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  • Students could be directed back to the earlier activity involving key individuals and ‘Big Brother’. Individuals discussed were:

  • President Johnson

  • Booker T Washington

  • WEB Du Bois

  • Marcus Garvey

  • A Philip Randolph

  • President Roosevelt

  • President Truman

  • James Meredith

  • Rosa Parks

  • Martin Luther King

  • Presidents Kennedy and Johnson

  • Malcolm X

  • Stokely Carmichael

  • Huey Newton

  • Students should now work in pairs on one individual to produce a single PowerPoint slide that shows the leadership qualities of that person. What made them leaders?

  • Students could develop this activity by completing a chart that allowed them to note the key achievements of each individual.

  • Students could further develop the activity by being encouraged to compare the leadership qualities and differences of leaders. Martin Luther King and Malcolm X provide a good opportunity to do this (see right).

  • Teachers could consolidate the activity by outlining the importance of leadership in achieving change during the period.

  • Student notes from earlier exercise plus any of the major texts listed above.

  • Gapped hand out/chart for ‘achievements’ exercise

  • For this exercise, teachers may wish to exclude the Presidents

  • Teachers may take the opportunity to continue to develop student skills of using historical evidence. It may be appropriate to begin by recapping some of the issues surrounding the interpretation, evaluation and use of historical sources as evidence in context, and the role and nature of interpretations.

  • For this exercise, students could be given two extracts from speeches by Martin Luther King and Malcolm X (available on page 335 of Murphy).

  • Students could be asked to consider how historians might use the two very different sources as evidence of the aims, methods and leadership of the later civil rights movement.

  • Teachers may wish to develop the activity into a broader discussion on the use of historical sources together and cross-referencing between them.

Other factors

  • Teachers could provide students with a detailed overview of ‘other factors’ that contributed to change and continuity in the period. These could include:

  • War

  • Congress and political parties/legislation

  • Affirmative Action

  • Supreme Court

  • Organised resistance/mass movements

  • Peaceful protest

  • Direct action/violence

  • Compromise

  • Impact of economic factors

  • Opposition from white racists

  • Students could conduct independent reading and research as a homework activity.

  • Teachers may wish to give student 10 extracts from appropriate sources and ask them to comment on the interpretation: ‘Legal challenges in the courts rather than the quality of leadership were the more important factor affecting the rights of African Americans in this period’.

  • As a final activity (but nevertheless a very important one) students could be asked to produce their own interpretations.

  • Ten sources in the exam paper format

  • It may be possible to ask some students to research their own collection of sources that they then use to develop their own interpretations.

GCE History b H108: F984. nON-bRITISH hISTORY: Race and American Society 1865-1970s

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