Sudan University of Science and Technology College of Graduate Studies College of Languages

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Satire in George..........

About the author
George Orwell (whose real) name was Eric Blair) was born in India in 1903. His father was among the privileged officials who ran India when it was still part of the British Empire Orwell was sent. To- England to be educated at Eton, one of the most prestigious public schools, an experience he did not enjoy. He returned to India and from
1928 served in Burma as a member of the Indian Imperial Police. Again, he disliked this experience. Though it did provide him with material for some of his early writing. By the end of the she was back in Europe, working as a dishwasher in Paris and as a schoolteacher in England in a series of ill-paid jobs. The novels and accounts he wrote during the s describe these experiences among the underprivileged and unemployed classes he met on his journeys through France and England, and include a stirring documentary on the Lancashire miners in
The Road to Wigan Pier. In 1936 the Spanish Civil War broke out between the ruling Republican government and the right-wing Fascist rebels, the newly married Orwell and his wide, like so many socialists, went to Spain to fight for the Republicans. He was wounded and returned to England. When the Second World War broke out. Orwell served in the Home Guard (Dads Army) whilst working as a journalist and as a broadcaster for the BBC. In 1941, at the end of the war, he published Animal Farm, which was an instant and enormous success worldwide, as would be his final novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four, published in 1949. He did not have much time to enjoy his fame for he was taken seriously ill and died in London in January 1950.

Until 1945 Animal Farm was the only about Orwell had written that had make him any money. Now it has become one of the most influential classical of twentieth-century literature. It has been translated into many languages, adapted for radio into a highly successful cartoon film. Why Orwell wrote George Orwell had always wanted to write
“From a very early age, perhaps the age of five or six, I knew that when Iii grew up I should be writer. Between the ages of about seventeen and
twenty-four I tried to abandon this ideas, but I did so with the
consciousness that I was outraging my true nature and that sooner or
later I would have to sit down and write books.
He began writing Animal Farm in 1943, but did not find it easy claiming that he sweated over it, yet Orwell knew that he must write it he had to make people aware of the truth about communism and dictatorships. Until recently. Communism was a widely held political theory which promoted class war and the public ownership of all property) All his life had been leading up to writing of Animal Farm. Ashe said I do not think one can assess a writers motives without knowing something of his early development. So we can see from this quotation that many of his previous experience have had an enormous influence on Animal Farm. His work in the Indian Imperial Police, which he said was an unsuitable profession. Increased my natural hatred of authority and made me for the first time aware of the existence of the working class. We can see here the views that were to be given life in the characters of the authoritarian Mr. Johns, Napoleon and the downtrodden animals on the farm. It was his experience in the Spanish Civil War, however, that was to give Orwell one of his major incentives to write Animal Farm.

The Spanish war and other events in 1936-7 turned the scale and thereafter I knew where I stood. Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism as I understand it. In Spain, Orwell saw, at firsthand, totalitarian police methods and, later, when he came to study the Communist accounts of what had happened during that war, he saw how they twisted and distorted the truth to suit their own purpose Squealer, Napoleons mouthpiece, was born out of these experiences. In 1943, the British people were full of admiration for the bravery of the Russians, led by the Communist dictator, Stalin they were fighting against the Germans who had invaded their country. The British were dazzled by his heroism and could not see any of the faults of Communism. Orwell knew these faults only too well because of his experiences in Spain. He was also worried that at home the British Communists were preventing the truth about Stalin and Russia from being made known to the people Animal Farm was to be Orwell‟s alarm call to Britain and the world as he said.
“When I sit down to write a book I write it because there is some lie
that I want to expose some fact to which I want to draw attention, and my
initial concern is to get a hearing.
Nevertheless, what gave Orwell the idea of exposing the lie about Stalin and Communism through the story of a rebellion led by some pigs on a farm Because he thought it so important to reveal the truth about Communism, he wanted to find away of telling the story that was simple enough to be understood by everyone. He tells us that whilst he was living in small country village he once saw a large carthorse being driven along a narrow path by a small boy with a whip. These have him his idea

It stops me that if only such animals become aware of their strength wed
should have no power over them, and that we exploit animals in much the
same way as the rich exploit the proletariat the working class]”. This was just the spur he needed and these ideas developed into the theme of Animal Farm and particularly the story of Boxer. Orwell likes animals, though he was not sentimental about them in the way that many British adore their pets. For Orwell, as one of his friends remarked
“Animals, children and oppressed people stood on one side, and the
oppressor, whether they were farmer, schoolteachers, Sahibs British
rulers in India or party bosses, on the other.
So, we can see that it was quite natural for him to write his political story
in the form of an animal table.
What Orwell said about writing
Animal Farm is easy to read. Orwell worked hard to make it so. He
was very aware that dictators manipulate the way people think by
controlling language. You may think, as Orwell does, that political
speech and writing are largely the defense of the indefensible and
murder respectable. He was very concerned that the language he used
should be as clear and open as possible because the slovenliness of our
language makes it easier for us to have foolish thoughts Ina novel that
is so much concerned to expose the way that Stalin and all dictators use
propaganda (persuading people by twist in the truth, Orwell was
determined to make what he wrote as free from sheer cloudy vagueness
as he could. He succeeded”.

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