Submission to allah: muslim civilization bridges the world



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World History

Ms. Cannavina


CHAPTER 9: ISLAM AND THE ARAB EMPIRE

SUBMISSION TO ALLAH: MUSLIM CIVILIZATION BRIDGES THE WORLD

(600 – 1400)

There is no God but God, and Muhammad is his prophet.”


Main Ideas: Students will learn:

  • That Islam is a monotheistic religion and a way of life that stresses the need to obey the will of Allah by practicing the Five Pillars of Islam and by following shari’ah law.

  • That the Arab Empire grew and prospered after Muhammad's death w/ the Umayyad and Abbasid Dynasties.

  • That the Islamic achievements in philosophy, science, and the arts, or the Islamic Golden Age, contributed to the world’s knowledge and brought about major global changes.


CCSS Standards:

  • RH.9-10.3: Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether or not earlier events caused later one or simply preceded them.

  • RH.9-10.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social studies.

  • RH.9-10.7: Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (charts, research data) w/ qualitative analysis in print or digital text.

  • WHST.9-10.1c: Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships b/w claim and reasons, b/w reasons and evidence, and b/w claims and counterclaims.

  • WHST.9-10.1d: Establish and maintain a formal and style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

I. The Rise of Islam

A. The Arabs

B. The Life of Muhammad

C. The Teachings of Muhammad

1. A Monotheistic Religion

2. The Five Pillars of Islam

3. Jihad: Another duty, outside of the Five Pillars, is jihad, or “to struggle in God’s service.” Jihad is usually a personal duty for Muslims, who focus on overcoming immorality w/in themselves. At other times, jihad may be interpreted as a holy war to defend Islam and the Muslim community, much like the Crusades to defend Christianity. However, a “just” holy war may be declared only by the community, not by an individual or small group.

4. Rules of Behavior

D. Sacred Texts: Quran, Hadith, Shari’ah

II. The Arab Empire

A. The Caliphate

*** Islam arose in the Arabian Peninsula in the early 600s. In 632, Muhammad died. Abu Bakr ( a wealthy merchant and Muhammad’s father-in-law/chief advisor) was elected the first caliph—Muhammad’s political and religious successor. The period when Muslims were ruled by caliphs from Muhammad’s death until the 900s, was called the caliphate. The Muslim world expanded under the caliphate. Abu Bakr was successful in uniting the Arabs in the Islamic faith. His forces began an extraordinary military campaign that conquered parts of Syria, Egypt, and the Persian Empire. Over the following centuries, more and more people embraced Islam. B/c the Arabs treated conquered peoples fairly, many people converted to Islam willingly (although at first it was not encouraged). The teaching of Islam appealed to many b/c it emphasized honestly, generosity, and social justice.

A key problem was the line of succession, a controversy which will eventually split Islam. Like Muhammad, Abu Bakr died w/o a clear successor, and the three caliphs who followed him were all assassinated, including Ali, Muhammad’s son-in-law. After the death of the fourth caliph in 661, the Umayyad family would establish a dynasty that ruled the Muslim world until 750. The Abbasid Dynasty would take over after that. After the Abbasid Empire is overtaken by the Mongols, the Muslim world would be forever politically divided. However, Islam would continue to unite diverse people across an enormous area. This is called the Dar al-Islam, or “abode of Islam.”

B. The Umayyad Dynasty (661 – 750)

C. A Split in Islam

*** Several decades after the death of Muhammad, divisions grew among Muslims about who should be Muhammad’s successor. Followers split into two groups: Sunni and Shia. Sunnis accepted the Umayyads as rulers and eventually believed that the caliph should be chosen by Muslim leaders. Sunni Muslims did not view the caliph as a religious authority. Shia Muslims believe that only the descendents of the prophet Muhammad should be his successors. They believed that the descendents of the prophet were divinely inspired. During the Umayyad Dynasty, many Muslims of non-Arab background did not like the way that local administrators favored Arabs. In what is now Iraq, Hussein, the son of Ali, led an important revolt against the Umayyad rule. Although unsuccessful, this struggle led to the split of Islam into two groups. Shia Muslims accept only the descendents of Ali as the true rulers of Islam. Today, most Shia Muslims live in Iraq and Iran (ancient Persia). The Sunni Muslims are the majority. The split continues to this day.

A third tradition in Islam emerged w/ the Sufis. Sufis are Muslim mystics who seek communion w/ God through mediation, fasting, and other rituals. They are respected for their peity and miraculous powers. They would help spread Islam through their missionary works. Sufis would carry their faith to remote villages and blend local traditions and beliefs to Muslim culture. Currently, they are often seen as a balance to more Muslim extremists.

D. The Abbasid Dynasty

E. Expansion of Islam into India

*** After the fall of the Gupta Empire (Chapter 5), India was politically fragmented, w/ a number of small states engaging in continual warfare. In the early 8th century, Islamic armies took advantage of this situation to move into frontier regions in the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. At the end of the 10th century, a new Islamic state called Ghazna arose in the northwest. One of its rulers, Mahmud of Ghazna, began attacking neighboring Hindu kingdoms and eventually extended his power in the upper Indus River Valley. Hindu warriors called Rajputs attempted to push back the Islamic invaders but were largely unsuccessful. Mahmud’s successors continued to expand Islamic control in northern India. By the beginning of the 13th century, Muslims had taken control of the whole north Indian plain, where they established the Sultanate of Delhi. The sultanate was to grow further before beginning to decline in the later 14th century. Although they strove to convert the Hindus to Islam and succeeded in imposing Islamic customs in their domains, most had little choice other than to tolerate religious differences.

F. Reasons for the Muslim Success

III. Islamic Society

A. Urban & Rural Prosperity *** Lays the foundation for the Golden Age

B. Social Structure

C. Status of Women

IV. Islam’s Golden Age

A. Background

*** At its height under the Abbasids, the Muslim world was composed of people from many cultures, including Arabs, Persians, Egyptians, and Europeans. Muslims absorbed and blended customs and traditions from many of the people they ruled. The glory of the empires reflected their emphasis on learning, achievements in the arts and sciences, and flourishing economies based on trade. [Note: The glory of the Islamic Golden Age is in direct to the “dark”, Medieval period of Europe at the same time.]

B. Philosophy, Science, and History “Kings are the rulers of people, but scholars are the rulers of kings.”

C. Literature, Art, & Architecture

V. The Crusades

A. Beginnings

*** The Byzantine emperor asked Pope Urban II for help in dealing w/ the Seljuk Turks, who were threatening their empire. At the Council of Clermont in 1095, Pope Urban II encouraged the assembly of knights and nobles to fight against the “infidels.” A series of holy wars, or Crusades, began in 1096. He called for a crusade to fight the Muslims and recapture the Holy Land. The pope also promised indulgences to those who fought (forgiveness of sins) and promised property, assets would be protected in their absence. At first, the Western powers conquered areas and established new crusader states. Although lasting for nearly 200 years, only the first Crusade was successful, capturing Jerusalem in 1099. The Christians would follow their victory w/ a massacre of Muslim & Jewish inhabitants. The next three Crusades would be disasters.

B. Impact of the Crusades
Terms: Bedouin; sheiks; Allah; Kaaba; Mecca/Makkah; Khadija; Hijrah; Ramadan; hajj; jihad; hijab; chador; burka; Mu’awiyah; Charles Martel & the Battle of Tours; Dome of the Rock; Abu al-Abbas; Harun al-Rashid; Moors; Fatimid Dynasty; sultan; “Dar al-Islam”; Dhimmi Status/ Dhimmitude; bazaars; guild; dowry; Ibn Rushd; astrolabe; Al-Razi; Ibn Sina; Ibn Khaldun; Rubaiyat by Omar Khayyam; The Arabian Nights; arabesques; Hadith; minarets; muezzins; Great Mosque; Alhambra

CHAPTER 9 HOMEWORK: Answer in complete sentences.

1. Page 177, Question 1

2. Page 182, Questions 5 & 6

3. Page 187, Questions 4 & 6

4. Page 188, Questions 4, 5, 8, 10 & 11

World History

Ms. Cannavina
CHAPTER 11: CIVILIZATIONS OF EAST ASIA

(220 – 1500)
Main Ideas: Students will learn:


  • That after centuries of chaos and civil war, three dynasties unified China, bringing order, stability, and technological progress.

  • That while the Mongol conquests created the world’s largest land empire, culture in China flourished.

  • That the geography of Japan has resulted in political, economic, and social changes.


CCSS Standards:

  • RH.9-10.3: Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether or not earlier events caused later one or simply preceded them.

  • RH.9-10.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social studies.

  • RH.9-10.7: Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (charts, research data) w/ qualitative analysis in print or digital text.

  • WHST.9-10.1c: Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships b/w claim and reasons, b/w reasons and evidence, and b/w claims and counterclaims.

  • WHST.9-10.1d: Establish and maintain a formal and style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

I. China Reunified

A. Sui Dynasty (581 – 618)

B. Tang Dynasty (618 – 907)

*** With the Tang Dynasty, China was restored to its former glory. Under the Tang and Song Dynasties, China had a strong economy, achievements in the arts (“golden age”), and influenced other cultures, like Japan. The Tang Dynasty was founded by Li Yuan.

C. Song Dynasty (960 – 1279)

D. China’s Ordered Govt, Eco, & Society

*** During the nearly 700 years of the Sui, Tang, and the Song Dynasties, the Chinese economy grew in size and complexity, a mature political system emerged, and the nature of Chinese trade changed. Socially, China was a well-ordered society. At its head was the emperor, whose court was filled w/ aristocratic families. The court supervised a huge bureaucracy, from which officials fanned out to every part of China.

1. Monarchy & Merit-Based Bureaucracy 4. Private Merchants & Guilds

2. Farming 5. Women & Footbinding

3. Steel, Cotton, & Gunpowder

E. A Golden Age: Achievements of the Tang & Song Dynasties

F. The Influence of Imperial China

*** China had great expansion into Central and Southeast Asia. Although its political control waxed and waned, its influence lasted a long time through assimilation. This would include such areas as Vietnam (who adopted

many Chinese customs despite periodic revolts against Chinese domination), Korea, and Japan. Korea adopted Confucianism, law codes, bureaucracy, literature, art, and Buddhism. Japan would adopt Chinese ways through the “land bridge” of Korea.

II. The Mongol Empire

*** The Mongols covered a large area that included diverse lands and peoples, provided stability and prosperity, and encouraged an exchange of goods and ideas b/w East and West.

A. The Rise of the Mongols

B. Yuan Dynasty

C. Pax Mongolia: Increased Trade, Prosperity, and Stability

D. Fall of the Yuan Dynasty

E. The Mongols in Russia: The Golden Horde

*** In the 13th century, the Mongols conquered most of Russia. They controlled it for the next 200 years. Many Mongol words, customs, and clothing found their way into Russian culture. Mongol domination of Russia limited its contact w/ other parts of Europe. As a result, Russia was cut off from important changes taking place in Western Europe (“The Yolk”). Moscow and its surrounding territories, known as Muscovy, became the strongest Russian state. In 1480, Ivan the Great declared Muscovy’s independence from the Mongols, and proclaimed himself Tsar (or Czar, which means “Caesar” or emperor). In many ways, his absolute rule was based on the Mongolian model of a strong leader. Ivan soon set about increasing Muscovy’s size by conquering neighboring lands.

F. The Rule of Tamerlane: Timurid Dynasty

*** In the 14th century, Mongol power enjoyed a brief resurgence in Central Asia. Tamerlane (or Timur the Lame), a Turkish-Mongol ruler from Central Asia, expanded his kingdom into Persia, Afghanistan, Russia, Syria, Turkey, and northern India (defeating the Delhi Sultanate, chapter 9), establishing an elaborate capital at Samarqand. Tamerlane was known for his brutality in warfare and his massacre of civilian populations. His empire, however, did not last much beyond his death.
III. Early Japan

*** Early Japan was strongly influenced by geography, borrowed selectively from Chinese culture, developed a feudal system, and experienced stability and a strong govt during later feudal times.

A. Geographic Setting

B. The Imperial Tradition

*** Early Japanese society was organized into clans, w/ separate rulers and religious customs. One clan, the Yamato, gained control over the largest island of Japan around 500 AD. Slowly the Yamato extended their rule and established themselves that the royal family of Japan. To strengthen their authority, they would eventually claim to be the direct descendents of the sun goddess.
C. Japan’s Golden Age: The Heian Period (794 – 1185)

D. Feudalism

E. Comparison With Europe

*** Japanese feudalism was similar to European feudalism during Europe’s Middle Ages. Both systems evolved in response to a basic desire for stability. In both Japan and Europe, emperors and kings were too weak to prevent invasions or halt internal wars. Feudalism provided a way for ruling classes to preserve law and order. Everyone had a well-defined place in society. Power and wealth were concentrated in the hands of an elite land-owning class. The samurais were similar to the knights: respected warriors. Peasants in both worked the land and served the landowners in exchange for protection. Different: Women: status of women in Japan declined during feudal times; in Europe, the code of chivalry helped to raise the status of women. They differed also in terms of religion: the leaders of the Catholic Chuch in Europe had more political power than Zen Buddhist monks in Japan. Japan also had more internal trade, whereas in Europe, trade was confined to local, self-sufficient manors.


Terms: Sui Yangdi, Grand Canal; tributary states; tribune; Hill of the Thousand Buddhas; Yellow Turban Revolt; Zhang Jue; Neo-Confucianism; scholar-gentry; subsistence farming; Wu Zhao; abacus; calligraphy; Wu Daozi; Mi Fei; Xia Gui; porcelain; pagoda; Li Bo; Du Fu; Ballad of the Army Carts; Temujin/ Genghis Khan; Karakorum; khanates; Kublai Khan; Khanbalik; Hangzhou; Black Plague; Marco Polo; Ibn Battuta; Zhu Yuanzhang; archipelago; Shinto; kami; Prince Shotoku Taishi; Zen Buddhism; The Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki; shoguns, daimyos; samurais; Kamakura Shogunate; hans; bushido, seppuku
CHAPTER 11 HOMEWORK: Formation of States in Southeast Asia (complete sentences)

1. What were the two major parts of the Southeast Asia region?

2. Describe the geography of SE Asia. How did it affect its development?

3. Why were the Chinese “frustrated by the Vietnamese”? How should that have been a lesson to America? (Hint: 1960s) What did the Vietnamese adopt from the Chinese?

4. What religion reached the Malay Peninsula by the 1400s? How? What type of govt was formed?

5. What is Angkor Wat? Location? Religion?

World History

Ms. Cannavina


CHAPTER 13: KINGDOMS AND STATES OF MEDIEVAL AFRICA

(500 – 1500)
Main Ideas: Students will learn:

  • How Africa’s geography and cultures shaped its development into the medieval period.

  • That the growth of great trading states in Africa enabled the kingdoms to prosper and their rulers to protect their people.


CCSS Standards:

  • RH.9-10.3: Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether or not earlier events caused later one or simply preceded them.

  • RH.9-10.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social studies.

  • RH.9-10.7: Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (charts, research data) w/ qualitative analysis in print or digital text.

  • WHST.9-10.1c: Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships b/w claim and reasons, b/w reasons and evidence, and b/w claims and counterclaims.

  • WHST.9-10.1d: Establish and maintain a formal and style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

I. African Society & Culture

A. Africa’s Geographic Diversity

*** Africa is the second largest continent. Its size and location contributed to its wide range of climates, vegetation, and terrains. This variety has greatly influenced the diversity of culture found in Africa.

B. Structures of African Society

C. Religious Beliefs

D. African Culture

II. Kingdoms of West Africa

*** Around the 700s, a series of powerful kingdoms arose on the West African savanna, based on fine cavalries and control of trade routes. For the next thousand years, these kingdoms dominated West Africa, leading to an exchange of ideas, the rise of cities, and increased wealth. Gold and salt were the most important products that were traded: people needed salt in their diets to prevent dehydration and to preserve their food.

A. Early Beginnings: Niger Valley Civilization

*** The first discoveries of civilizations in sub-Sahara Africa took place in the late 1970s. From these discoveries, scholars believe the first use of iron in West Africa started at around 500 BC, introduced from the north. One of the earliest cultures is the Nok culture, formed around the same time. They, however, did not build cities. Jenne-jeno is considered the earliest known indigenous city; founded in 250 BC, peaking at 900 AD, declining by 1100. There is evidence of active trade, although perhaps not a centralized state.

B. Ghana (750 – 1250)

C. Mali (1240 – 1400)

D. Songhai (1464 – 1600)

III. Societies in Eastern & Southern Africa

A. Bantu Migrations (500 BC—1500 AD)

B. Africa’s East Coast & the Indian Ocean Trading Network

1. Muslim Trade Outposts 3. Ports of Mogadishu & Mombasa

2. Port of Kilwa 4. Swahili Culture & Language

C. Societies in Southern Africa

IV. Other African States

A. Hausa


*** In the 1300s, Hausa people built city-states in what is now Nigeria. Products of Hausa cotton weavers and leatherworkers from the city-states traveled on caravans across the Sahara, sometimes transported as far as Europe. By the 1500s, the Hausa dominated the Saharan trade routes.

B. Benin


*** Benin developed in the rain forests on the Guinea coast, West Africa. Benin was famous for its bronze sculptures, among the finest of all African works of art. By the 1500s, Benin became involved in the slave trade. It rulers captured members of other tribes and exchanged them w/ Europeans for guns and iron goods.

C. Ethiopia

*** A continuation of the kingdom of Axum, became a Christian state in the 4th century. It remained so despite the rise of Islam, which cut it off from the Christian world until the 1400s.

Terms: Equator; tropical rain forest; savannas; cataracts; Great Rift Valley; Sahara & Kalahari; clans; lineage; matrilineal; animism; diviners; Senegal & Niger Rivers; Kumbi Saleh; Berbers; Sundiata Keita; mansas; Timbuktu; Ibn Battuta; Mansa Musa; Sunni Ali; Muhammad Ture; Gao; Askia Dawud; hajj; Great Zimbabwe
CHAPTER 13 HOMEWORK: Answer in complete sentences

1. Page 262, Question 1

2. Page 269, Question 1 & 7

3. Page 270, Questions 2, 6, 7, 9 & 10



https://stevenssocst.wikispaces.com/file/view/african_empires-map1.png/489588190/936x658/african_empires-map1.png

http://image.slidesharecdn.com/10mali-120512090741-phpapp01/95/kingdom-of-mali-mansa-musa-7-728.jpg?cb=1336813709http://image.slidesharecdn.com/africantradingkingdoms-130404112121-phpapp02/95/african-trading-kingdoms-16-638.jpg?cb=1365074639

World History

Ms. Cannavina

CIVILIZATIONS IN PRE-COLUMBIAN AMERICA

Chapter 2, Section 5: The Spread of Civilizations: Americas

Chapter 14: Pre-Columbian America

CCSS Standards:


  • RH.9-10.3: Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether or not earlier events caused later one or simply preceded them.

  • RH.9-10.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social studies.

  • RH.9-10.7: Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (charts, research data) w/ qualitative analysis in print or digital text.

  • WHST.9-10.1c: Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships b/w claim and reasons, b/w reasons and evidence, and b/w claims and counterclaims.

  • WHST.9-10.1d: Establish and maintain a formal and style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.


Overview: Tens of thousands of years ago, Paleolithic hunters migrated to North America from Asia. People learned to cultivate plants and to domesticate animals. These changes led to an increase in population. In the Americas, complex societies developed. The Olmecs, and later, the Mayas and Incas conquered a vast area along the western coast. The people of these empires were skilled farmers, were devoted to their religions, and possessed advanced knowledge in many areas.

I. Geographic Setting

*** During the last ice age, large amounts of ocean water froze into ice sheets and created a land bridge b/w Siberia and Alaska, as the ocean levels dropped. Across the bridge, Asian Paleolithic hunters followed the herds of bison into N.America; eventually they migrated east and south. Slowly groups of Americans learned to cultivate crops and domesticate animals [Neolithic Revolution]. Farmers settled into villages, which could then grow into large cities and religious centers. The first great American civilizations developed in Mesoamerica (also called Middle America), the region that includes Mexico and Central America.

II. Early Civilizations in the Americas

A. Olmecs (1200 BC—400BC)

*** The Olmecs were the first known civilization in Mesoamerica. They farmed along riverbanks in the hot, swampy lowlands along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico. They traded w/ other peoples of Mesoamerica for jade and obsidian [ a dark natural glass stone formed by lava] to make their tools, jewelry, and monuments. They had large cities that were important for their religious rituals, including the cities of San Lorenzo and La Venta. The Olmecs were known for their use of pyramids (for religious purposes) and for their colossal stone heads, probably to represent their gods or their leaders. These heads, over 10 ft high and 20 tons, were remarkable b/c the Olmecs did not have any metal tools to cut the stone (picture: page 41). Had a written language; not yet deciphered. 400 BC: Olmec civilization mysteriously collapses. However, Olmec civilization continues to have influence in Mesoamerica, esp Maya. Maya adopt into their culture certain Olmec traditions, including their sports [ball court game], their religion/gods, and their calendar.

B. Zapotec (500 BC—800 AD)

*** Located close to the Pacific Ocean, center was city of Monte Alban. Like the Olmec, contained a number of temples and pyramids. Most people lived in terraces cut into the sides of the mountain. Ruled by an elite class of nobles and priests. Like Olmec, devised a written language that has not been deciphered. Monte Alban abandoned in late 8th century…not sure why.

C. Teotihuacan (250 BC—800 AD)

*** Means “Place of the Gods.” First major city in Mesoamerica (present day Mexico City). It had as many as 200,000 inhabitants at its height. Along its main avenue, known as the Avenue of the Dead, were temples and palaces. All of them, however, were dominated by a massive Pyramid of the Sun. This monument rose in four tiers to a height of more than 200 feet. The pyramid was an important temple for pilgrimages. Although most people were farmers (one of most fertile area in Meso), “Teo” was best known for being a center of trade: tools, weapons, pottery, jewelry, etc. Especially famous were their obsidian tools: sharp, volcanic glass that was used in tools and knives. Goods made in “Teo” were shipped to Central America, Mexico, and SW North America. In return, city received luxury items and the raw materials used in their crafts, such as shells and feathers. By 800, city was destroyed and abandoned, after several years of decline.

D. Chavin, South America (900 BC—200 BC)

*** The Chavin people, located in along coast of modern day Peru and Equador along the Andes Mts, built a large ceremonial complex, w/ two stone pyramids and stone figures depicting different gods. They also made objects of gold and silver. Their most impressive achievement was a solar observatory made up of 13 stone towers. Signs of a simple writing system. Declined… not sure why.



Why might the reasons these civilizations declined be unknown?

III. Pre-Columbian Civilizations

***Civilizations that emerged in Mesoamerica are called Pre-Columbian b/c they existed before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492.

*** The Mayas, Aztecs, and the Incas



  • Developed agriculture that could support large populations.

  • Placed great importance on religion.

  • Formed governments that ruled large empires.

  • Had advanced knowledge in areas such as agriculture, engineering, and architecture.

  • See chart: Toltec, Maya, Aztec, Inca.

Homework:

1. Using your textbook (chapter 14) fill in the information on the chart. Be sure to include the dates and its location.

Use map on page 273 in textbook as guide.

2. Copy the chart from page 272 in textbook into your notebook. Answer the questions: What features of early Mesoamerican and South American society remained the same throughout several civilizations? Which features differed?

3. Page 283: Reading Primary Sources: Answer 1 & 2.

http://callisto.ggsrv.com/imgsrv/fetch?recordid=marl_01_img0131&contentset=uxl&banner=46f40ccd&digest=50ff744c294d243f276c07be5387efb2 http://img.docstoccdn.com/thumb/orig/125394831.png

World History

Ms. Cannavina

CHAPTER 17: THE AGE OF EXPLORATION

(1500—1800)
CCSS Standards:


  • RH.9-10.3: Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether or not earlier events caused later one or simply preceded them.

  • RH.9-10.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social studies.

  • RH.9-10.7: Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (charts, research data) w/ qualitative analysis in print or digital text.

  • WHST.9-10.1c: Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships b/w claim and reasons, b/w reasons and evidence, and b/w claims and counterclaims.

  • WHST.9-10.1d: Establish and maintain a formal and style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

I. Renaissance (1350—1600) [Chapter 15]

***A new age called the Renaissance, meaning “rebirth”, marked a great change in culture, politics, society, and economics. In Italy, it began in the 1300s and reached its peak around 1500. Instead of focusing on religion, as it did in the Middle Ages, the Renaissance explored the human experience. At the same time, there was a new emphasis on individual achievement. At the heart of the Renaissance was an intellectual movement called humanism. Renaissance humanist studies the classical culture of Greece and Rome to try to comprehend t heir own times. They wanted to broaden their understanding. They emphasized the humanities—subjects such as rhetoric, poetry, and history. Poet Francesco Petrarch was an early Renaissance humanist. He gathered a library of Greek and Roman manuscripts. This opened the works of Cicero, Homer, and Virgil to Western Europeans.

Italy was the birthplace of the Renaissance for many reasons. It had been the center of the Roman Empire; remains of that ancient culture were all around. Rome was also the seat of the Roman Catholic Church, an important patron of the arts. Furthermore, Italy’s location encouraged trade w/ markets on the Mediterranean, in Africa, and in Europe. Trade provided the wealth that fueled the Renaissance. In Italy’s city-states, powerful merchant families, such as the Medici family of Florence, lent political and economic leadership and supported the arts.

Renaissance art reflected humanism. Renaissance painters returned to the realism of classical times by developing improved ways to represent humans and landscapes. For example, the discovery of perspective allowed artists to create realistic art and to paint scenes that appeared three-dimensional. The greatest of the Renaissance artists were Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael.

By the 1400s, northern Europe began to enjoy the economic growth needed to develop its own Renaissance. The northern Renaissance began in the prosperous cites of Flanders, a thriving center of trade. As astounding invention – the printing press-- helped to spread Renaissance ideas. In about 1455, Johann Gutenberg printed the first complete edition of the Bible using the printing press. Printed books were cheaper and easier to produce. Now more book were available so more people learned to read and exposed Europeans to new ideas.


II. Protestant Reformation (1517—1600) [Chapter 16]

***In the 1500s, the Renaissance in Europe sparked a religious upheaval that affected Christians at all levels of society. This movement is known as the Protestant Reformation. In the late Middle Ages, the Catholic Church had become caught up in worldly affairs. Popes led lavish lives and hired artists to enhance churches. To finance such projects, the Church increased fees for services. Many Christians protested such acts. They also questioned why the Church in distant Rome should have power over their lives.

In 1517, protests against Church abuses turned into a revolt. A German monk named Martin Luther triggered it over an event in Wittenberg, Germany. There, a priest sold indulgences to Christians to raise money to rebuild St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome. (According to Church teachings, an indulgence was a lessening to the time a soul would have to spend in Purgatory, a place where souls too impure to enter heaven atoned for sins committed during their lifetimes. In the Middle Ages, the Church had granted indulgences only for good deeds. By the late 1400s, however, indulgences could be bought w/ money.) To Luther the priest’s actions were the final outrage. He wrote the 95 Thesis, or arguments, against indulgences. He said that they had no biblical authority to release souls from Purgatory, and the Christians could be saved only through faith. Throughout Europe, Luther’s 95 Thesis stirred furious debate. The new Holy Roman emperor, Charles V, summoned Luther to the Diet, or assembly, at the city of Worms. Luther refused to change his views. At the heart of Luther’s doctrines were several beliefs, including the idea that all Christians have equal access to God through faith and the Bible. Printing presses spread Luther’s writings and ideas throughout Germany and Scandinavia. By 1530, Luther’s many followers were using a new name, “Protestants” for those who “protested” papal authority. There were other reformers as well, including John Calvin in Geneva, Switzerland. In England, the break w/ the Catholic Church came when Henry VIII wanted to divorce his wife and marry another. Each of the three reform movements rejected the authority of the pope, stressed the freedom of individual conscience in matters of faith, and permitted the clergy to marry.

As the Protestant Reformation swept northern Europe, the Catholic Church began a Counter Reformation. The pope’s Council of Trent reaffirmed Catholic beliefs that Protestants had challenged, but also eliminated abuses like the indulgences. Over time, both Catholics and Protestants fostered intolerance, and persecuted radical sects. Innocent people were executed for witchcraft. In Venice, Jews were pressured to convert and forced to live in a separate part of the city called the ghetto. Numerous, bloody warfare would break out all over Europe. The Catholic Church was fighting for an international, universal vision of the world under its own leadership, while the various Protestant movements encouraged separate national states. In response, several of the new national states encouraged the Protestant movement.


III. Explorations and Imperialism [Map 319]

*** By the High Middle Ages (1000 – 1300), Europeans had come to form strong nation-states, controlled by a powerful monarch. Nation-states are regions that share a government and that are independent of each other. Between the late 1400s and 1700s, Western Europeans:



  • Benefited from technology in mapmaking, navigation, shipbuilding, and weaponry;

  • Found new sea routes and dominated trade with Asia, Africa, and the Americas;

  • Competed with each other to establish profitable colonies and spread their faith;

  • Began global interactions that greatly affected people around the world.

The Iberian countries of Spain and Portugal took the lead in global exploration, looking for new routes to reach the riches of Asia. Both had the technology, resources, and political stability to support sea travel; both had also struggled w/ Muslim rule in their countries and had created Christian kingdoms. Spain’s rulers, Ferdinand and Isabella, had just completed the Renconquista (reconquest) of Spain’s last Muslim areas, reuniting the country under Christian rule in 1492. In the same year, the expelled all Muslims and Jews. Through overseas exploration, Spain hoped to further Christianity and glorify the country. Beginning in 1420, under the sponsorship of Prince Henry the Navigator, Portuguese fleets began probing southward along the western coast of Africa.

Imperialism: domination by one country of the political and/or economic life of another country. Europe’s activities in Asia, Africa, and the Americas from 1500s through the 1700s foreshadowed the major era of European imperialism in the 1800s.
A. Reasons for European Exploration

B. Imperialism in Africa

C. Imperialism in Asia

D. Imperialism in the Americas: “The Encounter”


IV. The Commercial Revolution (1600—1750)

*** The creation of colonial empires and the rise of strong national monarchies also had a startling effect on the economies of Europe. The fastest growing part of the economy was now in trading goods, especially from Asia and the Americas. The Commercial Revolution marked an important step in the transition from the feudal, local economies of the Middle Ages to a truly global economy.

A. Mercantilism

B. Capitalism


V. The Atlantic Slave Trade (1500 – 1750)

A. Causes of the Slave Trade

*** A trade in sub-Sahara African slaves dated from the Roman Empire, and had been lucratively developed by Arab merchants from the 700s. Muslims owned and traded slaves from the earliest days of the Islamic religion. Their trade in slaves included Africa, SE Europe, Arabia, and the Indian Ocean. Islamic law governing the treatment of slaves made the practice relatively humane; slaves were used more frequently for domestic service than for hard labor. By the 1500s, Europeans came to view enslaved Africans as the most valuable African trade goods. At that time, Europeans began buying large numbers of Africans to satisfy the labor shortage on American sugar, tobacco, and cotton plantations, or large estates. The slave trade eventually grew into a huge and profitable business. The trade that involved Europe, Africa, and the Americas was sometimes referred to as “triangular trade” because the sea routes among these three continents formed vast triangles (map 331)

B. The Middle Passage

*** The voyage from Africa to the Americas on the slave ships was called the Middle Passage. Conditions were terrible on these ships. Hundreds of people were crammed onto a single ship. In fact, millions of Africans died on the way from disease, brutal mistreatment, or suicide. Those who survived were forced to work on plantations in the American colonies. The slaves often fared poorly on the sugar plantations of the Caribbean and Brazil, where owners often believed it was cheaper to work them to death and buy replacements rather than to feed, clothe, and house them adequately to sustain life. In N.America, where planters encouraged reproduction, they often fared better.

C. Effects of the Slave Trade

*** By the 1800s, when the slave trade ended, an estimated 11 million Africans had been sent to the Americas. The slave trade caused local wars to develop in Africa. Slavery was a big business in some African states. Europeans lacked the military strength, the immunity to disease, and the knowledge of the terrain to enter the interior of the continent. They stayed on the coast, while Africans captured the slaves and brought them to be purchased. As a result, traditional African political structures were undermined. Through slavery, many African societies were deprived of the talents of strong, intelligent people. West Africa especially lost many young men and women. Some societies and small states disappeared forever.
VI. Colonial Latin America

*** During the 1500s, the Spanish empire in the Americas stretched from California to South America and brought great wealth to the nation. The Spanish rapidly colonized Central America, the Andes Mountain regions, and the Philippines. In return, the Spanish brought their govt, religion, economy, and culture to the Americas. Wars against the Ottomans and the Protestants would eventually bankrupt even the silver-rich treasury of Spain.


A. Extent & Administration

B. Religion

C. Encomienda System

D. Culture & Social Classes


Terms: “Muslim Lake”’; caravel; astrolabe; cartography; “God, Glory, & Gold”; Bartholomeu Dias; Vasco de Gama; Cape of Good Hope; Cape Town & Boers; Goa, India; Melaka & Malay Peninsula; Spice Islands; Dutch East India Company; Ferdinand Magellan; circumnavigation; Philippines; Line of Demarcation; Treaty of Tordesillas; Hernando Cortes & Montezuma (Aztecs); Francisco Pizarro & Atahuallpa (Incas); conquistadores; Columbian Exchange; French & Indian War/ Seven Years War; entrepreneurs; joint stock company; British East India Company; viceroys; mita system; peninsulares; creoles; mulattos, mestizos
Homework: Chapter 17

1. Page 325: Question 6

2. Page 331: Question 2, 6

3. Page 335: Question 4

4. Page 336: 12, 13, 14

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World History

Ms. Cannavina
CHAPTER 19: THE MUSLIM “GUNPOWDER” EMPIRES

(1450—1800)
Main Ideas: This chapter will demonstrate:


  • That Ottomans created a strong empire through expansion, mastery of technology, religious toleration, and artistic achievement.

  • That after reaching its high point under Suleyman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire began to disintegrate.

  • That the Safavid Empire, unified as a Shia nation, fought w/ the Ottomans for control of territory and religion.

  • That the Moguls established a new dynasty and brought a new era of unity to the Indian subcontinent.


CCSS Standards:

  • RH.9-10.3: Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether or not earlier events caused later one or simply preceded them.

  • RH.9-10.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social studies.

  • RH.9-10.7: Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (charts, research data) w/ qualitative analysis in print or digital text.

  • WHST.9-10.1c: Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships b/w claim and reasons, b/w reasons and evidence, and b/w claims and counterclaims.

  • WHST.9-10.1d: Establish and maintain a formal and style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.

I. Absolutism

*** The decline of feudalism, the spirit of the Renaissance, the European encounter w/ the Americas, the changes of the Reformation, and the Commercial Revolution all served to increase the power of the European monarchs while enriching European societies. Starting in the 1500s and continuing through 1700s, monarchs triumphed over nobles, built powerful central governments through taxation, establishing standing armies. Monarchs justified their absolute power by claiming they ruled by divine right (king was God’s deputy on earth). While the Europeans were creating a new global order affecting Africa and the Americas, large empires continued to flourish east in Turkey, Persia, India, and China. Like the absolute monarchs of Europe, the rulers of these empires used gunpowder and large armies to impose order on vast territories. But in other ways, these empires did not advance as rapidly in scholarship, science, and technology as the European states did. As a result, these regions later felt the impact of European expansion.
II. The Ottoman Empire (1300—1700)

*** The Ottoman Empire would be named after Osman, a Turkish sultan whose military victory in 1301 would establish the group’s foundation in NW Anatolia (modern Turkey). Ultimately, the Ottoman Empire would expand across a vast area in the 1400s and 1500s from SE Europe through the Middle East and N.Africa; extend Muslim influence; make contributions in the arts, architecture, and literature; & force the Europeans to begin seeking new routes for trade w/ Asia.

A. Rise of the Ottoman Turks

B. Expansion of the Ottoman Empire

C. Reasons for the Ottoman Success

III. Life Under Ottoman Rule

A. The Imperial Sultans

B. A Diverse Society

IV. Ottoman Achievements

A. The Byzantine Heritage

B. Sultan Suleyman’s Golden Age (1520—1566)

V. The Decline of the Ottoman Emprie

A. Internal Disorder

B. European Advances

VI. The Safavid Empire

A. Rise of the Safavid Dynasty

B. Glory and Decline

C. Life under the Safavids

VII. The Mogul Dynasty (1526—1857)

A. Babur


*** Babur, a descendent of Tamerlane, established India’s Mogul Dynasty, which ruled from 1526 to 1857 (when the British took over). Babur would inherit part of Tamerlane’s empire when he died; from there Babur would eventually cross into India and capture Delhi. The Moguls were a mixture of Mongol and Turkish peoples from Central Asia. They rose to power a little later than the Ottomans did. Four emperors (Akbar, Jehangir, Shah Jahan, Aurangzeb) dominated most of the subcontinent, ruling it from splendid capitals that they built in the north (each emperor would build his own capital). Although the Mughals were Muslim in a Hindu country, the dynasty would bring a sense of unity to the region, especially under Sultan Akbar. Akbar, Barbur’s grandson, was only 14 when he became sultan.

.

VII. The Mogul Dynasty



A. Babur

B. The Reign of Akbar the Great (1542—1605)

C. Decline

D. British East India Company

E. Sikhism

Terms: Battle of Kosovo; Bosporus & Dardanelle Straits; Constantinople; Mehmed II: “the Conqueror”; Istanbul; madrases; Hagia Sophia; Sultan Selim I; Battle of Lepanto; gazis; Sufis; Dar al-Islam; janissaries; harem; Topkapi Palace; ulema; Grand Vizier; pashas; millets; devshirme system; Sinan; Suleymaniye Mosque; Sharia; Divan; shah; Safi-al Din; ayatollahs; Esfahan; orthodoxy; syncretism; Din-i-Ilahi; Zoroaster & Parsi; jizya; zaminders; vaishyas; “Akbar Style”; Shah Jahan; Taj Mahal; Delhi/ Shanjahanabad; Aurangzeb; suttee/sati; maharajahs; Sir Robert Clive; Battle of Plassey; sepoys; Nanak; Punjab
Homework: Chapter 19

1. Define: absolutism (page 350) 4. Page 373: 2,3

2. Page 365: Question 4 5. Page 374: 4, 6, 10, 11, 12

3. Page 369: Venn Diagram #2, 4



http://faculty.nmu.edu/kkendall/hs%20252/06a%20empires%203.jpg

World History

Ms. Cannavina

CHAPTER 20: THE EAST ASIAN WORLD (1400—1800)

Main Ideas:


  • Strong rulers dominated East Asia b/w 1400 & 1800.

  • Under the Ming & Qing dynasties, China flourished politically, economically, and culturally. At the end of the 1500s, powerful Japanese leaders reunified Japan and established the Tokugawa Shogunate. Both Asian countries would chose isolation over global interaction.

  • The Yi Dynasty in Korea struggled to maintain its independence from China and Japan.

  • Throughout East Asia, the arrival of European missionaries and merchants represented a major social and cultural challenge.

I. The Ming Dynasty (1368 – 1644) [Map of both dynasties: 381]

*** The Ming Dynasty restored Chinese rule and reaffirmed belief in Chinese superiority: ie, the “Middle Kingdom.” They would achieve great economic and cultural growth with highly developed internal markets. After a brief period of exploration, they would seek to limit contact w/ most outsiders. They would, however, continue to influence neighboring Asian countries culturally and intellectually.

A. Zhu Yuanzhang: “Ming Hong Wu” Ming Martial Emperor (1368—1398)

B. Ming Government Reform

C. Yong Le (1402—1424)

D. European Arrival During the Ming Dynasty

II. The Qing Dynasty (1644—1911)

A. The Manchus

B. Early Resistance… and Acceptance

C. Qing Rule over China

D. Kangxi (1661—1722)

E. Qianlong (1736—1795)

F. The Canton System

III. Chinese Art & Literature Under the Mings & Qings

*** The ousting of a foreign dynasty rekindled a sense of cultural superiority among the Chinese. Art and literature would flourish during the Ming and early Qing Dynasty due to the peace and prosperity of the time. Artists developed new styles of landscape painting and created beautiful porcelain jars and vases; the Ming era blue/ white porcelain is considered to be the best quality of porcelain. As always, Chinese silks were much admired by Europeans. Confucian scholars produced classical poetry, while others wrote popular literature.


IV. The Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan (1603—1868)

A. Reunification of Japan

B. European Arrival & Explusion

C. The Tokugawa Era (Edo Period)


V. The United States “Opens” Japan

*** In 1853, the US government sent a naval squadron to Japan under the command of Commodore Matthew Perry. The US sought to develop new markets and to establish a port where American ships could get supplies on their trips to China. Intimated, Japanese leaders opened their doors to American trade. Within a few years, the British, Russians, and Dutch negotiated similarly favorable treaties. The opening of Japanese ports had a profound effect on Japan’s development.


VI. The Meiji Restoration (1868—1912)

*** The Japanese samurai and daimyos criticized the Shogun severely for opening Japan to the West. Under the impact of this criticism, the Shogunate collapsed. The emperor, who ancestors had been mere puppets for over a thousand years, was suddenly “restored” to power. However, Emperor Meiji was convinced that Japan had to adopt Western ways if it was to escape European domination. Under Emperor Meiji, Japan became the first non-western nation to successfully adopt Western ways, including technology, education, and military tactics.


VII. Korea: The Hermit Kingdom

*** The history of Korea has been marked by the presence of dominating neighbors (China, Russia, Japan) and period of isolationism. For centuries it was known for being a “land bridge” , a cultural connection b/w China and Japan. Beginning in 1392, the powerful Yi dynasty created a stable state in Korea and it last over 500 years. The Yi adopted a Chinese style of govt and embraced Confucianism but maintain a distinct culture, including a separate alphabet. After two failed foreign invasions (one by China, one by Japan), Korean rulers pursued a policy of isolationism for 300 years. The country remained largely untouched by European merchants and Christian missionaries. Korea came to be called the Hermit Kingdom.
Terms: Board of Censors; Forbidden City; Zheng He; Guangzhou (Canton); Macao; Li Zicheng; gueue; banners; Treaty of Nerchinsk; White Lotus Rebellion; cohong; Oda Nobunaga; Toyotomi Hideyoshi; Tokugawa Ieyasu; Francis Xavier; National Seclusion Policy; hans; hostage system; chonin; eta; kabuki; haiku
Homework

1. Page 387: 4

2. Page 391: 4 & 5

3. Page 392: 2, 4, 5, 8, 11, 12


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