Table of Contents Chapter 16: Judaism

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Augustine of Hippo

Augustine was a bishop and author who lived in the fifth century as the Roman empire was collapsing. His writings have had a major impact on Christian thinking about politics. What was the basic dichotomy which he posited? Were the two realms physically separate? What did Augustine propose as the cause of the rise of civil government. What was his view of Church and State?
In the passage on the Two Cities, Augustine gives a theory of how things were meant to be in the beginning and what caused a corruption of human nature and a change in divine plans. What is his theory and where does it come from? He gives a litany of over forty proofs – different types of negative human behaviors – that for him illustrate the theory of corruption of human nature. One behavior is so shameful he refused even to mention it. To what do you think he was referring?
Two institutions arose to protect humans against destroying themselves. What are they? What did Augustine propose as the most important element in the education of children? Augustine recognizes cultural differences among societies but says that in the final analysis there are only “two kinds of human societies”. What are they? Each of these societies lives in its own type of “city”. What is the major difference between the two cities?

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