Terms to Know Second Industrial Revolution Urbanization Business Cycles Financiers Cartel Monopoly Corporation Partnership Sole Proprietorship Industrial Capitalism Commercial Capitalism fin de siècle

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AP European History Chapter 14 Vocabulary: The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World War l

Terms to Know

Second Industrial Revolution


Business Cycles






Sole Proprietorship

Industrial Capitalism

Commercial Capitalism


fin de siècle (end of century)

“Belle époque”


Paris Commune

Third French Republic

Chamber of Deputies

Leon Gambetta

Jules Ferry

Boulanger Crisis(1887-89):

Panama scandal (1892

Dreyfus Affair

Emile Zola

Jean Juarès


Bessemer process

Gottlieb Daimler

Henry Ford

Solway process

Second Industrial Revolution

fin de siècle

Ferry Laws

Catholic Center Party

Social Democratic Party (S.P.D.)

Adolphe Thiers

Reform Bill of 1867, “leap in the dark”

Reform Act of 1884

Fabian Society

Kier Hardie

Independent Labor Party

Parliament Act of 1911

Basilica of the Sacred Heart, or Sacré Coeu

The First Vatican Council in 1870 Papal infallibility

May Laws” of 1873

Education Act of 1902

Pius X 1903-1914

Pope Leo XIII –1878-1903

William Gladstone

Benjamin Disraeli

Lord Palmerston (Henry John Temple) (1784-1865):

Tory Party— Conservative Party

Whig Party— Liberal Party


Chapter 14—Guided Reading

European Civilization, 1871–1914: Economy and Politics

  1. Identify the areas that were consideded the “Europe of steam,”by 1914.

  2. Identify the continent grew the most in the centuries following 1650 and explain the causes and effects of the growth.

  3. Why did the birth rate in France decline in early nineteenth century?

  4. Identify the cities that had a million people by 1914.

  5. Identify the area/s or country/ies that received the largest number of European immigrants

  6. Describe the characteristics of the “New Industrial Revolution” after 1870.

  7. By 1914, who were the world’s largest steel producers?

  8. What encouraged multilateral trade relationships?

  9. Identify the hub of the global economic and financial system and explain why it became the hub.

  10. Why was the limited liability corporation an attractive development in the nineteenth century?

  11. In the nineteenth century, why did business people use vertical and horizontal integration?

  12. After the Franco-Prussian, what did elections refelect about the French people?

  13. Describe the Paris Commune of 1871.

  14. Which country had a republican (non-monarchical) form of government in 1900?

  15. Identify the Dreyfus Affair and explain its significance.

  16. Describe the the true nature of the Radical Socialists of France.

  17. When was universal male suffrage granted in Great Britain?

  18. What did the Irish demanded that British authorities do after 1870?

  19. Describe Prime Minister Gladstone’s solution for the Irish question, regarding Home Rule.

  20. Why did Bismarck initiate an extensive program of social legislation?

  21. Describe Kaiser William II “new course” after 1890

  22. Describe how Italian political life was characterized after 1870.

  23. Identify the most serious problem that remaind in Austria-Hungary.

  24. Describe the progress of representative and democratic institutions that changed the framework of European politics.

Essay Questions

  1. How did Europe’s population change in the nineteenth century? How large was Europe’s population in relation to that of the rest of the world during this period? What shift occurred in France’s population relative to the populations of other great European states?

  1. Describe the great European migration of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Why did emigrants leave Europe? Where did they go?

  1. How was a world market created in the nineteenth century? Discuss innovations in finance, industry, and trade.

  1. Describe the developments in the European economy at the end of the nineteenth century, examining in particular the “new Industrial Revolution” and the so-called “Great Depression” of 1873 through the 1890s. During this time, what were the positions of Britain and Germany in the European and global economy?

  1. Focusing on the years 1870 to 1914, what gave the French Third Republic the strength to survive despite a number of severe crises?

  1. How and why did labor emerge as an independent political force in Britain?

  1. Discuss Bismarck’s administration of the German Empire from 1871 to 1890. What were his goals?

Short Answer Questions

  1. What was the European family pattern? What was the impact of that pattern on the lives of women?

  1. In the nineteenth century, where was capital accumulated? To which parts of the globe was it exported?

  1. Why was limited liability corporation considered an important economic advance during the nineteenth century?

  1. What was the Dreyfus Affair? How did it split France?

  1. How did Gladstone approach the Irish question?

  1. How did democracy advance in Europe during the nineteenth century?

Map Exercises

Consider the map (p.000), Migration from Europe, 18501940, on page 581.

  1. Where did Europeans build up “European” societies elsewhere in the world?

Consider the map, Export of European Capital to 1914, on page 590.

41. Where did the British, French, and Germans invest their capital overseas?
42. What did Europeans gain from investing abroad?

Essay Questions
Note: This sub-unit is a high probability area for the AP exam. In the past 10 years, 7 questions have come wholly or in large part from the material in this chapter. Below are some practice questions that will help you study the topics that have appeared on previous exams or may appear on future exams.

  1. Compare and contrast the “first” and “second” industrial revolutions.

  1. Analyze ways in which urbanization impacted European society in the 19th century.

  1. How did the industrial revolution and urbanization impact Europe’s social structure.

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