2 Meetings were held in Belfast (15 organisations represented), Cardiff (11), Glasgow (11), London (21) and Manchester (12).
3 Cameron, D. (2016) ‘Watch out, universities: I’m bringing the fight for equality in Britain to you’. The Sunday Times, 31 January.
4 Sections and mentions relating to devolved policies in this report have been drafted with the support of the Coalition for Racial Equality and Rights (CRER), formerly Glasgow Anti-Racist Alliance (GARA), which works to eliminate racial discrimination and promote racial justice across Scotland, and Race Equality First, the only Race Equality Council in Wales with the specific remit of addressing racial equality.
5 These include for instance, the powers to specify public authorities and to impose specific duties with respect to the Public Sector Equality Duty in sections 151 to 155 of the Equality Act.
6 Ryder, A. & Cemlyn, S. (2014) Civil Society Monitoring on the Implementation of the National Roma Integration Strategy in the United Kingdom in 2012 and 2013. National Federation of Gypsy Liaison Groups.http://www.birmingham.ac.uk/Documents/college-social-sciences/social-policy/iris/2014/UK-civil-society-monitoring-report-en-1.pdf
7 Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (2015) ‘Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention.’ Twenty-first to twenty-third periodic reports of States parties due in 2014 United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Para 15. http://daccess-ods.un.org/TMP/2394764.12534714.html
8 DCLG (2012) Creating the conditions for integration. Crown Copyright. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/7504/2092103.pdf
9 Runnymede Trust and Voice4Change England (2012) Response to ‘Creating the Conditions for Integration’. Signed by 19 organisations.http://chawrec.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Response-on-the-Government%E2%80%99s-recent-publication-of-its-Integration-Strategy.pdf
10 The Scottish Government (2008) Race Equality Statement. http://www.gov.scot/Topics/People/Equality/18934/RaceEqualityStatement
11 For further information on the new Framework, see http://www.crer.org.uk/81-front-page-articles/543-new-framework-for-race-equality-in-scotland
12 Submission by Coalition for Racial Equality & Rights (CRER) to Runnymede’s call for evidence.
13 Submission by Race Equality First to Runnymede’s call for evidence.
14 The Red Tape Challenge was introduced in April 2011 by the Government to “get rid of burdensome regulations, to boost business and economic growth and to save taxpayers money”. http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20150522175321/http://www.redtapechallenge.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/about/
15 DCLG (2015) Revised Best Value Statutory Guidance. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/418505/Revised_Best_Value_Statutory_Guidance_final.pdf
16 The DLA, a registered charity, is a membership organisation established to promote good community relations by the advancement of education in the field of anti-discrimination law and practice. This section was taken from the submission by The Discrimination Law Association to Runnymede’s call for evidence.
17 The Scottish Government (n.d.) ‘Public Sector Equality Duties’. http://www.gov.scot/Topics/People/Equality/PublicEqualityDuties
18 Coalition for Racial Equality and Rights (2013) Equality in Glasgow: Public Sector Bodies and the Equality Duties. http://www.crer.org.uk/publications/equality-in-glasgow
19 Eaton, G. (2012) ‘Cameron’s aim is to make it even harder to challenge unfair cuts.’ New Statesman, 19 November.
20 Examples of such impact are detailed inter alia in sections on the Prevent strategy, the budget and family migration.
21 This section was taken from the submission by The Odysseus Trust to Runnymede’s call for evidence.
22 Department for Culture, Media and Sport (2013) Ministerial Written Statement, Caste. 1 March. http://www.parliament.uk/documents/commons-vote-office/March-2013/1st-March/1.DCMS-Caste.pdf
23 Section 97 of the Enterprise and Regulatory Reform Act 2013. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2013/24/section/97/enacted
24 Caste Discrimination Legislation Timetable,29 July 2013. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/caste-discrimination-legislation-timetable
25 EHRC Research Report 91 (2014) Caste in Britain: Socio-legal Review. https://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/publication_pdf/91.%20Caste%20socio-legal%20review.pdf
26 The tribunal did draw on facts relating to the claimant’s Adivasi caste to find she was the victim of harassment on the ground of her race.
27 Question for Written Answer, HL2681. Baroness Williams of Trafford, Parliamentary Under-Secretary (Department for Communities and Local Government), 15 October 2015. http://www.parliament.uk/business/publications/written-questions-answers-statements/written-question/Lords/2015-10-15/HL2681/
28 Craig, G. (2007) ‘They come over here… and boost our economy’ The Yorkshire and Humber.Regional Review 32-34, Summer; RSA (2006) Migration: a welcome opportunity. London: Royal Society of Arts.
29 Voice-East Midlands (2002) Mapping the black and minority ethnic voluntary and community sector in the East Midlands. Nottingham: Voice East Midlands.
30 Owen, D. (2003) ‘The demographic characteristics of people from minority ethnic groups in Britain’ in D. Mason (ed.) Explaining Ethnic Differences: changing patterns of disadvantage in Britain. Bristol: The Policy Press: 21-52.
31 Craig, G. (2006) The development of Black and minority ethnic groups in North Yorkshire. Easingwold: North Yorkshire Forum for Voluntary Organisations.
32 Chakraborti, N. and Garland, J. (eds.) (2004) Rural racism. Devon: Willan Publishing; Craig, G. and Ahmed, B. (1999) ‘We shoot them at Newark’, in Henderson, P. and Kaur, R. (eds.) (1999) Rural racism in the UK. London: Community Development Foundation/SiA; Williams, C. (2007) ‘Revisiting the rural race debate’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, Vol. 30 (5): 741-765.
33 Craig, G. (2001) ‘Race’ and welfare. Inaugural lecture as Professor of Social Justice. Hull: University of Hull.
34 De Lima, P. (2003) Rural racism. London: Commission for Racial Equality; Makda, F. and Milthorp, R. (2005) The needs of black and minority ethnic communities in Craven. Cross Hills: South Craven Community Action.
35 This section is taken from the submission by Friends Families and Travellers to Runnymede’s call for evidence.
36 The term Roma in this context is taken to include Romany Gypsies and Irish Travellers.
37 Lane, P., Spencer, S. & Jones, A. (2014) Gypsy, Traveller and Roma: Experts by Experience, Reviewing UK Progress on the European Union Framework for National Roma Integration Strategies. Anglia Ruskin University.
38 The total sample size was 750 adults. All respondents provided details of their ethnicity and religion. The demographic of the group are as follows: Indian 200, Pakistani 150, Black Caribbean 75, Black African 75, Eastern European 100, White British 150. The demographic by religion is as follows: Christian 217, Hindu 138, Sikh 54, Muslim 188, Other 18, None 135. The survey was carried out in person. Fieldwork was undertaken between July-August 2013. Additional information on the survey can be found on the website of the Runnymede Trust: http://www.runnymedetrust.org/news/553/272/Survey-reveals-that-four-out-of-five-believe-the-way-the-media-portrays-ethnic-minorities-promotes-racism.html
39 Hopkins, K. (2015) ‘Rescue boats? I’d use gunships to stop migrants’, The Sun, 17 April. http://www.sunnation.co.uk/hopkins-rescue-boats-id-use-gunships-to-stop-illegal-migrants/
40 Nelson, Sara C. (2015) ‘Katie Hopkins Blasted By UN Human Rights Boss For Likening Migrants To “Cockroaches”’, The Huffington Post, 24 April. http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2015/04/24/katie-hopkins-blasted-by-un-human-rights-boss-likening-migrants-cockroaches_n_7135810.html?utm_hp_ref=katie-hopkins
41 Anonymous. (2015) ‘I Conducted The Sun’s “1 in 5 Muslims” Poll and Was Shocked By How It Was Used’, Vice, 24 November. http://www.vice.com/en_uk/read/i-conducted-the-muslim-poll-the-sun-jihadi-sympathy
42 Stone, J. (2015) ‘No, one in five British Muslims doesn’t support Isis’, The Independent, 23 November. http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/no-one-in-five-muslims-do-not-support-isis-a6745206.html
43 Sobolewska, M. (2014) ‘Can we ever estimate how many British Muslims become Islamic extremists?’ Manchester Policy Blogs: Ethnicity. 26 August. http://blog.policy.manchester.ac.uk/featured/2014/08/can-we-ever-estimate-how-many-british-muslims-will-become-islamic-extremists/
44 Feldman, M. & Littler, M. (2014) Tell MAMA Reporting 2013/14 Anti-Muslim Overview, Analysis and ‘Cumulative Extremism’.Teeside University
45 ITMB (2012) Briefing: Gypsies, Roma and Irish Travellers in the media, p.1
46 "David Cameron: 'Swarm' of migrants crossing Mediterranean" BBC, 30 July 2015
47 Janner-Klausner, L. (2015) ‘When Jewish people look at Calais migrants, we see ourselves’, The Guardian, 13 August. http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2015/aug/13/jewish-people-calais-migrants-kindertransport-children-nazis
48 The ‘Go Home’ vans refer to a campaign by Government, which sent vans touring certain London boroughs in Summer 2013 stating the message ‘In the UK illegally? Go home or face arrest’.
49 See section on housing for further discussion on this topic.
50 Littler, M. & Feldman, M. (2015)Tell MAMA Reporting 2014/2015: Annual Monitoring, Cumulative Extremism, and Policy Implications.Teeside University.
51 ITMB (2012) op.cit. p.2
52 PRISM Project (2015) Backgrounds, Experiences and Responses to Online Hate Speech: A comparative Cross-Country Analysis
53 Facebook launched in partnership with the German Government, the ‘Initiative for Civil Courage Online’ initiative, to reduce extremist posts on social media. For further information, see:http://uk.reuters.com/article/uk-europe-migrants-germany-facebook-idUKKCN0UW25E
54 Twitter https://twitter.com/gwalker1312
55 McArdle, H. (2015) ‘Far-right group Scottish Defence League plan rally over refugees housed at Ayrshire hotel’, The Evening Times, 1 November. http://www.eveningtimes.co.uk/news/13928667.Far_right_group_plan_rally_over_refugees_housed_at_Ayrshire_hotel/
56 Corcoran, H., Lader, D. & Smith, K. (2015) Hate Crime England and Wales, 2014/15. Statistical Bulletin 05/15, 14 October.
57 MOJ (2015), op.cit.
58 CPS (2014), Hate crime and crimes against older people report 2013-2014, October. https://www.cps.gov.uk/publications/docs/cps_hate_crime_report_2014.pdf
59 IRR (2013) ‘Racial violence since the death of Stephen Lawrence’. http://www.irr.org.uk/news/racial-violence-since-the-death-of-stephen-lawrence/
60 Athwal, H. & Burnett, J. (2014) Investigated or Ignored? An analysis of race-related deaths since the Macpherson report. London: Institute of Race Relations, p. 4.
61 Ibid., p.5
62 Feldman, M. & Littler, M. op.cit.
63 Burnett, J. (2015) ‘An overview of anti-Muslim violence and abuse in the UK since the Paris attacks’, IRRI, 3 December. http://www.irr.org.uk/news/after-paris/
64 Brooks, L. (2015) ‘Police Scotland confirms spike in hate crime after Paris attacks’, The Guardian, 20 November. http://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/nov/20/police-scotland-hate-crime-paris-attacks-muslim-community and Braiden, G. (2015) ‘Police Scotland probing online abuse of SNP’s Humza Yousaf as Muslim leaders report hate crimes in affluent suburb of Newton Mearns’, The Herald Scotland, 17 November. http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/14034184.Government_minister_flooded_with_racial_abuse_and_vulnerable_targeted_in_Islamophobia_Paris_backlash/
65 Denholm, A. (2015) ‘Scots Muslim pupils suffer Islamophobic abuse’, The Herald Scotland, 23 October. http://www.heraldscotland.com/news/13890827.Scots_Muslim_pupils_suffer_Islamophobic_abuse/
66 Paterson, K. (2015) ‘It’s not only Muslims who are the victims of “racialized” Islamophobia in Scotland’ The National. 6 October. http://www.thenational.scot/news/its-not-only-muslims-who-are-the-victims-of-racialised-islamophobia-in-scotland.8415
67 See, e.g., the Runnymede Trust’s (2016) response to the Casey review. http://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/CaseyReviewLetter.pdf
68 This section was taken from the Submission by Coalition for Racial Equality & Rights (CRER) to Runnymede’s call for evidence.
69 The Scottish Government, Racist Incidents Recorded by the Police in Scotland 2013-2014.
70 The Scottish Government, Independent Advisory Group
71 Jackman, J. (2015) ‘Antisemitism prompts Scottish Jews to consider leaving the country.’ The Jewish Chronicle, 23 May.
72 Garavelli, D. (2015) ‘Growing antisemitism in Scotland’. The Scotsman, 22 February. http://www.scotsman.com/news/dani-garavelli-growing-antisemitism-in-scotland-1-3697999
73 HMIC (2013). Stop and Search Powers: Are the police using them effectively and fairly?. https://www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/hmic/media/stop-and-search-powers-20130709.pdf.
74 CERD (2015) - Consideration of reports submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention - Twenty-first to twenty –third periodic reports of State parties due in 2014 – United Kingdom, March 2015, page 16.
75 Home Office (2015). Police powers and procedures, England and Wales, Year ending 31 March 2015, Statistical Bulletin, 07/15. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/477676/police-powers-procedures-hosb0715.pdf
76 Samota, N. (2015) ‘Building Collective Capacity for Change in the Policing Policy of Stop and Search’ in El-Nany, N. and Bruce-Jones, E. (eds.) Justice, Resistance and Solidarity, Race and Policing in England and Wales, London: Runnymede Trust.
77 HMIC (2015). Stop and Search Powers 2: Are the police using them effectively and fairly?, p. 45. https://www.justiceinspectorates.gov.uk/hmic/publications/stop-and-search-powers-2-are-the-police-using-them-effectively-and-fairly/
78 Ibid., p63
79 Anderson, D. (2015) The Terrorism Acts in 2014, Report of the independent reviewer on the operation of the Terrorism Act 2000 Part 1 of the Terrorism Act 2006, p.32. https://terrorismlegislationreviewer.independent.gov.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Terrorism-Acts-Report-2015_web-version.pdf.
80 Home Office (2015) Statistical News Release - Operation of police powers under the Terrorism Act 2000 and subsequent legislation: Arrests, outcomes and stop and search, Great Britain, quarterly update to September 2015 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/483271/police- powers-terrorism-hosb0815snr.pdf
81 BBC Scotland, Stop and searches by Police Scotland to end
82 MOJ (2015). Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2014, A Ministry of Justice Publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 Crown Copyright: London,
83 Ball, J. Bowcott, O & Rogers, S. (2011) ‘Race variations in jail sentences, study suggests’, The Guardian, 26 November. http://www.theguardian.com/law/2011/nov/25/ethnic-variations-jail-sentences-study
84 Gov.uk (2016) Press release: Review of racial bias and BAME representation in criminal justice system announced. 31 January. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/review-of-racial-bias-and-bame-representation-in-criminal-justice-system-announced
85 INQUEST (2015) BAME deaths in police custody, http://www.inquest.org.uk/statistics/deaths-in-police-custody
86 Athwal, H. Bourne, J. (2015) Dying for Justice. London:Institute of Race Relations, p.33. http://www.irr.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/Dying_for_Justice_web.pdf
87 Daly, M. (2015) ‘Sheku Bayoh custody death officer “hates black people”’, BBC Scotland. 15 October.
88 MOJ (2015) Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2014, p. 68.
89 HM Inspectorates of Prisons (February 2014) People in prison: Gypsies, Romany and Travellers. p.5
90 EHRC (2015) Is Britain Fairer? The State of Equality and Human Rights 2015. Lonon: Equality & Human Rights Commission, p.78.
91 HMIP (2014) Annual Report 2013-2014. p.35
92 Sloan, A. & Allison, E. (2015) ‘Sharp rise in the proportion of young black and ethnic prisoners’, The Guardian, 24 June. http://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/jun/24/rise-proportion-black-ethnic-minority-young-prisoners-stop-and-search
93 The Scottish Government, Equality Outcomes: Justice
94 MOJ (2015). Statistics on Race and the Criminal Justice System 2014, A Ministry of Justice Publication under Section 95 of the Criminal Justice Act 1991 Crown Copyright: London, p.94.
95 Walker, P. Franklin, W. & Bengtsson H. (2015) ‘Police forces much whiter than the communities they serve, analysis finds’, The Guardian, 22 October.
96 MOJ (2015). Op.cit.p.94.
97 CRER Submission to The Runnymede Trust’s call for evidence.
98 EMBES comprises a sample of 2787 people covering important ethnic minority groups in Britain.
99 Heath, A. & Khan, O. (2012) Ethnic Minority British Election Study - Key findings. London: Runnymede Trust. http://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/EMBESbriefingFINALx.pdf
100 House of Commons, Political and Constitutional Reform Committee (2014) Voter engagement in the UK – Fourth Report of Session 2014-15, Report, together with formal minutes relating to report.
101 Electoral Commission (2011) ‘IER White Paper response’. http://www.electoralcommission.org.uk/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/141294/Electoral-Commission-IER-White-Paper-Response-2011-10-14-FINAL.pdf
102 Runnymede response to IER (2011) http://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/publications/pdfs/Runnymede%20response%20to%20IER.pdf
103 Wheeler, P. (2016) ‘Here's the reason 800,000 people are now missing from the electoral register’, Independent, 1 February. http://www.independent.co.uk/voices/heres-the-reason-800000-people-are-now-missing-from-the-electoral-register-a6847186.html
104The Guardian, Election Results 2011: equalities and diversity in Holyrood, Cardiff Bay, and Stormont Data: Scotland 2011 Results. The Guardian. Scottish Parliament and Welsh Assembly elections 2011: how diverse are the candidates? Data: Scotland 2011 Candidates
105 CRER, Minority Ethnic Representation in the 2012 Scottish Local Government Elections.
106 The Migration Observatory (2014) ‘Love and money: how immigration policy discriminates between families’. http://www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/commentary/love-and-money-how-immigration-policy-discriminates-between-families
107 Middlesex University and JCWI (2015) Family Friendly? The impact on children of the Migration Family Rules: a review of the financial requirements. Commissioned by the Children’s Commissioner for England.
108 Ibid., p.22.
109 HM Government (2015) Counter-Extremism Strategy.
110 ‘PREVENT will have a chilling effect on open debate, free speech and political dissent’ The Independent, 10 July 2015.
111 Haleedi, H. (2015) ‘”You worry they could take your kids”: Is the Prevent strategy demonising Muslim schoolchildren?’ The Guardian, 23 September.
112 It is worth noting that the same public bodies also must comply with the PSED (see section 2.1.1) including the duty to have due regard to the need to foster good relations, which includes tackling prejudice and promoting understanding. However, the Prevent duty can be enforced by a Minister issuing a direction and ultimately obtaining a court order requiring compliance; there is no parallel mechanism for the enforcement of the PSED, making the latter much weaker than the Prevent duty.
114 Alexander, C., Weekes-Bernard, D. & Arday, J. (2015) The Runnymede School Report: Race, Education & Inequality in Contemporary Britain. London: Runnymede Trust. http://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/The%20School%20Report.pdf.
115 Kotecha, S. (2016)’“More than 400 children under 10 referred for “deradicalisation”’, BBC, 21 January. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-35360375
116 Hooper, S. (2015) ‘Stifling freedom of expression in UK schools’, Al-Jazeera, 23 July.
117 Bolloten, B. (2015) Education Not Surveillance, Institute of Race Relations, 22 October.
118 Tonkin, S. (2015) ‘Muslim schoolboy is questioned by teachers over links to Isis after he used term 'eco-terrorist' in classroom discussion about the environment’, The Daily Mail, 23 September.
120 Supplementary written evidence submitted by David Anderson QC (Independent Reviewer of Terrorism Legislation) to the Home Affairs Committee. http://data.parliament.uk/writtenevidence/committeeevidence.svc/evidencedocument/home-affairs-committee/countering-extremism/written/27920.pdf
121 BBC (2016) ‘Muslim women’s segregation in UK communities must end – Cameron’, 18 January. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-35338413
122 Jon Ashworth (2016) ‘If Cameron wants female migrants to learn English, why did he cut ESOL funding?’, The Spectator, 18 January. http://blogs.spectator.co.uk/2016/01/if-cameron-wants-female-migrants-to-learn-english-why-did-he-cut-esol-funding/
123 Ofcom is the UK’s communications regulator.
124 Chakrabati, S. (2015) ‘Plans for repeal of Human Rights Act on hold but privacy and free speech under threat’, Liberty, 27 May. https://www.liberty-human-rights.org.uk/news/press-releases-and-statements/queen’s-speech-2015-plans-repeal-human-rights-act-hold-privacy
125 Hopkins, S. (2015) ‘Terror Expert: New Legislation Could Drive People “Further towards Extremism and Terrorism”’, The Huffington Post, 17 September. http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2015/09/17/david-anderson-qc-says-new-terror-legislation-could-cause-backlash_n_8151422.html
126 ONS (2015). UK Labour Market: October 2015. http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/lms/labour-market-statistics/october-2015/statistical-bulletin.html
127 Labour Party (2015). BAME Manifesto. 10 March. http://press.labour.org.uk/post/113292876299/new-figures-show-49-per-cent-rise-in-long-term
128 Finney, N. & Lymperopoulou, K. (2013). The Runnymede Trust: Local Ethnic Inequalities Report. London: Runnymede Trust http://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/Inequalities%20report-final%20v2.pdf
129 ONS (2015) Op. Cit.
130 TUC (2014). At what price justice? The impact of employment tribunal fees, June. https://www.tuc.org.uk/sites/default/files/TUC_Report_At_what_price_justice.pdf
131 Green Park (2015). FTSE 100 Leadership 10,000 report. http://www.green-park.co.uk/press-release-britains-competitiveness-risk-deep-diversity-deficit-says-new-study
133 Khan, O. (2016) 'David Cameron’s Employment Targets for Ethnic Minorities Will Not Reduce Racial Inequalities’, Racecard. http://www.racecard.org.uk/uncategorized/david-camerons-employment-targets-for-ethnic-minorities-will-not-reduce-racial-inequalities/
134 Discrimination Law Association (2015). Evidence to the Justice Committee in response to their inquiry into court and tribunal fees.
135 Khan, O. (2015) David Cameron’s employment targets for Ethnic Minorities will not reduce racial inequalities. 11 June. http://www.racecard.org.uk/uncategorized/david-camerons-employment-targets-for-ethnic-minorities-will-not-reduce-racial-inequalities/
136 Gov.uk (2015). Press release, PM: Time to end discrimination and finish the fight for real equality. 26 October. https://www.gov.uk/government/news/pm-time-to-end-discrimination-and-finish-the-fight-for-real-equality
137 SPICe briefing, (2015) Ethnicity and Employment
139 Gillborn, D. (2014) ‘Racism as policy: A critical race analysis of education reforms in the United States and England.’ The Educational Forum 78 (1). http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00131725.2014.850982?journalCode=utef20
140 NASUWT (2014) Serious About Race Equality? http://www.nasuwt.org.uk/groups/public/@journalist/documents/nas_download/nasuwt_012496.pdf
141 The EHRC has published non-statutory legal guidance for schools on how they can meet the public sector equality duty, suggesting that simply one objective in unlikely to be sufficient: http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/documents/EqualityAct/PSED/public_sector_equality_duty_guidance_for_schools_in_england_final.pdf
143 Weekes-Bernard, D. (2007) School Choice and Ethnic Segregation. London: Runnymede Trust.
144 ROTA (2013). Do Free Schools Help to Build a More Equal Society? An assessment of How Free Schools are Complying with Statutory Requirements on Equality. November. http://www.rota.org.uk/webfm_send/241
145 Wilkins, A. (2012). Public Battles and Private Takeovers: Academies and the politics of educational governance. Journal of Pedagogy Vol 3 (1): 11 – 29. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jped.2012.3.issue-1/v10159-012-0001-0/v10159-012-0001-0.xml
146 Alexander, Weekes-Bernard & Arday (2015). The Runnymede School Report: Race, Education & Inequality in Contemporary Britain. London: Runnymede Trust http://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/The%20School%20Report.pdf.
147 Department for Education (2015) Statistical First Release: GCSE and equivalent attainment by pupil characteristics, 2013 to 2014. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/399005/SFR06_2015_Text.pdf
148 Wright, C; Uvanney, M; Becker, S. (2015). Young black males: resilience and the use of capital to transform school ‘failure’. Critical Studies in Education.
149 Modood, T. (2012) ‘Capitals, ethnicity and higher education’ in Basit, T. N. and Tomlinson, S. (eds.) Social Inclusion and Higher Education. Bristol: The Policy Press: 17-40
150 Russell Group represents 24 leading UK universities that are generally thought of as the country’s top universities academically.
151 Boliver, V. (2014) “Hard Evidence: Why aren’t there more black British students at elite universities?” The Conversation http://theconversation.com/hard-evidence-why-arent-there-more-black-british-students-at-elite-universities-25413
152 Boliver, V. (2015) “Why are British Ethnic Minorities Less Likely to be Offered Places at Highly Selective Universities?” In Alexander, C. and Arday, J. (eds.) Aiming Higher: Race, Inequality and Diversity in the Academy. London: The Runnymede Trust. http://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/Aiming%20Higher.pdf
153 DfBIS (2014) High Education: Student Finance – The Education Student Support Amendment https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/369941/bis-14-1097-higher-education-student-finance-education-regulations-equality-analysis-updated_FINAL.pdf
154 TES (2015) ‘Esol funding cuts will have ‘devastating’ impact on thousands of learners, charity warns’. https://www.tes.com/news/further-education/breaking-news/esol-funding-cuts-will-have-devastating-impact-thousands
155 De Lima, P. et al (2011) Community consultation on poverty and ethnicity in Scotland. York:Joseph Rowntree Foundation. https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/community-consultation-poverty-and-ethnicity-scotland
156 CRER (2013) The State of the Nation. Race & Racism in Scotland – Education. 2nd ed., Vol 2.
157 OSTED (2015) Early Years Report 2015. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/445730/Early_years_report_2015.pdf
158 DfE (2015) Provision for children under five years of age in England. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/437598/SFR20-2015_Text.pdf
159 DfE (2013) Early learning for two year olds: trials, learning and case studies. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/206584/2YO-childcare_trialsreport.pdf
160 Khan, O. (2014). Caring and earning among low-income Caribbean, Pakistani and Somali people. York: JRF. https://www.jrf.org.uk/report/caring-and-earning-among-low-income-caribbean-pakistani-and-somali-people
161 DfE (2015). Statistical First Release: Permanent and Fixed Period Exclusions in England: 2013 to 2014. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/449433/SFR27_2015_Text.pdf
162 Write, C.; Uvanney, M; Becker, S. (2016) “Young black males: resilience and the use of capital to transform school ‘failure.’” in Critical Studies in Education Vol. 57 (1), January. http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17508487.2016.1117005?journalCode=rcse20
163 Mocombe, P; Tomlin, C; Wright, C. (2014) Race and class distinctions within black communities – a racial caste in class.
164 DfE (2011) The Education Act 2011.
165 DfE (2013) Permanent and fixed period exclusions from schools in England.
166 Ditch the label. (2015) The Annual Bullying Survey 2015: UK Bullying Statistics. http://www.ditchthelabel.org/annual-bullying-survey-2015/
167 Childline (2014) Under Pressure: Childline Review: What’s affected children in April 2013 – March 2014. https://www.nspcc.org.uk/globalassets/documents/annual-reports/childline-review-under-pressure.pdf
168 Spencer, S. (2016) CERD Submission: National Federation of Gypsy Liaison Groups.
169 “Figures show 1,274 racist incidents in Scottish schools” BBC Scotland, 18 August 2013. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotlandscotland-politics-23739952
170 CRER (2012) Racist incident reporting in Scotland’s schools. http://www.crer.org.uk/attachments/article/RIReport.pdf
171 Lough Dennell, B. L., and Logan, C. (2015) Prejudice-based bullying in Scottish schools: A research report. EHRC Scotland.
172 DfE. (2011) Bullying around racism, religion and culture. http://www.insted.co.uk/racist-bullying-april11.pdf
173 Anti-Bullying Network.
174 BHA (2013). State of Health, Black and Other Minority Groups – BHA Contribution to the Development of Joint Strategic Needs Assessment (JSNA). BHA for equality and social care.
175 Bécares, L., Nazroo, J. & Kelly, Y. (2015) “A longitudinal examination of maternal, family, and area-level experiences of racism on children's socioemotional development: Patterns and possible explanations”. Social Science & Medicine, Vol 142: 128-135.
176 Becares, L. (2015) “Addressing mother’s experiences of racial discrimination” Manchester Policy Blogs: Ethnicity, 24 November. http://blog.policy.manchester.ac.uk/featured/2015/11/addressing-mothers-experiences-of-racial-discrimination/
177 EHRC (2015), Is Britain Fairer? The state of equality and human rights 2015, Equality and Human Rights Commission.
178 Edge, D. (2014) “Ethnicity and Mental Health in the UK” in Health Equalities, March.
179 MHPF and REF (2015) Better practice in mental health for black and minority ethnic communities.Mental Health Providers Forum and Race Equality Foundation. http://www.mhpf.org.uk/sites/default/files/documents/attachments/better_practice_in_mental_healthprint.pdf
180 The Mental Health Taskforce (2016) The Five Year Forward View for Mental Health – A report from the independent Mental Health Taskforce to the NHS in England https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Mental-Health-Taskforce-FYFV-final.pdf
181 Bansal, N., Bhopal, R., Netto, G., Lyons, D., Steiner, M. F. C. & Sashidharan, S. P. (2013) ‘Disparate patterns of hospitalisation reflect unmet needs and persistent ethnic inequalities in mental health care: the Scottish health and ethnicity linkage study' Ethnicity and Health, Vol. 19 (2): 217-239.
182 Immigration Act 2014 and the Immigration (Health Charges) Order 2015.
183 Department of Health (2015) Making a fair contribution. A consultation on the extension of charging overseas visitors and migrants using the NHS in England. Crown Copyright. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/483870/NHS_charging_acc.pdf
184 This section was taken from the submission by Friends Families and Travellers to Runnymede’s call for evidence.
185 The Marmot Review (2010) Fair Society, Healthy Lives – Strategic Review of Health Inequalities in England post-2010.
186 New Economics Foundation (2014) The wrong medicine: a review of the impact of NHS reforms in England. London: nef.
188 CRER (2012) My story with Addictions: An insight into the road to recovery
189 JCWI (2015) “No Passport Equals No Home”: An independent evaluation of the ‘Right to Rent’ scheme.3 September http://www.jcwi.org.uk/sites/default/files/No%20Passport%20Equals%20No%20Home.pdf
190 Travis, A. (2013) “Immigration Bill: Teresa May defends plans to create ‘hostile environment’”, The Guardian, 10 October. http://www.theguardian.com/politics/2013/oct/10/immigration-bill-theresa-may-hostile-environment
191 The Runnymede Trust (2014) Black and Asian Britons more likely to be homeless or live in overcrowded homes (11 February) http://www.runnymedetrust.org/news/558/272/Black-and-Asian-Britons-more-likely-to-be-homeless-or-live-in-overcrowded-homes.html
192 Khan, O. (2015) The 2015 Budget. Effects on Black and minority ethnic people. London: Runnymede Trust, p.2 http://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/The%202015%20Budget%20Effect%20on%20BME%20RunnymedeTrust%2027thJuly2015.pdf
193 The Runnymede Trust (2014) Op. Cit. 11 February
194 This section was adapted from the submission by Friends Families and Travellers to Runnymede’s call for evidence.
195 The Scottish Government (2015) Scotland's People Annual Report: Results from the 2014 Scottish Household Survey.
196 Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2012) Poverty and ethnicity in Scotland. York: JRF.
197 The Poverty Alliance and the Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2011) Understanding Poverty: Exploring Critical issues in poverty in Scotland. Seminar 1: Poverty and Ethnicity in Scotland
198 Scotland’s Census 2011. Communal establishments by ethnic group.
199 Scottish Government (2013) Scotland's People Annual Report: Results from 2013 Scottish Household Survey: Revised October 2015
200 Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2012) Poverty and Ethnicity in Scotland. York: JRF.
201 Khan, O. (2015) The 2015 Budget. Effects on Black and minority ethnic people. London: Runnymede Trust. http://www.runnymedetrust.org/uploads/The%202015%20Budget%20Effect%20on%20BME%20RunnymedeTrust%2027thJuly2015.pdf
202 MoJ (2011) Reform of Legal Aid in England and Wales: Equality Impact Assessment.
203 Anthony, H. & Crilly, C. (October 2015) Equality, human rights & access to civil law justice: a literature review. London: Equality and Human Rights Commission Research report 99.
204 MoJ (2014) Tribunal Statistics Quarterly – January to March 2014.
205Discrimination claims in Employment Tribunals: the Scottish perspective. p.9 -10http://www.equalityhumanrights.com/sites/default/files/uploads/Equality%20Bulletin%20ET%20statistics%20article%20Final%2030%20September%2015.pdf
206 Discrimination Law Association (2013) Response to Consultation: Transforming Legal Aid.
207 Discrimination Law Association (2015) Evidence to the Justice Committee in response to their inquiry into court and tribunal fees.Discrimination Law Association. http://www.discriminationlaw.org.uk/system/files/DLA+Fees+Evidence+October+2015.pdf
209 DLA (2015) Evidence to the Justice Committee in response to their inquiry into court and tribunal fees, Discrimination Law Association. http://www.discriminationlaw.org.uk/system/files/DLA+Fees+Evidence+October+2015.pdf
210 TUC (2014) op. cit.
211 Weldon, V. (2015) Law Society Hits Out at Legal Aid Cuts The Herald Scotland, 17 December.
212 Race Equality First submission to Runnymede’s call for evidence.
213 Emmerson, C., Johnson, P. and Joyce, R. (2105) The IFS Green Budget, Institute of Fiscal Studies. p.151
214 The Scottish Government, Human Rights Organisations