1. The Bill of Rights- The first ten amendments to the U.S. Constitution which provide a shield against basic human rights violations. (Text page 45)
2.Presumption of innocence- A person is innocent until proven guilty in a court of law. A fundamental protection for a person accused of a crime, which requires the prosecution to prove its case against the defendant beyond a reasonable doubt. The defendant has a Constitutional right to the presumption of innocence. (Text page 45)
3. Burden of proof- In a criminal trial the burden of proof required of the prosecutor is to prove the guilt of the accused "beyond a reasonable doubt," There is no burden on the defendant to prove innocence. The defendant has a Constitutional right to remain silent. (Text page 45)
4. Beyond a reasonable doubt- The standard of proof in a criminal trial, which the prosecution must bear. To convict a person of a crime each member of the jury must be convinced that the defendant is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt or to "a moral certainty".
5. Credibility of witnesses- Witness testimony that is worthy of belief, based on competence of the witness and likelihood that it is true. The test of credibility is purely subjective.