Miss Greer and Miss Moxley Title- Clara Barton: Battlefield to Legacy
Broad Goals- The students will have a better understanding of Clara Barton’s life events and be able to list them in chronological order. They will create a timeline as a visual representation of Clara Barton’s life. Students will display their knowledge of Ms. Barton’s life by participating in two review games (Around the World and Jeopardy).
NCSS.2.1.a ...assist learners in utilizing chronological thinking so that they can distinguish between past, present, and future time can place historical narratives in the proper chronological framework can interpret data presented in time lines and can compare alternative models for periodization;
16. B.1. - Explain the contributions of individuals and groups who are featured in biographies, legends, folklores, and traditions.
Lesson Objective- Team Barton will begin the session by reviewing our last lesson objectives. Through a friendly game of Around the World, students will recall their previously learned knowledge of Clara Barton’s life, birth to the battlefield, by answering several questions. The students will complete a cloze procedure worksheet as they follow along with the PowerPoint presenting events that took place during Barton’s life from the time she founded the American Red Cross to the events that took place preceding her death. To check for understanding students will then discuss their answers aloud with the group. The students will then construct a poster-sized time line to illustrate their knowledge of Barton’s final years and those after that were impacted by her dedication to making a difference. Students will each complete two vocabulary sheets to add to the Team Dictionary by writing a definition of their given word in their own words, creating an illustration of their term, and then pasting the actual definition to the bottom of their drawing. Finally, students will participate in a game of Jeopardy answering trivia questions based on facts about Clara Barton’s life.
Materials: Questions for Around the World, PowerPoint presentation, laptop, Xeroxed copies of timelines, time line with index cards, and game board and questions for Jeopardy (prizes optional).
Sahlman, Rachel. "Clara Barton." SPECTRUM Home & School Magazine. [http://www.incwell.com/Spectrum.html] (September 25, 2008).
Maikell-Thomas, Barbara. "Discovered Historical Documents Uncover The First Official Missing Persons Investigator, Clara Barton." [http://www.pimall.com/nais/n.barton.html] (September 25, 2008).
Clara Barton, 1821-1912, Civil War Nurse, Founder American Red Cross. [http://americancivilwar.com/women/cb.html]. (September 26, 2008).
Clara Barton. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clara_Barton]. (September 24, 2008).
Good morning Team Barton! Let’s start by taking a few minutes to review what we covered the last time we met. Before we learned about some of the major events that took place during Clara Barton’s life we first recalled what life was like during the 19th century. Who recalls one of the major wars that were taking place during the 19th century (Civil War)? That’s right; the Civil War was taking place. And who can explain the main reasons for the war (slavery)? Absolutely, the ending slavery was a major part of the civil, however there was much more to it. During that time there was disagreements between the north and the south because the south wanted to secede, or break away, from the north. Abraham Lincoln did not want this because he felt that it would destroy the United States. During this time Clara realized that several changes needed to be made in order to improve the lives of soldiers and citizens.
Before she could do this several events took place during her life. To review some of these events we’re going to play a friendly game of Around the World. Please raise your hand quietly if you have played this game before. Well, it’s a fairly simple game. One person is going to stand next to another student. Ms. Greer or I will then ask the two of you a question regarding Clara Barton’s life. The person to say the correct answer aloud first moves on. This continues until one of you has made it around to each of your teammates answering all of the questions the fastest. Before we get started I would just like to remind you that we are in the cafeteria with several other groups and it’s important for us to use our inside voices making sure that we don’t interrupt other lessons.
Today’s lesson is important because the team is will be learning about all of the wonderful things that Clara Barton did throughout her life to be considered a hero. They will be engaged throughout the entire lesson from completing their note-taking worksheets to creating a time line. They will be increasing their math skills as well by keeping track of their Jeopardy scores. Students will be instructed with the use of PowerPoint presentation as well as other visual aids. In order to check comprehension the students will participate in review games covering the events that took place during Clara Barton‘s life. To ensure student participation, the team will partake in several group discussions as well.
Alright team, today we’re going to learn about some of the incredible things that Clara did even when she was off the battlefield. One of the last things we discussed during our previous session was the work she did to help the families’ of missing soldiers. Together Clara and Dorence became known as the “Angels of Andersonville.” This experience launched her on a nationwide campaign to identify all soldiers missing during the Civil War. She published lists of names in newspapers and exchanged letters with soldiers’ families.
Barton then achieved widespread recognition by delivering lectures around the country about her war experiences. She met Susan B. Anthony and began a long association with the suffrage movement. The suffrage movement was based on the idea that women should have the right to vote. Thanks to the heroic women of the 1900s, including Clara Barton, women are treated more fairly and voting is considered a constitutional right. She also became acquainted with Fredrick Douglass and became an activist for black civil rights, or an abolitionist. As you recall from our last lesson, abolitionists were those people who were against slavery and fought to end it. In doing so, these people also put their own lives in jeopardy. Do you know any interesting facts about either of these famous people?
As she grew older, Clara’s hard work on the battlefield and searching for missing soldiers put a toll on her health. In 1869 doctors recommended that she take time to rest. In 1870 while overseas she became involved with an organization that she would later bring to the United States. Clara was actually in Switzerland when she first came across this organization. Can you guess which organization it was? If you need a hint take a look at this icon.
That’s precisely correct. While overseas Clara became involved with the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and its humanitarian work during the Franco-Prussian War. Who can tell me in their own words what humanitarian means? Excellent, a humanitarian is someone who is involved in improving people’s lives and reducing suffering. Why do you think Clara would be considered a humanitarian (helped soldiers on the battlefield, published a missing soldiers article in the newspaper, etc.)?
When Clara Barton returned to the United States, she launched a movement to gain recognition for the International Committee of the Red Cross by the United States government. During President James Garfield’s time as our nation’s leader, Barton finally succeeded arguing that the new American Red Cross would respond to crises other than war. “As Barton expanded the original concept of the Red Cross to include assisting in any great national disaster, this service brought the United States the "Good Samaritan of Nations" label.” Has anybody ever heard of this term before, “Good Samaritan?” Well, the term actually goes back to the Good Samaritan law that required “able persons, without putting themselves at risk, to provide reasonable aid to persons who are injured, ill, or otherwise imperiled.” In other words they were given an honorable mention for going out of their way to help those in need.
The American Red Cross was founded on May 21, 1881 in Dansville, NY. Barton served as its first president. Several years later, she wrote the American amendment to the Red Cross constitution, which provided for disaster relief during peace time as well as war. John D. Rockefeller donated funds to create a national headquarters in Washington, DC, located one block from the White House.
“Barton at first dedicated the American Red Cross to performing disaster relief, such as after the 1893 Sea Islands Hurricane. This changed with the advent of the Spanish-American War during which it aided refugees and prisoners of war. In 1896, responding to the humanitarian crisis in the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of the Hamidian Massacres, Barton sailed to Constantinople and after long negotiations with Abdul Hamid II, opened the first American International Red Cross headquarters in the heart of Asia Minor(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clara_Barton).”
Barton also traveled along with five other Red Cross expeditions to the Armenian provinces in the spring of 1896. She continued to work in hospitals in Cuba in 1898 at the age of seventy-seven. Can you imagine working that much at that age? I bet it would take a lot of dedication to keep working as much as she did.
In 1904, Barton was forced to resign her position as president. She experienced increasing criticism of her leadership style, and many felt it was time for the organization to be led by a larger, central administration. For the next eight years, she lived in her home at Glen Echo, Maryland. Barton remained quite active, riding her horse and keeping up with current events.
Clara Barton died on April 12, 1912, from complications of a cold. Clara had such an impact on the lives of so many that people felt it appropriate to dedicate a few things in her honor. In 1975, Clara Barton National Historic Site was established as a unit of the National Park Service at Barton's Glen Echo, Maryland home, where she spent the last 15 years of her life. “One of the first National Historic Sites dedicated to the accomplishments of a woman, it preserves the early history of the American Red Cross, since the home also served as an early headquarters of the organization.”
“The National Park Service has restored eleven rooms, including the Red Cross offices, the parlors and Barton's bedroom. Visitors to Clara Barton National Historic Site can gain a sense of how Barton lived and worked. Guides lead tourists through the three levels, emphasizing Barton's use of her unusual home. Modern visitors can come to appreciate the site in the same way visitors did in Clara Barton's lifetime.” Please raise your hand quietly if you would like to go to the museum. What are some things that you would like to ask a tour guide if you were given a chance?
Clara Barton Birthplace Museum in North Oxford, Massachusetts is also operated as part of the Barton Center for Diabetes Education, a humanitarian project established in her honor to educate and support children with diabetes and their families.
Before we move on to the next activity let’s take a look at your timelines. Next, we’re going to see how much you can recall. Turn your worksheets over. I’m going to pass out two index cards to each of you. Written on the card is an important event that took place during Clara’s life. Just like last time, we’re going to give you two minutes to put them in the correct order on the wall-sized time line. Feel free to help one another, but only if that person asks for it. Remember, it went smoothly when we first read each of our cards aloud to the group then put them in sequential order. When you’ve taped your event to its correct place please sit down. If you can get them all in the correct order you will each get a special treat (pre-approved candy). Please don’t look at your index cards until I say “go.” Does anybody have any questions? Alright, on your mark, get set, go!
At the end of two minutes review the students’ timeline. Let’s take a look at what you came up with. If there are any mistakes explain why and have students help determine the correct place for the index card. If necessary go back to the corresponding slide.
Wow, you did guys did that so fast! At the end of the semester we’re going to show our team timeline to other groups and parents at open house. Later on we’re going to make some drawings to add to timeline as well. You should all be very proud of yourselves. This timeline is an example of the hard work that you’ve been putting in during our lessons.
Now that we’ve learned about all of the major events that took place during Clara’s life we’re going to play a game to see how much you’ve learned. Please raise your hand if you’ve played or watched Jeopardy before. Well, today we’re going to play an intense game to see who can recall the most facts. Unlike the TV Jeopardy we’re only going to play one round. If we have enough time we can play another round however worth the same amount of points. Not only are we going to test your Barton knowledge, but your math skills as well. It’s up to you to keep track of your scores. The way we’re going to play is Ms. Greer or I will pick a number between one and twenty. The person to guess closest will get to pick the first category. The categories have been divided into: 19th Century Lifestyle, Family, The Beginning, The American Red Cross, and Legacy. If you think you know the correct answer raise your hand right away. The first person to raise their hand and answer correctly will be awarded points. If you call out an answer you will unfortunately lose ten points automatically. The person with the most points at the end of the game will receive a small prize. Does anybody have any questions before we get started?
Guided Practice and Modeling-
Time lines- At the beginning of the lesson the teacher will show the class how to go about completing their timeline worksheets while following along with the PowerPoint presentation. Looking at the first blank the teacher first has the students identify what year the first blank belongs to. For example the first blank is for 1869. Next, the teacher will review which event took place during that year using the corresponding slides. Throughout the lesson the teacher will take time to make sure that students are completing the chart correctly. At the end of the lesson the group will review their answers and reteach information when necessary; returning to the slide that has the correct answers.
Around the World: Teacher will explain game rules and allow students to participate in a practice round.
Jeopardy: Teacher explains rules and leads students in a review of simple addition in order for them to successfully keep track of their points throughout the game.
Great job today Team, You guys did a wonderful job following along and participating in today’s activities. Before we get ready to go does anyone have any questions? As we get ready to head out let’s go around and share one thing with the group that we found to be the most interesting. Now, get excited because the next time we meet we’re going to learn about the Red Cross and how it still impacts the world today. I would like to leave you with a quote, "You must never so much as think whether you like it or not, whether it is bearable or not; you must never think of anything except the need, and how to meet it." Have a good weekend and see you next week!