Study Guide Zinn, chapter 6



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Zinn, chapter 6



The Intimately Oppressed


  1. Define sex and gender


  1. Division of labor and sex (gender stratification)


  1. Foraging bands


  1. Public-domestic dichotomy (separation of the domestic and extra-domestic)


  1. Cross-cultural tendencies in gender roles (specific roles vary)


  1. Status of women in plow societies


  1. Patriarchy, control of goods and exchange


  1. cultural constructions (race, gender, kinship, sexual norms) & sex


  1. Matrilineal societies and status of women


  1. Iroquois society


  1. Zuni society




  1. Plains Indians


  1. Agriculture (women as “deputy husbands”)


  1. women and indentured servants


  1. Mary Wollstonecraft: “I wish to persuade women to endeavor to acquire strength, both of mind and body, and to convince them that soft phrases, susceptibility of heart, delicacy of sentiment, and refinement of taste, are almost synonymous with epithets of weakness, and that those beings who arc only the objects of pity and that kind of love . .. will soon become objects of contempt.. . .
           I wish to show that the first object of laudable ambition is to obtain a character as a human being, regardless of the distinction of sex.”



  1. American women in the Revolution



  1. Abigail Adams “... in the new code of laws which I suppose it will be necessary for you to make, I desire you would remember the ladies, and be more generous to them than your ancestors. Do not put such unlimited power in the hands of husbands. Remember, all men would be tyrants if they could. If particular care and attention are not paid to the ladies, we are determined to foment a rebellion, and will not hold ourselves bound to obey the laws in which we have no voice of representation.”


  1. women and slavery


  1. Sojourner Truth: “That man over there says that woman needs to be helped into carriages and lifted over ditches. .. . Nobody ever helps me into carriages, or over mud-puddles or gives me any best place. And a'nt I a woman?
           Look at my arm! I have ploughed, and planted, and gathered into barns, and no man could head me! And a'nt I a woman?
           I would work as much and eat as much as a man, when I could get it, and bear the lash as well. And a'nt I a woman?
           I have borne thirteen children and seen em most all sold off to slavery, and when I cried out with my mother's grief, none but Jesus heard me! And a'nt I a woman?



  1. Beah Richards


A BLACK WOMEN SPEAKS...
     OF WHITE WOMANHOOD
       OF WHITE SUPREMACY
                  OF PEACE

A poem by BEAULA RICHARDSON


It is right that I a woman
black,
should speak of white womanhood.
My fathers
my brothers
my husbands
my sons
die for it
They said, the white supremacist said
that you were better than me,
that your fair brow should never know the

sweat of slavery.

They lied.
White womanhood too is enslaved,
the difference is degree.

They brought me here in chains.


They brought you here willing slaves to man.
You bore him sons.
I bore him sons.
No, not willingly.
He purchased you.
He raped me
You were afraid to nurse your young
lest fallen breast offend your master's sight
and he should flee to firmer loveliness.
And so you passed them, your children, on to me.
Flesh that was your flesh and blood that was your blood
drank the sustenance of life from me.
And as I gave suckle I knew I nursed my own child's enemy.
I could have lied,
told you your child was fed till it was dead of hunger.
But I could not find the heart to kill orphaned innocence.
For as it fed, it smiled and burped and gurgled with content
and as for color knew no difference.
Yes, in that first while
I kept your sons and daughters alive.

But when they grew strong in blood and bone


that was of my milk
you
taught them to hate me.

You gave them the words “mammy” and “nigger”


so that strength that was of myself
turned and spat upon me,
despoiled my daughters, and killed my sons


  1. Putting out system


  1. Manufacturing/Industrialization and gender spheres (shifting role of women pegged to economic need)


  1. Women of Lowell


  1. Amelia Bloomer


  1. Cult of Domesticity & True Womanhood: The "cult of true womanhood" could not completely erase what was visible as evidence of woman's subordinate status: she could not vote, could not own property; when she did work, her wages were one-fourth to one-half what men earned in the same job. Women were excluded from the professions of law and medicine, from colleges, from the ministry.


  1. Women and antislavery


  1. Oberlin College


  1. Lucy Stone: When she married Henry Blackwell, they joined hands at their wedding and read a statement:

While we acknowledge our mutual affection by publicly assuming the relationship of husband and wife ... we deem it a duty to declare that this act on our part implies no sanction of, nor promise of voluntary obedience to such of the present laws of marriage as refuse to recognize the wife as an independent, rational being, while they confer upon the husband an injurious and unnatural superiority. . . .


       She was one of the first to refuse to give up her name after marriage.


  1. Sarah and Angelina Grimke


  1. Dorothea Dix


  1. Elizabeth Cady Stanton


  1. The Declaration of Sentiments


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