This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR Advanced GCE specification in History B for teaching from September 2008.
GCE hISTORY b: H508. F985 Interpretations of british imperialism 5
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GCE hISTORY b: H508. F985 Interpretations of british imperialism 40
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Sample Lesson Plan 44
GCE History B: H505. F985. Interpretations of British imperialism 44
Sample Lesson Plan 46
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Sample Lesson Plan 48
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Sample Lesson Plan 50
GCE History B: H505. F985. Interpretations of British imperialism 50
Other forms of Support 52
A new structure of assessment for A Level has been introduced, for first teaching from September 2008. Some of the changes include:
The introduction of stretch and challenge (including the new A* grade at A2) – to ensure that every young person has the opportunity to reach their full potential
The reduction or removal of coursework components for many qualifications – to lessen the volume of marking for teachers
A reduction in the number of units for many qualifications – to lessen the amount of assessment for learners
Amendments to the content of specifications – to ensure that content is up-to-date and relevant.
OCR has produced an overview document, which summarises the changes to History B. This can be found at www.ocr.org.uk, along with the new specification.
In order to help you plan effectively for the implementation of the new specification we have produced this Scheme of Work and sample Lesson Plans for History B. These Support Materials are designed for guidance only and play a secondary role to the Specification.
All our Support Materials were produced ‘by teachers for teachers’ in order to capture real life current teaching practices and they are based around OCR’s revised specifications. The aim is for the support materials to inspire teachers and facilitate different ideas and teaching practices.
Each Scheme of Work and set of sample Lesson Plans is provided in:
PDF format – for immediate use
Word format – so that you can use it as a foundation to build upon and amend the content to suit your teaching style and students’ need
The Scheme of Work and sample Lesson Plans provide examples of how to teach this unit and the teaching hours are suggestions only. Some or all of it may be applicable to your teaching.
The Specification is the document on which assessment is based and specifies what content and skills need to be covered in delivering the course. At all times, therefore, this Support Material booklet should be read in conjunction with the Specification. If clarification on a particular point is sought then that clarification should be found in the Specification itself.
Students could be provided with the essential information relevant to this Unit. This could include a brief summary of the scheme of work, an overview of assessment/homework requirements and a reading list.
Teachers may find it useful to engage students in a brief session that allows them to review and recall interpretations in AS Unit 2
Unit F966 Specification.
OCR Reading List.
OCR exemplar/past examination papers.
Teacher Support (OCR)
The books/texts suggested below are those which are easily available and experience with students is that they find them ‘user friendly’:
S C Smith ‘British Imperialism 1750-1970’[Cambridge 1998] referred to as ‘Smith’
B Porter ‘The Lion’s Share’ [London 1996]‘Porter’
N Ferguson ‘Empire’ London 2003. ‘Ferguson’.
P McCain and A Hopkins ‘British Imperialism’ London 1993 ‘McCain’
The Oxford History of the British Empire ed Porter etc Vols 3-4- 5. Referred to as OH 3-7 = Vol 3 Cp 7.
Other books worth considering across the breadth of the course include:
Goodlad G. British Foreign & Imperial Policy 1865-1919. Routledge (1999) 0-415-20338-4
Lowe J. Britain & Foreign Affairs 1815-1885. Routledge (1998) 0-415-13617-2
Chamberlain M The Scramble for Africa. Longman Seminar Studies, 2nd ed. 0-582-36881-2
Marshall P. J. (ed.) The British Empire. (The Cambridge Illustrated History). Cambridge UP (2001) 0-521-00254-0
Packenham T. The Scramble for Africa. Time Warner, 2nd ed. (1992) 0-349-10449-2
Aldred J. British Imperial & Foreign Policy 1846-1980. Heinemann Advanced History (2004) 0-435-32753-4
Betts R. Decolonisation. Routledge (1998) 0-415-15236-4
Birmingham D. The Decolonisation of Africa. UCL Press (1995) 1-85728-540-9
Blake R. The Decline of Power 1915-64. Paladin (1986) 0-586-08161-5
Brown. J & Louis W. R. (eds.) The Oxford History of the British Empire, volume IV, The Twentieth Century. Oxford UP (2001) 0-19-924679-3
Copland I. India 1885-1947: The Unmaking of an Empire. Longman Seminar Studies 0-582-38173-8
Lloyd T. O. The British Empire 1558-1995. Oxford UP, 2nd ed. (1996) 0-19-873113-7
McIntyre W. D. British Decolonisation 1946-1997. Macmillan (1998) 0-333-64438-7
John Tosh ‘The Pursuit of History’
John Arnold ‘History, A Very Short Introduction’
Richard Evan ‘In Defence of History
The internet is of course invaluable - the best place tostart from is perhaps www.britishempire.co.uk and work out from there.
Centres may find it useful to produce a ‘Course Booklet’. This may contain specification overviews and assessment criteria and may also contain directions to specific library titles or intra/internet links. This may be a completely online resource made available through virtual learning environments or school/college intranets.
Students will need to be aware that this unit builds on Units F981/F982 and units F983/F984 and involves candidates studying how and why historians disagree about the past. Students will be required to study -
How historians work and how the nature of the discipline makes disagreements and different interpretations inevitable.
How and why different methodological approaches have led to different interpretations of these events.
The contribution that different approaches and interpretations make to our understanding of the past, and the strengths and weaknesses of these different approaches and interpretations
Introduction to How Historians Work
How and why are there different interpretations of the past?
Students are supplied with a map of Africa showing European control of Africa by 1880 and 1914. How many different interpretations of British presence in Africa may be suggested from a brief reading of a simple map? Themes to be developed for discussion could include:
Britain needed to invest overseas
There was a great deal of great power rivalry
Trade routes and investments needed to be protected
Students may also wish to suggest their own interpretations (albeit on limited knowledge)
Teachers may wish to facilitate a discussion around this activity.
The activity may be consolidated by a teacher produced summary overview via PowerPoint.
Map available on page 264 of Murphy et al ‘Britain 1815-1918’ (Collins Flagship)
Teacher produced PowerPoint of summary points.
John Tosh ‘The Pursuit of History’ (material in here for all the topics and themes in this section of the scheme).
Any historical controversy/interpretation relating to British imperialism in this period may be put into this particular exercise.
What is the importance of having different interpretations of the past?
Students could be supplied with a pack of brief summary cards (no more than one side of A4 card containing key bullet points) each one outlining the basic elements of a particular historical interpretation of British imperialism. Interpretations could include:
Hobson and Lenin/economic forces
‘Impact’ interpretations (impact on UK)
Teachers could facilitate a discussion on the political, cultural, academic, nationalist (add to list) importance of having more than one interpretation of past events. Discussions could be linked specifically to British imperialism between 1850 and 1950.
A4 cards containing interpretation summaries.
With more able groups of students it would be possible to make this activity more student centred by producing two packs of cards. One pack would provide the brief definition of the interpretation whilst the other pack would provide brief details of examples/case studies of these interpretations. Students could work in pairs to mix and match with a whole class plenary as consolidation and assessment of learning.
Why do different methodological approaches lead to different interpretations of the same events?
Evidence, fragmentary, incomplete
Teachers may wish to outline the aims of this particular section of the unit.
Students are provided with a selection of sources relating to an interpretation of any event relating to British imperialism/decolonisation. Prior to distributing the source packs, teachers should REMOVE a vital document/source/piece of evidence that sheds significant light on the issue. Students work in pairs to consider the documents and to prepare a brief piece of verbal feedback. Before feedback takes place, teachers should now allow students to see the missing source material/s. How does the emergence of new evidence change the nature of the feedback they were about to share with the rest of the group? This could be developed into an interesting full class discussion.
Teacher produced source packs.
Teachers may also wish to produce a brief PowerPoint highlighting the key issues raised by the exercise.
Students work in small groups to undertake a brief analysis of any key event relative to British imperialism 1850-1950. Each group could be given a different type of source – document, novel, song, film, letter, diary extract etc. Each group then outlines to the class what their particular source revealed to them about the key event. Teachers may wish to plot on the board how the different types of evidence could easily lead to different interpretations.
Teacher produced source packs.
Teachers may also wish to produce a brief PowerPoint highlighting the key issues raised by the exercise.
This activity could be developed into a much more detailed discussion/analysis of the differing interpretations that may be suggested by different types of evidence.
Differing interests of historians
Students are supplied with a list of themes that have generated historical works relating to imperialism. These might include – sport, film, culture, war etc. Students could be encouraged to produce single-slide PowerPoint presentations to the rest of the class that illustrates how these different interests may result in different historical interpretations and what the significance of these different interpretations is.
With some imagination, the following would all provide interesting extracts/sources/evidence:
Extract from ‘Beyond the Boundary’ – CLR James
Extracts from ‘Burmese Days’ or ‘A Hanging’ (in ‘Decline of the English Murder’) both by George Orwell.
Some of VS Naipul’s writings would make interesting reading for some of the more able students.
The BBC DVD ‘History of Britain’ has an interesting programme that takes a particular slant on the Empire. (Simon Schama).
Methodological approaches and the contribution of differing approaches and interpretations to understanding
The historians view of human society
The role of theory-e.g. Marxism
The way in which the historian is influenced by the climate of the time
The differences and similarities between different interpretations and their strengths and weaknesses.
GCE hISTORY b: H508. F985 Interpretations of british imperialism
Suggested teaching time
Interpretations of British Imperialism. The Empire post 1850
Suggested teaching and homework activities
Points to note
India from Mutiny to 1947
Australia and New Zealand
Approach - Hobson/Lenin and the impact of economic forces.
Issues to focus on:
Impact on colonies.
Impact on the UK.
Role of women
Teachers may wish to introduce the key points of content by sketching out the main narrative points associated with the three areas listed (left). This may be achieved in a simple Powerpoint slide for each area.
Teachers may wish to move on at this point to encourage students to remind themselves of the Hobson/Lenin approach briefly outlined in the previous section. Teachers may then choose to provide students with a more detailed overview of the Hobson/Lenin interpretation or, alternatively, encourage a more student centred approach by setting a detailed note-making task using the text references (see right).
These activities may be developed by students through consideration of the question – Why was the UK in :
Students could be directed back to their earlier summary/card pairing activity to remind themselves of the key elements of the approaches being explored in this section of the scheme. Teachers may wish to begin the discussion as to why these different approaches exist.
Students could then be directed to small group/pair work that requires them to apply one of the interpretations/approaches to one of the geographical areas. Feedback could be in the form of a series of short presentations by the students to the class as a whole. Discussions at this stage should continue to develop the point – why do these different interpretations exist?
As a consolidation and re-cap exercise, students could work in small groups to produce simple ‘PodCasts’ that summarise the key points from the metropolitan viewpoint in Africa and the ‘gentlemanly capitalism’ approach to West Indies. These ‘PodCasts’ could be uploaded to the school/college intranet or could be made available to mobile ‘phones and MP3 players via ‘Bluetooth’.
An alternative (yet slightly more time-consuming and technically involved) activity would require students to produce a short film/video that utilised images and sound to emphasise the narrative/evaluative script.
Ferguson Cp 5
Key areas of focus for this section -
North Africa- Suez, Egypt and the Sudan with strategic focus
West and East Africa from the ‘periphery’ viewpoint
South Africa from metropolitan and gentlemanly capitalism viewpoints with focus on Rhodes
This may be an appropriate point at which to begin preparing students for the type of examination question they will be asked to complete as their final assessment.
Students will need to be guided through the process of developing their skills carefully. They will need to develop the required skills for reading the extract and planning their two responses. Teachers may wish to set a series of gradual ‘staged’ activities before asking students to complete a whole question as a homework activity:
OCR SAM scripts.
OCR Examiner Reports and Mark Schemes.
Exemplar examination papers.
The advantages and disadvantages of having the various approaches and interpretations discussed in this section might be a useful focus for a series of skills based activities.