Terminal learning objective

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Figure 4. Bunion
Wear comfortable, properly fitted shoes with plenty of room in the toe area

- Use of a special toe pad or corrective sock that straightens the big toe

- Non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory medications (NSAIDS)

- Orthotics

- In severe cases, surgery may be required
Plantar Fasciitis (see figure 5) – also known as heel spurs or heel bursitis. Plantar fasciitis is one of the most common foot problems. The plantar fascia’s main function is to anchor the plantar skin to the bone, thus protecting the longitudinal arch of the foot. The plantar fascia is strained from overuse, causing pain along the sole of the foot, particularly where the fascia connects to the heel.


- Overuse in the physically active or a sudden increase in the volume or intensity of training

- Abnormal joint mechanics

- Tightness of the Achilles tendon

- Shoes with poor cushioning

- Abnormal foot anatomy

- Obesity

- Excess weight

- Improper shoes

- Bio-mechanical problems (mal-alignment of the heel)

Signs and Symptoms

- Tenderness along the medial fascia

- Constant pain that is worse in the morning upon rising or after physical activity

- Tearing and pulling sensation

- Altered gait


- Stretching and strengthening exercises (lower leg muscles)

- RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation)


- Heel and arch supports (Orthotics)

Plantar Fascia with inflammation

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