Sudan University of Science and Technology College of Graduate Studies College of Languages

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Satire in George..........

2.8 History of Satire
The word Satire is derived from the Latin word satur, though the word was not used in a critical, literary sense until the Roman rhetorician Quintilian described it as a specific genre of hexameter verse. It was not until the Greek playwright Aristophanes used this form of verse in a series of plays referred to as "Old Comedy, that Satire was used in the fashion we know it today. Old Comedy was a collection of plays that varied in presentation, depending upon the location that it was being performed, though the troupe remained primarily in ancient Athens. Depending upon current events, political figures and public opinion at the time, their topicality also changed. For instance, at the time that the play. The Acharnians was being performed Athens and Sparta were at war. Aristophanes, in turn, revised his plays to make scathing, satirical jokes about people who

would take advantage of the encored citizens of Athens political fanatics, false oracles, and war profiteers. When he comedy was performed onstage the actors in het troupe would often poke fun at various public officials, consistently comment on or involve the audience and even parody pay writing and acting itself. In the knights, Aristophanes transformed the Athenian statement clean into a ridiculous figure of warmongering and evil, depicting him as a man who would do anything and everything possible in order to maintain from a journey to Olympia, informed the audience that they, " looked like rascals" look even worse. Old comedy focus on local figures and issues immersed the audience in the narrative, while simultaneously mocking it, and effectively illustrated that no one was above foolishness or the mockery it incited. After the fall of Rome, and before beginning of the early Ages, Grecian and Roman Satire and Roman Satire seemed to disappear from literature and performance. Satire was finally reintroduced into the public around the 12 th century, through mocking songs and literature. Who is
…. Period also marked the advent of moral Satire which mocked the unchristian behavior of certain figure- Chaucer's Canterbury Tales in an excellent example of mocking literary Satire. Though the word Satire is derived from the word satur, the Greedks and Romans were not solely responsible for the existence of Satire. In the
th century the Afro – Arab author Jahiz introduced Satire through a genre of poetry called Hija. In his poems, Jahiz dissected serious thoughts and ideas in the veins of sociology, psychology and anthropology. The Persian author, Abayd Zakani became infamous for his satirical and sexually explicit writings. By the Age of Enlightenment, in the 17
th and 18
th century, Satire had become deeply ingrained in modern society. The rise of partisan

politics and conflict between the Whig and Whig and Tory partes of the British Parliament fueled the still – growing use of Satire as a means of political and social commentary. The Anglo-Irsh author, Jonathan Swif, wrote a number of now – famous, satirical essays, pamphlets and novels. Among Swift's more famous works is an essay entitled a modest proposal for preventing the Children of poor people from being a Burthen to Their Parents or A modest proposal for short Popular satirical authors of Victorian era 1837 to 1901 included Charles Dickens and Mark Twain. Charlie Chaplin's 1940 film The Great Dictator satirized a dolf Hitler and the Nazi party. In the sin the United States, the comedians Mort Sahl and Lenny Bruce introduced anew, cynical form of comedy focused on social and popular American culture and political narratives.

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