Susan Hunt Buckert Topics in Literature



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Buckert

Susan Hunt Buckert

Topics in Literature

Dr. Jim Cope

July 26, 2004

American Literature and Composition: A Thematic Approach
Course Overview:

This unit is designed for an 11th grade, college prep level American Literature and Composition course taught on a 4 x 4 block schedule.


Thematic Overview:

The overarching theme for this semester study in American Literature is “The American Dream.” The objective of the course is to encourage students to explore and identify what defines “The American Dream”; in other words, students will explore, through a series of themes, American literature as it relates to their lives and their heritage. As they explore literature in the context of various themes, students will begin to examine their own identities, their own heritage, their own hopes and dreams, and their own views of what constitutes “The American Dream.” Students will gain insight into lives present and past as they explore the themes of Rebellion versus Conformity, Identity and the Inner Struggle, Loss of Innocence, Moral Struggle, and Equality and Independence. This 18-week study will be broken down into the following 3-week units (3 weeks are reserved for semester intro, conclusion, library/research time, and for testing):


I. Rebellion vs. Conformity

  • The Crucible by Arthur Miller (play) [pp. 1233-1334]

  • “Self Reliance” by Ralph Waldo Emerson (essay) [pp. 391-392]

  • “Another Brick in the Wall” by Pink Floyd (song)

  • from Walden by Henry David Thoreau (excerpt) pp. 402-411

  • ANTZ by DreamWorks (film clip)

  • “Much Madness is Divinest Sense” by Emily Dickinson (poem)

  • Edward Scissorhands (film clip)

  • “anyone lived in a pretty how town” by E. E. Cummings (poem) [pg. 777]

  • Pleasantville (film clip)

  • “Speech in the Virginia Convention” by Patrick Henry (speech) [pg. 191]

II. Identity and The Inner Struggle



  • A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry (play)

  • “Complicated” by Avril Lavigne (song)

  • “Mirror” by Sylvia Plath (poem) [pg 1180]

  • “The Unknown Citizen” by W.H. Auden (poem) [pg. 779]

  • “Upon the Burning of Our House” by Anne Bradstreet (poem)

  • “A Noiseless Patient Spider” by Walt Whitman (poem) [pg. 445]

  • “Everyday Use” by Alice Walker (story) [pp. 1056-1064]

  • “Two Kinds” from The Joy Luck Club by Amy Tan (story)

  • “Where is Here?” by Joyce Carol Oates (story) [pp. 374-382]

  • “Ambush” from The Things They Carried by Tim O’Brien (story) [pp. 1222-1224]

  • “Average Waves in Unprotected Waters” by Anne Tyler (story) [pp. 1028-1036]

III. From Innocence to Reality (The American Dream/Nightmare)

  • The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald (novel)

  • “Richard Corey” by Edwin Arlington Robinson (poem) [pg. 668]

  • “Out, Out—“ by Robert Frost (poem) [pp. 888-889]

  • “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe (poem) [pp. 326-330]

  • “To Build a Fire” by Jack London (story) [pp. 608-622]

  • from Into the Wild by Jon Krakauer (novel excerpt)

  • “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” by Ambrose Bierce (story) [pp. 508-516]

  • “The Far and the Near” by Thomas Wolfe (story) [pp. 786-790]

  • “Mexico, Our Nearest Neighbor to the South” from Caramelo by Sandra Cisneros (novel excerpt)

  • “The Notorious Jumping Frog of Calaveras County” by Mark Twain (story) [pp. 569-574]

IV. Moral Struggle



  • The Natural by Bernard Malamud (novel)

  • from Poor Richard’s Almanack by Benjamin Franklin [pp. 146-148]

  • “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” by Jonathan Edwards (sermon) [pp. 108-112]

  • “Rappaccini’s Daughter” by Nathaniel Hawthorne (story)

  • “The Devil and Tom Walker” by Washington Irving (story) [pp. 242-252]

  • “The Black Cat” by Edgar Allan Poe (story)

  • “The Life You Save May Be Your Own” by Flannery O’Connor (story) [pp. 972-982]

V. Equality and Independence



  • Of Mice and Men by John Steinbeck (novel)

  • “The Story of an Hour” by Kate Chopin (story) [pp. 634-638]

  • “The Yellow Wallpaper” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman (story)

  • “Prologue” by Anne Bradstreet (poem)

  • “On the Pulse of Morning” by Maya Angelou (poem)

  • “I Have a Dream” by Martin Luther King, Junior (speech)

  • “I, Too” by Langston Hughes (poem) [pg 448]

  • “My Bondage and My Freedom” by Frederick Douglass (slave narrative) [pp. 496-502]

Narrative:


In a 1991 study, M. W. Smith set out to determine the cognitive differences between successful and less-successful readers. He used a think-aloud protocol to measure ten students’ responses to two stories. Upon analyzing the students’ oral responses, Smith discovered that successful readers are more likely to make connections with texts than are less-successful readers. What does this suggest, then, about the teaching of literature? Smith concludes that teachers must develop opportunities for students to make connections with the literature they read. A good place to start, he says, is to teach literature thematically. (pp. 263-271) Similarly, in his essay “New Directions in Research on Response to Literature,” R. Beach explains, “research on intertextual linking suggests the value of continually relating current texts to past texts so that students build a sense of their own histories as readers (1990, p. 70). Thus, in addition to giving my students the opportunity to relate personally to what they read, it is also important that I give students an opportunity to create text-to-text links while they read. Teaching literature thematically will allow me to do both.

This 18-week course in American Literature and Composition includes the following themes: Rebellion vs. Conformity, Identity and the Inner Struggle, From Innocence to Reality (or, The American Dream/Nightmare), Moral Struggle, and Equality and Independence. Not only do these themes work well to encompass all of the major literature selections I want to teach my students, but they also clearly apply to my students’ lives. The overarching theme that encompasses each of these sub-themes is “The American Dream.” I selected this theme because it provides a basis for exploring ideas like 1) What does it mean to be an American? 2) How did our ancestors define The American Dream? 3) How do we define the American Dream today? 4) What sacrifices have been made and what conflicts have occurred that define who we are as individuals and as a nation?

In a 1992 study, A.N. Applebee compared the literature studied in public, Catholic, and independent schools. The findings highlighted a lack of diversity in the texts students were reading in school (pp. 27-32). When making literature selections, I kept Applebee’s study in mind, selecting authors and works that encompass a variety of genders and ethnicities. I also selected literature to which my students can relate. In a couple of instances, I pulled in outside texts to replace selections found in the student textbook; the subject matter and overall readability of my selections are better suited for the needs and ability levels of my students. In addition, I incorporated literature in areas the textbook neglects (mainly, Latin-American, Asian-American and women’s literature).

Research suggests that teachers incorporate popular culture in the language arts classroom in order to bridge the gap between what students already know and what teachers want them to know (Evans, 2004; Vetrie, 2004). Thus, where appropriate, I have incorporated popular songs, films, and novel excerpts to draw on students’ prior knowledge. Throughout the semester I will also encourage students to share song lyrics that they feel relate to any of the units of study. Students will then become actively involved in the connecting process. The purpose of these enrichment pieces is to make group discussions more comfortable for students by asking them to discuss something with which they are already familiar. The objective is to move from these simple texts to the more complex: “By showing the connection between a selected theme and specific lines in … song lyrics, [students] engage in critical thinking about literature … in much the same way they will when using quoted passages to support their assertions in academic writing about the literature we study” (Evans, 2004, p. 33).

Because the state requires that I teach my students the characteristics of each of the major American literary periods, I had to be creative in coming up with a plan to approach the literature thematically but also to teach the literature within the context of the literary periods. What I have decided to do is to give my students a historical overview of American literature at the beginning of the semester. I will put a timeline on the wall in my classroom, and each time we read a selection, I will have my students place the title of the work and the author’s name where it belongs on the timeline. As we study the literature in each thematic unit, we can talk about why these authors addressed the same themes at different times in history. I might ask my students to consider, for example, what Emerson, a Transcendentalist, would have said to Tituba or to Reverend Parris in The Crucible. Would he have spoken up against the court in Salem for condemning supposed witches (town outcasts)? Every six weeks my students will complete a one to two page writing assignment in which they will compare and contrast two works of literature from two different periods. Essays, for example, might contrast works of Puritanism and the age of reason, or they might compare works of the Puritans and the Dark Romantics. Rather than tell my students what their topics for writing are, I will provide guidance but will allow them to decide which works they want to compare or contrast. This way I am encouraging higher-level thinking skills, requiring students to synthesize and analyze on their own.

The first three-week unit I will teach explores the theme of rebellion versus conformity. The main selection in this unit that ties the works together is Arthur Miller’s The Crucible. I will use Jerome Evans’s idea, beginning the unit with a song like Pink Floyd’s “Another Brick in the Wall,” setting the tone for a unit study on organized society and how it can both enhance and inhibit our personalities and our freedoms (2004, p. 32). Other works I will use to explore the theme of rebellion versus conformity include Thoreau’s Walden, paired with a clip from the film ANTZ; Emerson’s “Self-Reliance;” Dickinson’s “Much Madness is Divinest Sense,” paired with a video clip from Edward Scissorhands, and E. E. Cummings’s “anyone lived in a pretty how town,” paired with a video clip from the movie Pleasantville. As students read The Crucible, I will employ various reading strategies from Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis’s Strategies that Work. In addition, students will meet in literature circles to analyze and discuss the play. Students will respond to film clips and poems in reader response journals and in class discussions based on the questioning strategies outlined in Aiden Chambers’s Tell Me: Children Reading and Talk. Through the course of the unit students will research how Emerson, Thoreau, Dickinson, and Miller were ostracized by many of their contemporaries. I will encourage students so make personal connections by asking them to remember times when they were considered different and mistreated—or times when they mistreated others for being different. I will also ask them when they went along with the crowd just to be accepted. When did they stand up for themselves and do something different? How were they treated as a result? Students can respond to such questions in their reader response journals. As we conclude the unit, hopefully students will connect the societies in Fahrenheit 451, The Giver, and The Truman Show to the ones exhibited in the new texts they read.

The second three-week unit explores the theme if identity and the inner struggle. To introduce the unit I will read the children’s story “Hope for the Flowers” by Trina Paulus (the story of Yellow and Stripe, two caterpillars who become butterflies), setting the tone for a study on purpose, self-discovery, and the internal conflicts that arise as we struggle to define our identities. We will also listen to Avril Lavigne’s “Complicated.” The main piece in this unit is Lorraine Hansberry’s A Raisin in the Sun, which students will view. Supplementary texts include Sylvia Plath’s “Mirror,” W.H. Auden’s “The Unknown Citizen,” Anne Bradstreet’s “Upon the Burning of Our House,” Walt Whitman’s “A Noiseless Patient Spider,” Alice Walker’s “Everyday Use,” Amy Tan’s “Two Kinds” from The Joy Luck Club, Joyce Carol Oates’s “Where is Here?,” Anne Tyler’s “Average Waves in Unprotected Waters,” and Tim O’Brien’s “Ambush” from The Things They Carried. Each of these poems and short stories deals specifically with identity and internal conflict. I chose these works because they provide a wide array of identity struggles—from Puritan mother to Asian-American daughter. Because identity is an issue my students struggle with daily, I think these works will provide them with many opportunities for making personal connections. I will employ the same strategies cited above for teaching the literature in this unit. The primary instructional strategy for A Raisin in the Sun, “Everyday Use,” and “Average Waves in Unprotected Waters” will be literature circles. For the other works I will use a mixture of guided class discussion, reader response journals, and graphic organizers from Jim Burke’s Tools for Thought. Students will use post-it notes to make personal and text-to-text connections while they read. The purpose of this thematic study is to continue students’ understanding of rebellion versus conformity by exploring the various components of an individual’s identity.

Some of the literature outlined in these units will be read in class, and some will be read at home. I will assess student reading by asking them to participate in literature circles, asking them to write a personal response to a work, or by asking them to use sticky-notes while they read. At the end of each unit students will be given a test over the literature, and they will be asked to complete a project that has to do with the unit theme.

Three days a week (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) my students will have 15-20 minutes of sustained silent reading time at the end of the class period. They will read novels of their choice, and they will be asked to present an alternative book report once during the semester. Students will also be asked to keep a reading log throughout the course of the semester to keep track of what they read during SSR time as well as at home. The purpose of this scheduled in-class reading time is to help students discover that reading can be fun.

American Literature and Composition QCC’s:




  • Standard 28 Reading/Literature: Recognizes different purposes and methods of writing; identifies a writer’s tone and point of view.

  • Teacher will use “tell me” questions from Aidan Chambers’s Tell Me: Children Reading and Talk (How does this story make you feel? Whose story is this? How do you know?).

  • Students will be asked to compare and contrast works in essay format according to tone and message.




  • Standard 29 Reading/Literature: Reads, discusses, and analyzes American literature representing diversity (e.g., gender, ethnicity).

  • Students will explore diversity in each thematic unit, especially in rebellion vs. conformity, identity and the inner struggle, and equality and independence units.

  • Selections purposefully encompass a wide range of author and character backgrounds (e.g., European-American, African-American, Latino-American, Asian-American, Native-American, women’s literature, etc.).

  • Additions to traditional text have been made where necessary.




  • Standard 30 Reading/Literature: Writes and speaks critically about literature.

  • Students will be asked to compare and contrast works in essay format according to tone and message.

  • Students will respond to selections in reader response journals, small group discussions, and large group discussions.

  • Students will be encouraged to make personal and intertextual connections to the literature they read, encouraging higher levels of interpretation of texts.

  • Students will read and create their own questions about the text.




  • Standard 31 Reading/Literature: Applies knowledge of literary terms to works of literature.

  • Literary terms will be taught in context of the literature (e.g., study repetition and alliteration while reading “The Raven”).

  • Students will examine theme with each work.

  • Students will examine setting, characters, plot, etc. in literature circles.




  • Standard 32 Reading/Literature: Develops an understanding of the effect of history on American literature (e.g., literary movements and periods).

  • Teacher will give overview of literary movements and periods at beginning of semester.

  • Students will determine the historical context of each work.

  • Students will identify period characteristics in the literature.

  • Students will compare and contrast works from different periods.




  • Standard 33 Reading/Literature: Understands major cultural, religious, philosophical, and political influence on the literature of a given period or culture.

  • Teacher will give overview of literary movements and periods at beginning of semester.

  • Students will determine the historical context of each work.

  • Students will identify period characteristics in the literature.

  • Students will compare and contrast works from different periods.


11th Grade American Literature and Composition

Semester Theme: The American Dream

Sub-themes: Rebellion vs. Conformity & Identity and the Inner Struggle





Monday

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday

w

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1


Intro: Pink Floyd “Another Brick in the Wall”


Movie clip: ANTZ; RRJ

SSR

HW: from Walden


Lit. Circle: Walden


Read “Self-Reliance” aloud; letter to Emerson




Crucible Act I using sticky notes

SSR

HW: prepare part for literature circle


Read Crucible Act II using sticky notes


HW: prepare part for literature circle

Lit. Circle Crucible

Acts I & II
View: Crucible Act III; RRJ

SSR



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2


View Crucible Act IV; RRJ



SSR

HW: prepare part for literature circle


Lit. Circle Crucible Acts III & IV


Class discussion: Emerson and The Crucible
Assign project

Video Clip: Edward Scissorhands & RRJ


Dickinson’s “Much Madness is Divinest Sense”

Group Discussion



SSR

Video Clip: Pleasantville & RRJ


E. E. Cummings’s “anyone lived in a pretty how town”

think, pair, share


Work on unit projects

Creative writing activity: a story that depicts life in a town like the one Cummings describes in his poem



Work on unit projects

SSR

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3


Patrick Henry’s “Speech in the Virginia Convention”


SSR

HW: literary period connection: Age of Reason


Intro to persuasion


Explore persuasive techniques in Henry’s speech
Select essay topic based on rebellion vs. con-formity

Persuasive essay outline & body


Work on unit projects
SSR
HW: finish essay body

Persuasive essay intro & conclusion


Unit project due

HW: study for test


Essay test on rebellion vs. conformity



SSR

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4


Intro: Avril Lavigne’s “Complicated”


Story: “Hope for the Flowers”

SSR


HW: read “Average Waves in Unprotected Waters”

Lit. Circle: Tyler’s “Average Waves in Unprotected Waters”


RRJ: internal conflict & making difficult choices
Assign unit projects



View: A Raisin in the Sun Act I & RRJ




SSR

HW: prepare part for literature circle


View: A Raisin in the Sun Act II & RRJ


HW: prepare part for literature circle

Lit. Circle A Raisin in the Sun

Acts I & II
Read aloud Amy Tan’s “Two Kinds”; RRJ: compare & contrast main character w/ Beneatha

SSR

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View: A Raisin in the Sun Act III & RRJ




SSR

HW: prepare part for literature circle


View: A Raisin in the Sun Act IV & RRJ


HW: prepare part for literature circle

Lit. Circle A Raisin in the Sun Acts III & IV


Making connections: mother in previous story & Ruth; Walter Lee & “The Unknown Citizen”

SSR

Sylvia Plath’s “Mirror” & “Ambush” RRJ: How do these two characters struggle with their identities?


Work on unit projects
HW: read “Everyday Use”

Lit Circle: “Everyday Use”



Work on unit projects

SSR

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Oates’s “Where is Here?” w/ sticky notes


Creative writing activity: tell the story behind the stranger (what happened there?)
SSR

Bradstreet’s “Upon the Burning of Our House” & internal conflict


Work on unit project
HW: literary period connection: Puritanism

Whitman’s “A Noiseless Patient Spider”

Work on unit projects
SSR


Essay: select two works & explain how each illustrates the themes of identity and internal conflict


Unit project due
HW: study for test

Essay test on search for identity and internal conflict



SSR





References
Applebee, A.N. (1992). Stability and change in the high-school canon. English Journal, 81(5),

27-32. Retrieved June 21, 2004, from Academic Search Premier database.

Beach, R. (1990). New directions in research on response to literature. In E.J. Farrell & J. R.

Squire (Eds.), Transactions with literature (pp. 65-77). Urbana, IL: National Council of

Teachers of English.

Burke, Jim. (2002). Tools for thought: Helping all students read, write, speak, and think. Portsmouth,

NH: Heineman.

Burton, T. (Director). (1990). Edward scissorhands [motion picture]. United States: Twentieth

Century Fox.

Chambers, A.. (1993). Tell me: Children reading and talk. New York, NY: Thimble Press.

Darnell, E. & Johnson, T. (Directors). ANTZ [motion picture]. United States: DreamWorks.

Duke, B. (Director). (1989). A raisin in the sun [motion picture]. United States: Monterey Home

Video.

Evans, J. (2004). From Sheryl Crow to Homer Simpson: Literature and composition through pop



culture. English Journal, 93(3), 32-38. Retrieved June 26, 2004, from Academic Search Premier database.

Floyd, Pink. (1994). “Another brick in the wall.” The wall (digitally remastered). Capitol.

Harvey, S. & Goudvis, A. (1999). Strategies that work: Teaching comprehension to enhance

understanding. York, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.

Hytner, N. (Director). (1996). The crucible [motion picture]. United States: Twentieth Century Fox.

Lavigne, Avril. (2002). “Complicated.” Let go. Arista.

Paulus, T. (1973). Hope for the flowers. New York, NY: Paulist Press.

Ross, G. (Director). (1998). Pleasantville [motion picture]. United States: New Line Home

Entertainment.


Smith, M.W. (1991). Constructing meaning from text: an analysis of ninth-grade reader

responses. Journal of Educational Research, 84 (5), 263-271. Retrieved July 3, 2004, from ERIC database.



Vetrie, M. (2004). Using film to increase literacy skills. English Journal, 93(3), 39-44. Retrieved

July 9, 2004 from Academic Search Premier database.

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