An emphasis on programmes would be to make sure participants established a strong sense of whanaungatanga with each other so there was ongoing support for each other after programme completion. As identified by Cargo (2008), based on the parenting programme they implemented, factors to increase success included ‘keeping to Māori kawa, karakia, whakawatea and whakawhanaungatanga in every session’ (Cargo, 2008).18 The role of facilitators would be to ensure this occurred by encouraging the exchange of contact numbers (with the agreement of group members) and possibly setting up a formalised system of manaaki where members contacted one another, particularly if they appeared to be struggling with issues. It would be clear that this contact was not to provide counselling or therapy but to provide contact with another parent facing similar difficulties.
As noted by Cargo (2008), regular out-of-session contact and support was also considered important. This could occur through texting or phone calls by group members to each other and, in some cases, the facilitator making contact.
The role of the whānau therapist (Durie, 2005) or advocate would be important to ensure ongoing contact after attendance at a programme. In essence, the whānau worker needs to be in contact throughout attendance at programmes and after completion to provide ongoing follow-up.
POLICY: ENHANCING IDENTITY AND CONNECTIONS
Given that conduct disorder is recognised as largely sociologically driven, the role of social policy in challenging the prevalence of the disorder is significant. At a macro level this requires consideration of health, housing, education, welfare, justice and employment policies and how they actively contribute to wellbeing. When the social policies align to the needs and aspirations of Māori wellbeing there will be an improvement in the prevalence of the disorder for Aotearoa New Zealand.
In He Korowai Oranga, (MOH, 2002), it is clearly stated as a strategic direction that to ensure accessible and appropriate services, improve whānau ora and reduce inequalities, whānau receive timely, high quality, effective and culturally appropriate health and disability services (MOH, 2002:9).
Some of the access barriers identified included:
assumptions health professionals make about the behaviour of Māori
culturally appropriate services (MOH, 2002).
The cultural appropriateness of programmes has been identified as including:
consultation with key cultural groups
inspection of programme context to determine cultural appropriateness
client satisfaction surveys
statistical comparison of rates of participation, drop out, programme completeness and programme outcomes for different cultural groups (AGCP, 2009a).
As noted by AGCP (2009a) in section 1.2, acknowledgement of article two of the Treaty of Waitangi guarantees that Māori have control of their cultural and social destiny. In honouring this principle, the AGCP recommended that an expert Māori committee be set up to advise and make recommendations on conduct problem policy from a Te Ao Māori view.
The review of programmes and services to address Māori youth offending identified a lack of well-resourced Māori-developed and Māori-focussed programmes (Owen, 2001). Recommendations of the review included that:
government agencies must adopt an integrated and holistic approach
government agencies must collect robust information on participation and outcomes
government agencies need to provide Māori youth and whānau with better information on programmes and services.
It was noted:
the little information we do have indicates that Māori approaches to addressing offending are very successful and deserving of greater government support. (Owen, 2001:189) The policy recommendations made by TRK in relation to generic services were:
4.2.1 Service planning should be targeted to a minimum of 15 per cent of Māori 3-17 year olds.
4.2.2 Effective cultural consultation and participation by Māori should take place at all stages of development and evaluation of new services under the Treaty-based relationship described in section 1.2.
The policy recommendations made in relation to Te Ao Māori programmes were:
4.2.3 The evidence-based approach needs to recognise indigenous knowledge and experience as a valid contribution to the analysis and critique of programmes for conduct problems.
4.2.3 A major investment is required to support the gathering and analysis of evidence from a Te Ao Māori context to sit as part of the evidence base in Aotearoa/ New Zealand and to fully inform the delivery of effective programmes for conduct problems.
4.2.5 Effective cultural consultation and participation by Māori should take place at all stages of development and evaluation of new services under the Treaty-based relationship described in section 1.2.
These policy recommendations advocate the need to develop culturally appropriate services and ensure effective cultural consultation and participation by Māori when developing new services, and also evaluating services currently in place. While not stated explicitly, such policy recommendations are focused on doing what works with Māori. From a Te Ao Māori view, this is centred on enhancing identity and connections.