Terminal learning objective


identify preventive measures for foot disorders



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identify preventive measures for foot disorders, per the student handout. (FMST-FP-1604d)

ANATOMY OF THE FOOT


Tibia


Fibula

Soleus


Achilles tendon
Talus

Tibialis anterior muscle

First cuneiform

Flexor digitorum longus

Calcaneus

Distal phalanges



Plantar Navicular

Fascia





Figure 1. Anatomy of the Foot

  1. COMMON TYPES OF FOOT DISORDERS

Blistera blister is a defense mechanism of the body. When the epidermis layer of the skin separates from the dermis, a pool of fluid collects between these layers while the skin re-grows from underneath. Blisters can be caused by chemical or physical injury. An example of chemical injury would be an allergic reaction. Physical injury can be caused by heat, frostbite, or friction.

Causes

- Improperly conditioned feet

- Heat and moisture

- Improperly fitting boots and/or socks

- Friction and pressure

Signs and Symptoms

- Fluid collection under the skin

- Mild edema and erythema around the site

- Sloughing of tissue exposing subdermal tissue layer

- Localized discomfort and/or pain

Treatment

Small blisters usually need no treatment

- Clean area with soap and water

- Monitor for signs and symptoms of infection

- Apply a protective barrier (moleskin bandage) around the blister, to prevent further irritation



Closed, Large blisters (if affecting individuals gait)

- Wash the area around the blister with Betadine solution or alcohol pad

- Drain as close to the edge of the blister as possible to allow for drainage, and then apply gentle pressure to the blister dome expelling the clear fluid

- Apply moleskin (donut) to skin surrounding the blister, using tincture of benzoin as an adhesive.

- DO NOT PUT ANY ADHESIVE DIRECTLY ON THE BLISTER

- Dust entire foot with foot powder to lessen friction and prevent adhesive from adhering to the socks

- Monitor for signs and symptoms of infection

Open blisters

- Wash with Betadine solution or clean with soap and water

- Remove any loose skin with a surgical blade or scissors

- Apply moleskin (donut) to cover skin surrounding the blister, using tincture of benzoin as an adhesive.

- Place a small amount of antibiotic ointment over wound

- Cut a telfa pad and place it inside the moleskin

- Apply moleskin over entire treated area to include surrounding skin

- Monitor for signs and symptoms of infection






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