and housing supply.

c. the percentage deviation in the measured quality of housing between the immigrant homeland and the resettlement area.

d. the percentage difference between the actual distribution of an ethnic group and a distribution uniform with respect to the total population.



Answer: D
4. North American “charter groups” include

   a. English, French, Hispanics.

b. English, German, Scotch-Irish.

c. Hispanics, Africans, Native Americans.

d. Central Europeans, East Europeans, Iberians.

Answer: A

5. From the 1870s to 1921, most of the immigrants to the United States came from

a. the British Isles.

b. Germany and northern Europe.

   c. eastern and southern Europe.

d. South and Central America.



Answer: C

6. In many ethnically mixed societies, the assimilation of immigrants is being replaced by

a. dual nationality.

b. split personality.

c. mixed affiliation.

d. multiculturalism.



Answer: D

7. Racial or cultural differences or national origins setting one group apart from a larger surrounding society are marks of

a. duplicity.

b. ethnicity.

c. complicity.

d. explicitly.



Answer: B

8. The degree of segregation of minority groups is measured by their

a. racial uniformalism.

b. ethnic syncretism.

c. economic acculturation.

d. social distance.



Answer: D

9. The classic southern ghetto housed newly freed black populations in

a. specially built structures on undesirable sites isolated from white residential districts.

b. small dwellings along alleys within or bordering wealthier white residential districts.

c. isolated pockets of segregated housing within low-income white residential districts.

d. older dilapidated dwellings near the city center from which low-income white occupants were evicted.



Answer: A

10. Nearly 60% of the U.S. Hispanic-origin population are

a. Cuban Americans, mostly Marielito “boat people” who fled their homeland as refugees.

b. Puerto Ricans who, as U.S. citizens, have not had restrictions on mainland residence.

c. Mexican Americans, who trace their history of North American settlement back to the 16th century.

d. Central Americans, who collectively outnumber any single national group of Hispanic immigrants.



Answer: C
11. Self-chosen segregation of ethnic groups can serve these four functions:

a. defense, public welfare, concealment, preservation.

b. defense, attack, support, preservation.

c. attack, concealment, assimilation, support.

d. isolation, nucleation, concentration, preservation.

Answer: B

12. Foreign “guest workers” in West European cities

a. created large, permanent ethnic ghettos.

b. came with their families under labor contract as permanent residents and mixed freely with the host culture.

c. tended to be transients, often breaking their labor contracts and returning home when their economic condition permitted.

d. have tended to concentrate by national origin groups either in single apartment houses or portions of single streets or in assigned ethnic neighborhoods or suburbs.



Answer: D

13. The proportion of foreign born in Canada's population in 2001 was

a. 1%.

b. 18%.


c. 50%.

d. 63%.


Answer: B
14. In African and Latin American cities, new arrivals at the bottom of the economic and social hierarchy are most apt to settle

a. near the city center in slum districts of old housing stock, but near menial downtown jobs.

b. in squatter or slum settlements at the outer margin of the city.

c. in one or more defined corridors leading from the city center to the outskirts along rail lines or industrialized river valleys.

d. in small pockets of slum housing close to—but distinct from—higher income residential areas promising employment as household servants, gardeners, and guards.

Answer: B

15. When an ethnic residential cluster persists because its occupants choose to preserve it, it is called a colony or an enclave. When it endures because of external forces of discrimination it is called a

a. ghetto.

b. slum.


c. conclave.

d. gaol.


Answer: A

16. The practice of European immigrants taking up large tracts of North American agricultural land as groups rather than as individuals is known as

a. cascade migration.

   b. cluster migration.

c. cultural confluence.

d. collective transferal.



Answer: B

17. The re-adoption of Old World customs or cultural traits by the descendants of immigrants is known as

a. culture retrogression.

b. culture retrieval.

c. culture renewal.

d. culture rebound.



Answer: D

18. The level of minority penetration of a neighborhood that initiates rapid exodus of the earlier dominant resident group is known as the

  a. tipping point.

b. panic point.

c. exodus ratio.

d. flight level.



Answer: A

19. Asian and West Indian immigrants in British cities

a. fill identical slots in the labor market but reside in different areas.

b. reside together in mixed communities but find different labor niches.

c. reside apart in separate communities spatially near their different employment locations.

d. are fully integrated among themselves in housing and employment but segregated from the host society.



Answer: A
20. The major source regions for immigrants into the United States are

a. northern Europe and the British Isles.

b. southern Europe and North Africa.

  c. Asia and Latin America.

d. Australasia and the Pacific Islands.

Answer: C

21. In both North America and Europe, each distinctive ethnic group has a recognized territorial homeland.



Answer: F

22. Social distance is an expression of the travel time separating two ethnic groups.



Answer: F

23. Ethnocentrism is the feeling of the superiority of one's own ethnic group.



Answer: T

24. The proportion of foreign-born among the United States population steadily declined during the 20th century to reach its lowest point ever in 1999.



Answer: F

25. Cultural distinctions based on ethnicity are more prominent in urban than rural areas of the United States.



Answer: T

26. Long-lot settlement patterns reflect the English tradition of villages clustered around “commons.”



Answer: F

27. Acculturation is accelerated when an immigrant group differs sharply from the host culture and must make positive efforts to achieve acceptance.



Answer: F

28. Despite recent increases in their urban employment rates, most African Americans still reside within the rural areas of the southeastern states.



Answer: F

29. Ethnocentrism is fostered by territorial segregation.



Answer: T

30. Nearly 40% of U.S. census respondents indicated they used a language other than English in the home in 2000.



Answer: F

31. Chain migration encouraged the creation of immigrant neighborhoods in North American cities.



Answer: T

32. The early northern ghetto represented a “toehold” location in high-density, aged, substandard housing on the margin of the central business district.



Answer: T

33. Language barriers have discouraged small business formation among United States immigrant groups.



Answer: F

34. Until 1760, most Canadian settlers came from France.



Answer: T

35. Native Americans have retained areas of residential concentration in homeland territories once occupied by their ancestors before European colonization.



Answer: F

36. A United States surveyor's township contains 36 numbered sections, each one mile on a side.



Answer: T
37. Over 30% of total U.S. population growth between 1990 and 2000 was accounted for by legal and illegal immigration.

Answer: T

38. Multiethnic societies everywhere have experienced a recent reduction of cultural pluralism and ethnic divisions as a result of better communication and economic development.



Answer: F

39. The United States is the only really multiethnic state among the world’s large countries.



Answer: F

40. Once established, immigrant communities place their cultural stamp upon their residential neighborhoods and tend to become permanently located there.



Answer: F

41. By their early arrival and initial dominance, the British established the majority culture in North America.



Answer: T

42. The sizeable Mexican American population of the United States is primarily rural in residence and bracero (seasonal farm laborer) in employment.



Answer: F

43. Asians were the largest immigrant group to the U.S. between 1990 and 2000.



Answer: F

44. Ethnicity always contains a spatial or territorial implication.



Answer: T

45. Another name for the “melting pot” concept of ethnic mixing is amalgamation theory.



Answer: T

46. Of all major immigrant groups, Asian Americans are most widely dispersed and resemble most closely the distribution patterns of the total U.S. population.



Answer: F

47. Racial and ethnic clustering within cities has been a long­-standing characteristic of American society. Discuss the “internal” and “external” controls accounting for the formation, durability, and/or disappearance of such clusters.



Answer: Internal: group cohesion and conservatism expressed through self-imposed segregation to achieve objectives of defense, support, preservation, and attack (political strength through union). External: maintenance of social distance, segregation, blocking tactics, and charter group flight.

48. Discuss alternate systems of legal subdivision and description of rural land in North America. What were their respective impacts on field patterns, farmstead location, and landscape appearance in the areas in which they were found?



Answer: New England “town grants,” with central village and fragmented farms; metes-and-bounds irregular landholdings and terrain-controlled road systems; French and Spanish long-lot allocations with dwellings closely spaced at the front of narrow lots; rectangular survey systems in the United States and English Canada with gridiron road pattern, block-shaped fields and farms.

49. Discuss the changing patterns of immigrant flow into the United States since the middle of the 19th century. What impacts on charter group dominance have resulted from those changes?



Answer: Eastern and southern Europeans after 1870 diluted the dominance of charter group northern Europeans and British. Immigrant flows since the 1960s have been dominated by Asians and Latin Americans, still farther removed from European cultural norms and further contributing to U.S. ethnic diversity.

50. Define and contrast the concepts, processes, and (if applicable) the varieties of amalgamation, acculturation, and assimilation. Describe in what ways they have different implications for the societies in which they occur.



Answer: Amalgamation implies the creation of a composite society replacing charter group dominance; acculturation means immigrant adoption of host society norms; assimilation suggests full integration into the majority culture. Behavioral assimilation means immigrant identification with host society history and values; structural assimilation means total fusion.

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