b. Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island, Jamestown
c. Jamestown, Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Rhode Island
d. Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Rhode Island, Jamestown
e. Jamestown, Plymouth, Massachusetts Bay, Rhode Island
ANS: E TOP: Chronology | Introduction
DIF: Difficult REF: Full p. 50 | Seagull p. 48
MSC: Remembering OBJ: 3 / 4
4. Why did King Henry VIII break from the Catholic Church?
a. The Pope had banned England from exploring the New World because the Church already had limited land ownership there to Spain and Portugal.
b. He wanted a divorce, and the Pope refused to grant it.
c. He was trying to unify Great Britain.
d. He wanted to be pope, and the College of Cardinals refused to elect an English Catholic.
e. He thought the Catholic Church was corrupt and he wanted to protect the English people from its abuses.
ANS: B TOP: Global awareness | Unifying the English Nation DIF: Moderate REF: Full p. 50 | Seagull p. 47 MSC: Remembering OBJ: 1
5. Which one of the following statements is true of Queen Mary of England, who reigned from 1553 to 1558?
a. She ascended to the throne immediately after a long period of civil war and successfully unified the nation.
b. Her refusal to marry led to her designation as “the Virgin Queen,” after whom Virginia was named.
c. When the Pope refused to allow her to divorce her French royal husband, she founded an independent Church of England.
d. She temporarily restored Catholicism as the state religion of England.
e. Under her authority, colonists established the first permanent English settlement in North America.
ANS: D TOP: Global awareness | Unifying the English Nation DIF: Moderate REF: Full p. 50 | Seagull p. 47 MSC: Remembering OBJ: 1
6. Why did Sir Humphrey Gilbert and Sir Walter Raleigh fail in their attempts to colonize the New World?
a. The government provided insufficient financial support.
b. They were more interested in agriculture than in trade, and they chose areas without good farmland.
c. They tried to set up colonies on the coast of Florida, and the Spanish fought off their attempts.
d. Native Americans attacked the settlers, driving them from the land.
e. They tried to mingle Protestants and Catholics, who were unable to get along.
ANS: A TOP: Economic development | England and North America DIF: Moderate REF: Full p. 51 | Seagull p. 49 MSC: Understanding OBJ: 1
7. During the reign of __________, the English government turned its attention to North America by granting charters to Humphrey Gilbert and Walter Raleigh for the establishment of colonies there.
a. Henry VIII
b. Mary I
c. James I
d. James II
e. Elizabeth I
ANS: E TOP: Global awareness | England and North America DIF: Moderate REF: Full p. 51 | Seagull p. 49 MSC: Remembering OBJ: 1
8. Just as the reconquest of Spain from the Moors established patterns that would be repeated in Spanish New World colonization, the methods used in which one of the following countries anticipated policies England would undertake in America?
ANS: A TOP: Global awareness | England and Ireland DIF: Easy REF: Full p. 51 | Seagull p. 48
MSC: Remembering OBJ: 1
9. Why did England consider Spain its enemy by the late 1500s?
a. Because of religious differences: England had officially broken with the Roman Catholic Church, while Spain was devoutly Catholic.
b. Because of the Spanish Armada’s successful invasion of Great Britain in 1588.
c. Because Spain had allied with France to invade English colonies in the New World.
d. Because one of Henry VIII’s beheaded wives was a Spanish princess, and the Spanish government announced it would be at war with England until Henry apologized.
e. Because both the English and Spanish royal families laid claim to the Irish throne.
ANS: A TOP: Global awareness | Spreading Protestantism DIF: Moderate REF: Full p. 52 | Seagull p. 50 MSC: Remembering OBJ: 1
10. How did Richard Hakluyt explain his claim that there was a connection between freedom and colonization?
a. The English constitutional system would improve on Spain’s less structured system in the New World.
b. English colonization would save the New World from Spanish tyranny.
c. The only way to achieve true freedom was through wealth, and the abundant gold in the New World would make all Englishmen wealthy.
d. A person was only truly free when outside the constraints of established societies such as those in Europe.
e. He claimed no such connection; he saw them as separate and unrelated.
ANS: B TOP: Global awareness | Spreading Protestantism DIF: Difficult REF: Full p. 52 | Seagull p. 50 MSC: Understanding OBJ: 1
11. All of the following contributed to the English social crisis of the late sixteenth century EXCEPT:
a. a lower birth rate, which made it difficult to find workers for new industries.
b. the enclosure movement, which forced thousands of peasants from farms.
c. increased prices buoyed by the influx of gold and silver from Latin America.
d. decreased wages in the cities.
e. the invasion of the cities by vagrants, who wandered the roads in search of work.
ANS: A TOP: Social history | Economic development | The Social Crisis DIF: Difficult REF: Full p. 53 | Seagull p. 51 MSC: Understanding OBJ: 1
12. As a result of British landowners evicting peasants from their lands in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries:
a. there was an increase in the number of jobless peasants, whom the British government aided with an early form of welfare.
b. efforts were made to persuade or even force those who had been evicted to settle in the New World, thereby easing the British population crisis.
c. mass numbers of peasants converted from Protestantism to Catholicism, because the Catholic Church took better care of the poor.
d. there was a sharp reduction in the number of sheep and other livestock.
e. the spread of the Black Plague decreased because of the elimination of cramped living quarters.
ANS: B TOP: Social history | Economic development | The Social Crisis DIF: Moderate REF: Full p. 53 | Seagull p. 51 MSC: Remembering OBJ: 1
13. Which one of the following is true of poverty in seventeenth-century Great Britain?
a. About half of the population lived at or below the poverty line by the end of the seventeenth century.
b. The problem was so bad that Henry VIII authorized judges to order the jobless to work.
c. Poverty rates were worse in British colonies than in the mother country.
d. John Winthrop solved the problem by creating the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
e. Queen Mary’s failure to address the problem helped lead to her overthrow.
ANS: A TOP: Social history | Economic development | The Social Crisis DIF: Difficult REF: Full p. 53 | Seagull p. 51 MSC: Remembering OBJ: 1
14. In Great Britain, the idea of working for wages:
a. was so dishonorable that many refused to accept money for their work and instead received food and shelter.
b. was associated with servility and the loss of liberty.
c. was romanticized in ballads and tales.
d. meant true freedom.
e. grew more popular among the poor during the sixteenth century.
ANS: B TOP: Social history | Masterless Men
DIF: Moderate REF: Full p. 53 | Seagull p. 52
MSC: Remembering OBJ: 1
15. What did English settlers in North America believe was the basis of liberty?
c. the English Bill of Rights
d. church membership
e. a wage-paying job
ANS: B TOP: Political history, changes | Land and Liberty DIF: Moderate REF: Full p. 54 | Seagull p. 54 MSC: Remembering OBJ: 1
16. Of the half million people who left England between 1607 and 1700:
a. more than half of them settled in North America.
b. more went to the West Indies than to North America.
c. Ireland was the most popular destination, far outdistancing other English colonies.
d. about half returned.
e. almost all were members of aristocratic families.
ANS: B TOP: Geographic issues | English Emigrants
DIF: Difficult REF: Full p. 54 | Seagull pp. 52–53
MSC: Remembering OBJ: 2
17. Most seventeenth-century migrants to North America from England:
a. arrived with other members of their families.
b. were single, middle-class men.
c. were lower-class men.
d. had been released from debtors’ prisons.
e. sought to escape the Black Death then ravaging England.
ANS: C TOP: Social history | English Emigrants
DIF: Moderate REF: Full p. 54 | Seagull p. 53
MSC: Remembering OBJ: 2
18. During the seventeenth century, indentured servants:
a. made up less than one-third of English settlers in America.
b. had to surrender their freedom for a minimum of ten years to come to the colonies.
c. had a great deal of trouble acquiring land.
d. had to pay half of the fare to get them to the New World.
e. were almost entirely Irish.
ANS: C TOP: Social history | Economic development | Indentured Servants DIF: Moderate REF: Full p. 55 | Seagull p. 54 MSC: Remembering OBJ: 2
19. Which one of the following is true of indentured servants?
a. They could not be sold by their masters.
b. Their masters could determine whether they could marry.
c. Pregnant women received their freedom early.
d. They could not be physically punished because, unlike slaves, they had rights as English citizens.
e. Three-quarters of them ran away and found permanent freedom.
ANS: B TOP: Social history | Indentured Servants
DIF: Moderate REF: Full p. 55 | Seagull p. 53
MSC: Remembering OBJ: 2
20. How did indentured servants display a fondness for freedom?
a. They became abolitionists, fighting to end slavery in British North America.
b. Some of them ran away or were disobedient toward their masters.
c. They sent letters home telling their fellow Englishmen that the American colonies offered special opportunities for freedom.
d. They insisted on their right to serve in the militia, because they believed in the right to bear arms.
e. They published pamphlets criticizing their masters, displaying their love of free speech.