They wanted to settle boundary issues from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean.
Spain wanted the Oregon Territory which it received in exchange for Florida.
Spain wanted to concentrate its colonization on the Caribbean and Central America.
2. From 1818 to 1846, the United States and Great Britain administered the territory in Oregon together. This was a compromise until both countries could agree on how to divide the land between them. How did the Oregon Treaty of 1846 settle the issue?
The territory was split with Britain getting the northern half.
The U.S. had to give up fishing rights along the Pacific coast.
Britain was forced to give up part of British Columbia.
Neither side obeyed the treaty, and war soon broke out.
3. The Republic of Texas existed from 1836 to 1845 before Texas joined the United States. Besides the likelihood of war with Mexico, why did annexation take so long?
Other territories were in line for statehood first.
Texas would be admitted as a slave state.
Statehood could not happen until the borders were defined.
Texas did not want to join the Union.
4. California became part of the United States in 1848. Soon after, thousands of people migrated across the country to settle in California. This mass migration took place because
the Gold Rush began in northern California.
the Transcontinental Railroad arrived from the East.
California had voted to be a slave state instead of a free state.
the federal government was giving land away to settlers.
5. Which of these states is located in the area acquired by the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
6. How did Mexico react when the United States annexed Texas?
Mexico was pleased to have the United States as its neighbor.
Mexico thought that the U.S had taken Mexican land since Mexico had not recognized Texas' independence.
Mexico felt that the United States should have paid a higher price to acquire Texas.
Mexico was not interested in what was going on in Texas.
7. Which of the following contributed to the outbreak of the Mexican War?
Mexico had not paid debts owed to the United States.
The U.S. and Mexico disagreed on the boundary between Texas and Mexico.
Mexican troops had invaded Washington, D.C. and New York City.
The U.S. wanted to reclaim Mexican land south of the Rio Grande.
8. The United States acquired the area on the map labeled number 2 at the conclusion of which war?
War of 1812
9. Which area on the map did the United States acquire after signing a treaty with Great Britain?
10. From which country did the United States acquire the area labeled number 3 on the map?
11. The United States acquired the area labeled number 6 on the map as a result of which of the following treaties?
20. Expansionists justified the idea of Manifest Destiny and the acquisition of new territory because they were spreading what?
21. Although the Northwest Ordinance of 1787 only dealt with the area north of the Ohio, how did it influence U.S. expansion in other areas?
It created areas in which people did not have to pay any taxes.
It established procedures for how new states could be admitted to the Union.
It prohibited slavery in all new territories.
It gave away free land to encourage people to move west.
In 1853, the United States paid Mexico $10 million for the southwestern part of New Mexico and the area in Arizona south of the Gila River in a deal known as the Gadsden Purchase. Why did the United States want this piece of land?
They wanted to build a railroad route through the area.
They thought there were vast deposits of gold in the area.
There were deep water ports with access to the Pacific Ocean.
The area was heavily populated with many thriving cities.
23. What was the significance of the Louisiana Purchase?
The U.S. acquired California.
The U.S. became the most populous country in the world.
The U.S. gained control over all of North America.
The U.S. doubled the size of its territory.
1. The Adams-Onís Treaty of 1819 settled the boundary disputes between Spain and the U.S. The U.S. promised not to make a claim on Texas. Spain ceded Florida to the U.S., and the two countries agreed upon a border. Spain also gave up claims to the Oregon Territory.
2. Because of their disagreement over where the border should be, the United States and Britain jointly occupied the area of Oregon for 28 years. Before the Oregon Treaty was signed, there were some in the United States who wanted to declare war on Britain and take all of Oregon. A popular slogan was "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!" since 54°40' N went as far north as the border with Alaska, including all of Oregon and British Columbia.
In the end, however, negotiation settled the disagreement. The 1846 Oregon Treaty extended the border between Canada and the United States along the 49th parallel. The 49th parallel had served as the border between the U.S. and Canada from Minnesota to the Rocky Mountains, so the Oregon Treaty merely extended an existing border.
3. Because Texas had legalized slavery in 1836, upon admission to the Union, it would upset the balance of power in Congress between slave and free states. Northern politicians didn't want another slave state, and Southerners wanted to divide Texas into multiple states to increase their power.
4. California became part of the United States in 1848, with the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ending the Mexican War. Gold was discovered in northern California that same year, and thousands of people headed there to strike it rich. The population of San Francisco went from 1000 in 1848 to 20,000 in 1850. Statehood soon followed when Californians adopted a constitution prohibiting slavery in 1849.
5. When the United States and Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo at the end of the Mexican War, the United States acquired all of California, Nevada, and Utah. The U.S. also acquired parts of New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming. The U.S. paid Mexico $15 million for this land.
6. Texas had declared its independence from Mexico in 1836, but Mexico never recognized Texas as an independent country. Mexico had warned the United States that if they annexed Texas, Mexico would view this as an act of war. The United States annexed Texas in 1845, and after a dispute over the boundary between Texas and Mexico, the U.S. and Mexico fought the Mexican War.
7. The dispute between Mexico and the United States over the border between Texas and Mexico was a major cause of the outbreak of the Mexican War. The United States said that the Rio Grande was the border while Mexico said that the border was at the Nueces River. War broke out between the two countries after Mexico sent its soldiers across the Rio Grande to attack the U.S. troops who were stationed on the north bank of the Rio Grande. Mexico attacked the U.S. troops because it felt that the U.S. had invaded its territory.
8. The Mexican-American War was fought between the U.S. and Mexico from 1846 until 1848. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in which Mexico ceded 525,000 square miles of its territory to the U.S. in exchange for $15 million. The U.S. gained all of what is now California, Nevada, and Utah, as well as parts of New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado, and Wyoming.
9. The number 1 on the map labels Oregon Territory. In 1818, the United States and Great Britain signed a treaty in which both countries agreed to jointly control Oregon Country, an area that extended to parallel 54°40′ north. When James K. Polk became president of the U.S. in 1845, he supported the annexation of the entire Oregon Country. In 1846, the United States and Great Britain signed the Oregon Treaty. In this treaty, Oregon Country was split with the U.S. gaining sole possession of the territory south of the 49th parallel, and Great Britain gaining sole possession of the land to the north.
10. In 1853, the United States sent diplomat James Gadsden to Mexico to renegotiate the border between the U.S. and Mexico. Mexico sold the area south of the Gila River in Arizona and the southwestern part of New Mexico to the U.S. for $10 million.
11. In 1819, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams and Spanish diplomat Luis de Onís negotiated the Adams-Onís Treaty. In this treaty, Spain ceded Florida to the United States, and the two countries defined the boundary between the Louisiana Purchase and Spain's territory in the west.
12. As a result of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, the United States gained the territory labeled number 5 on the map. The U.S. purchased land between the Mississippi River and the Rocky Mountains from France for $15 million. The U.S. gained 828,000 square miles of land, and the size of the U.S. doubled.
13. Number 4 on the map labels the territory claimed by Texas when it was annexed by the United States in 1845. Texas had gained its independence from Mexico in 1836, and it wanted to be part of the U.S. Because Texas would have been admitted to the Union as a slave state, Congress did not immediately annex the area. Texas was an independent country known as the Republic of Texas until it was admitted to the Union in 1845.
14. Land greed was a major reason for the federal government's desire to remove Native Americans from their own territory. European settlers wanted the land for themselves. They did not feel they could live in peace with the Indians. Forcible removal of the Native Americans started with the Cherokee Indians in Georgia.
15. The Trail of Tears refers to the forced removal of the Cherokee Indians under the Indian Removal Act of 1830. It forced 17,000 Cherokees to move from their own lands in Georgia to reservations in Oklahoma. 4,000 Cherokee Indians died along the way from disease, lack of food, and proper clothing.
16. The Northwest Ordinance dealt with the area north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River. Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, and Wisconsin are the five states that were created as a result of the Northwest Ordinance.
17. "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!" was a slogan used by expansionists in the 1840s regarding the issue of the Oregon border. Fifty-Four Forty refers to the latitude line which was the northern extent of U.S. claims in Oregon. At the Convention of 1818, the United States and Great Britain had agreed to jointly occupy Oregon. During the 1840s, there was pressure from expansionists for the U.S. to acquire all of Oregon to 54°40'. In the Oregon Treaty of 1846, the two countries ended the joint occupation and agreed to divide Oregon with the 49th parallel as the boundary between the U.S. and Canada.
18. First used in a newspaper article written by John O'Sullivan in 1845, the term Manifest Destiny was used to describe the idea that the westward expansion of the United States was inevitable because of fate. In 1845, John O'Sullivan wrote a newspaper article on the annexation of Texas in which he said it was America's "manifest destiny to overspread the continent." The concept of Manifest Destiny was also used to justify expansion into California, Oregon, and Alaska.
19. As the United States acquired new territories, the issue of the expansion of slavery was highly debated. Northern states did not want slavery to be allowed in new territories, while southern states did. Both the North and the South feared an unequal balance between slave states and free states in the U.S. Congress. The Missouri Compromise, the Compromise of 1850, and the Kansas-Nebraska Act were all federal legislation that dealt with the issue of slavery in new territories.
20. Expansionists believed that acquiring new territories was justified since the United States was spreading democracy into new areas. When writing in favor of the U.S.'s claims to all of the Oregon Territory, journalist John O'Sullivan wrote, "The American claim is by the right of our manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us for the development of the great experiment of liberty and federative self-government entrusted to us."
21. The Northwest Ordinance set requirements for how a territory could become a state. The procedures used under the Northwest Ordinance were used when territories in other areas became states as well.
22. The United States paid Mexico $10 million for the Gadsden Purchase because they thought it would be the best place for a southern railroad route to the Pacific Ocean. Because the Rocky Mountains spanned across much of the U.S.'s territory in the West, they had limited options for building railroad routes. The area in the Gadsden Purchase was less mountainous, and a railroad was eventually built there.
23. When the United States acquired the Louisiana Territory from France it 1803, it doubled the size of its territory. The U.S. bought around 828,000 sq mi of land for $15 million. The U.S. gained a huge expanse of land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains which contained all of the present-day states of Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, and parts of Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota, New Mexico, Texas, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and Louisiana including the city of New Orleans.