1. Population pressure led to migration, c. 2000 B.C.E.
Occupied most of sub-Saharan (except West) Africa by 1000 C.E.
Split into groups as they migrated: Eastern, Central, Southern
2. Bantu spread iron, herding technologies as they moved 3. between 300/500 A.C.E., Malay seafarers reached Africa
Settled in Madagascar, visited East African coast
Brought with them pigs, taro, and banana cultivation. Bananas became well established in Africa by 500 A.C.E. Bantu learned to cultivate bananas from Malagasy. Bananas caused second population spurt, migration surge.
Reached South Africa in 16th century CE
4. Population growth
•3.5 million people by 400 B.C.E.
•11 million by the beginning of the millennium
•17 million by 800 C.E.
•22 million by 1000 C.E.
4. Kingdom of Kongo
Small states formed several larger principalities, 1200 C.E.
One of the principalities conquered neighbors, built kingdom of Kongo
Maintained a centralized government with a royal currency system
Provided effective organization until the mid-17th century
African Social Organization
A. Sex and gender relations
Men undertook heavy labor, herding
Women were responsible for child rearing, domestic chores, farming
Men monopolized public authority but women could be leaders