1. Which of the following was NOT an invention of the Sumerians?
a. a 365-day calendar b. the wheel
c. the plow d. a system of writing
a. nomadic hunting and gathering b. trading over long distances
c. founding new city-states d. farming and domestication of animals
3. Why was Mesopotamia such a good area for growing crops?
a. the rivers flooded and deposited rich soil
c. the area did not have any agricultural pests
a. they built terraces on the mountains b. they used gated ditches and levees
c. they rotated farming with nomadic herding d. they diverted the flow of the rivers into other areas
5. How did the Sumerians keep time?
a. they invented a calendar based on the moon and stars
b. they improved the function of the sundial
c. they used an abacus to count the days and nights
d. they formulated the first mathematical equations to determine the hours in the day
6. What tools did the Mesopotamians use for writing?
a. a large, feather pen that they dipped in ink
b. a darkened reed that they dipped into a mixture of charcoal and water
c. a sharpened piece of reed, called a stylus, used on clay tablets
d. a slender piece of wood that they dipped into colorful dyes
7. What was the result of the invention of the wheel?
a. it allowed the Sumerians to move faster in battles
b. it controlled the irrigation devices to prevent flooding
c. it made people more dependent on human strength for transportation
d. it gave the Sumerians more freedom of movement
8. What was an important Sumerian innovation that allowed people to work together to meet basic needs?
a. a city-state b. a transportation system
c. a system of writing d. a specified work week
9. Which statement best describes the benefits of a city-state?
a. it allowed people to engage in other professions and be educated
b. it united all the people under a central government
c. it governed surrounding lands and had its own ruler
d. it prevented wars with neighboring cities over land and water rights
10. Besides the ruler, who had the highest position in the social hierarchy?
a. a scribe b. a priest
c. a caravan merchant d. a soldier in the King’s army
11. Why were ziggurats important to the Sumerians?
a. they protected the city from invaders
b. they were built as tombs for the kings
c. they were built as temples to honor the gods and goddesses
d. scrolls that documented Mesopotamian history were encased in ziggurats
12. What did the Sumerians do to support the priests and kings?
a. paid taxes b. captured slaves in wars