Study guide world history: 1500 to the Present standard whii. 2 –1500A. D



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STUDY GUIDE

WORLD HISTORY: 1500 to the Present

STANDARD WHII.2 –1500A.D.

STANDARD WHII.2a –1500A.D. Major States and Empires

Location of some of the major states and empires in the

Eastern Hemisphere Western Hemisphere

• England • Incan Empire

• France • Aztec Empire

• Spain


• Russia

• Ottoman Empire

• Persia

• China


• Mughal India

• Songhai Empire




STANDARD WHII.2b – The Renaissance

WHAT WERE THE ARTISTIC, LITERARY, AND INTELLECTUAL IDEAS OF THE RENAISSANCE?

Renaissance

• “Rebirth” of classical knowledge, “birth” of the modern world

• Spread of the Renaissance from the Italian city states to northern Europe


Contributions of the Renaissance

• Accomplishments in the visual arts—Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci

• Accomplishments in literature (sonnets, plays, essays)—

Shakespeare

• Accomplishments in intellectual ideas (humanism)—Erasmus


STANDARD WHII.2d – Trade

WHAT WERE THE REGIONAL TRADING PATTERNS AROUND 1500 A.D.?

Traditional trade patterns linking Europe with Asia and Africa

• Silk roads across Asia to the Mediterranean basin

• Maritime routes across the Indian Ocean

• Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa

• Northern European links with the Black Sea

• Western European sea and river trade

• South China Sea and lands of Southeast Asia



WHY WERE THE REGIONAL TRADING PATTERNS IMPORTANT?

• Exchange of products and ideas



STANDARD WHII.2e –Eastern inventions

WHAT TECHNOLOGICAL AND SCIENTIFIC ADVANCEMENTS HAD BEEN MADE AND EXCHANGED BY 1500 A.D.?

Advancements exchanged along trade routes

• Paper, compass, silk, porcelain (China)

• Textiles, numeral system (India and Middle East)

• Scientific transfer—Medicine, astronomy, mathematics





STANDARD WHII.3 – REFORMATION

STANDARD WHII.3a- Reform ideas

WHAT WERE THE PROBLEMS AND ISSUES THAT PROVOKED RELIGIOUS REFORMS IN WESTERN CHRISTIANITY?

Conflicts that challenged the authority of the Church in Rome

• Merchant wealth challenged the Church’s view of usury.

• German and English nobility disliked Italian domination of the

Church.


• The Church’s great political power and wealth caused conflict.

Church corruption and the sale of indulgences were widespread

and caused conflict.

WHAT WERE THE BELIEFS OF MARTIN LUTHER, JOHN CALVIN, HENRY VIII AND ELIZABETH I?

Martin Luther (the Lutheran tradition)

• Views—Salvation by faith alone, Bible as the ultimate authority, all humans equal before God

• Actions—95 theses, birth of the Protestant Church

• John Calvin (the Calvinist tradition)

• Views—Predestination, faith revealed by living a righteous life, work ethic

• Actions—Expansion of the Protestant Movement



King Henry VIII

• Views—Dismissed the authority of the Pope in Rome

• Actions—Divorced; broke with Rome; headed the national church in England; appropriated lands and wealth of the Roman Catholic Church in England

Queen Elizabeth I

• Anglican Church

• Tolerance for dissenters

• Expansion and colonialism

• Victory over the Spanish Armada (1588)


STANDARD WHII.3b – Impact of Reformation

WHAT WERE THE MAJOR ECONOMIC, POLITICAL, AND THEOLOGICAL ISSUES INVOLVED IN THE REFORMATION?

Reformation in Germany

• Princes in Northern Germany converted to Protestantism, ending authority of the Pope in their states.

• The Hapsburg family and the authority of the Holy Roman Empire continued to support the Roman Catholic Church.

• Conflict between Protestants and Catholics resulted in devastating wars (e.g., Thirty Years’ War).



Reformation in France

• Catholic monarchy granted Protestant Huguenots freedom of worship by the Edict of Nantes (later revoked).

• Cardinal Richelieu changed the focus of the Thirty Years’ War from a religious to a political conflict.

Catholic Reformation

• Dissenters prior to Luther - Huss, Wycliffe

• Counter Reformation

• The Council of Trent reaffirmed most Church doctrine and practice.

• The Society of Jesus (The Jesuits) was founded to spread Catholic doctrine around the world.

• The Inquisition was used to reinforce Catholic doctrine.





STANDARD WHII.3c – Changing values

WHAT WERE SOME OF THE CHANGING CULTURAL VALUES, TRADITIONS, AND PHILOSOPHIES DURING THE REFORMATION?

Changing cultural values, traditions, and philosophies

• Growth of secularism

• Growth of individualism

• Eventual growth of religious tolerance

WHAT WAS THE ROLE OF THE PRINTING PRESS IN THE SPREAD OF NEW IDEAS?

• Growth of literacy was stimulated by the Gutenberg printing

press.

• The Bible was printed in English, French, and German.



• These factors had an important impact on spreading the ideas of

the Reformation and Renaissance.



Notes: Reformation


STANDARD WHII.4 -- Age of Discovery

STANDARD WHII.4a – Motivation for exploration

WHY WERE EUROPEANS INTERESTED IN DISCOVERING NEW LANDS AND MARKETS?

Factors contributing to the European discovery of lands in the Western Hemisphere

• Demand for gold, spices, and natural resources in Europe

• Support for the diffusion of Christianity

• Political and economic competition between European empires

• Innovations in navigational arts (European and Islamic origins)

• Pioneering role of Prince Henry the Navigator

WHO WERE SOME IMPORTANT EXPLORERS?

• Portugal—Vasco da Gama

• Spain—Christopher Columbus, Hernando Cortez, Francisco

Pizarro, Ferdinand Magellan

• England—Francis Drake

• France—Jacques Cartier




STANDARD WHII.4b – Influence of Religion

HOW DID THE EXPANSION OF EUROPEAN EMPIRES INTO THE AMERICAS, AFRICA, AND ASIA AFFECT THE RELIGION IN THOSE AREAS?

Means of diffusion of Christianity

• Migration of colonists to new lands

• Influence of Catholics and Protestants, who carried their faith,

language, and cultures to new lands

• Conversion of indigenous peoples




STANDARD WHII.4c – Settlement Patterns

WHAT WAS THE EFFECT OF EUROPEAN MIGRATION AND SETTLEMENT ON THE AMERICAS, AFRICA, AND ASIA?

Americas

• Expansion of overseas territorial claims and European emigration

to North and South America

• Demise of Aztec and Inca Empires

• Legacy of a rigid class system and dictatorial rule in Latin America

• Forced migration of some Africans into slavery

• Colonies’ imitation of the culture and social patterns of their

parent country

Africa


• European trading posts along the coast

• Trade in slaves, gold, and other products

Asia

• Colonization by small groups of merchants (India, the Indies,



China)

• Influence of trading companies (Portuguese, Dutch, British)




STANDARD WHII.4d—Columbian Exchange

WHAT WAS THE IMPACT OF THE COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE BETWEEN EUROPEAN AND INDIGENOUS CULTURES?

Columbian Exchange

• Western Hemisphere agricultural products such as corn, potatoes,

and tobacco changed European lifestyles.

• European horses and cattle changed the lifestyles of American

Indians


• European diseases like smallpox killed many American Indians

Impact of the Columbian Exchange

• Shortage of labor to grow cash crops led to the use of African

slaves.


• Slavery was based on race.

• European plantation system in the Caribbean and the Americas

destroyed indigenous economics and damaged the environment.


STANDARD WHII.4e, f--Triangular Trade

WHAT WAS THE TRIANGULAR TRADE?

The triangular trade linked Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Slaves, sugar, and rum were traded.



WHAT WAS THE IMPACT OF PRECIOUS METAL EXPORTS FROM THE AMERICAS?

• Gold and silver (exported to Europe and Asia)

• Impact on indigenous empires of the Americas

• Impact on Spain and international trade



Notes: Age of Discovery

STANDARD WHII.5 -- Global Trade after 1500AD

STANDARD WHII.5a –Ottoman Empire

WHERE WAS THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE LOCATED AND HOW DID IT EXPAND?

Original location of the Ottoman Empire

• Asia Minor

Expansion and extent of the Ottoman Empire

• Southwest Asia

• Southeastern Europe, Balkan Peninsula

• North Africa

Development of the Ottoman Empire

• Capital at Constantinople renamed Istanbul

Islamic religion as a unifying force that accepted other

religions

• Trade in coffee and ceramics




STANDARD WHII.5b – India

WHAT WERE THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF THE MUGHAL EMPERORS OF INDIA?

Location of the Mughal Empire

• North India

Contributions of Mughal rulers

• Spread of Islam into India

• Art and architecture—Taj Mahal

• Arrival of European trading outposts

• Influence of Indian textiles on British textile industry



HOW DID THE MUGHAL EMPIRE TRADE WITH EUROPEAN NATIONS?

• Portugal, England, and the Netherlands competed for the Indian

Ocean trade by establishing Coastal ports on the Indian sub-

continent.



WHAT DID SOUTHERN INDIA TRADE?

Southern India traded silks, spices, and gems



STANDARD WHII.5c – East Asia

HOW DID THE CHINESE AND JAPANESE ATTEMPT TO LIMIT THE INFLUENCE OF EUROPEAN MERCHANTS?

China

• Creation of foreign enclaves to control trade

• Imperial policy of controlling foreign influences and trade

• Increase in European demand for Chinese goods (tea, porcelain)



Japan

• Characterized by powerless emperor controlled by military

leader (shogun)

• Adopted policy of isolation to limit foreign influences





STANDARD WHII.5d—Africa

HOW DID AFRICA BECOME INVOLVED IN FOREIGN TRADE?

African exports

• Slaves (triangular trade)

• Raw materials

African imports

• Manufactured goods from Europe,

• Asia, and the Americas

• New food products (corn, peanuts)



STANDARD WHII.5e—European growth

WHAT WERE THE ROLES OF THE COMMERCIAL REVOLUTION AND MERCANTILISM IN THE GROWTH OF EUROPEAN NATIONS?

Mercantilism:

An economic practice adopted by European

colonial powers in an effort to become self-sufficient; based on

the theory that colonies existed for the benefit of the mother

country

Commercial Revolution

• European maritime nations competed for overseas markets,

colonies, and resources.

• A new economic system emerged.

– New money and banking systems were created.

– Economic practices such as mercantilism evolved.

– Colonial economies were limited by the economic needs of

the mother country




Notes: Global Trade after 1500AD


STANDARD WHII.6 -- 16th-18th Centuries

STANDARD WHII.6a—Scientific Revolution

WHAT WERE SOME NEW SCIENTIFIC THEORIES AND DISCOVERIES?

Pioneers of the scientific revolution

• Nicolaus Copernicus: Developed heliocentric theory

• Johannes Kepler: Discovered planetary motion

• Galileo Galilei: Used telescope to support heliocentric theory

• Isaac Newton: Discovered Laws of Gravity

• William Harvey: Discovered circulation of the blood



WHAT WERE SOME OF THE EFFECTS OF THESE NEW THEORIES?

Importance of the scientific revolution

• Emphasis on reason and systematic observation of nature

• Formulation of the scientific method

• Expansion of scientific knowledge




STANDARD WHII.6b – Age of Absolutism

Characteristics of absolute monarchies

• Centralization of power

• Concept of rule by divine right

WHO WERE THE ABSOLUTE MONARCHS?

Absolute monarchs

Louis XIV—France, Palace of Versailles as a symbol of royal

power

Peter the Great—Russia, westernization of Russia




STANDARD WHII.6c—Glorious Revolution

HOW DID THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR AND THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION PROMOTE THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RIGHTS OF ENGLISHMEN?

Development of the rights of Englishmen

• Oliver Cromwell and the execution of Charles I

• The restoration of Charles II

• Development of political parties/factions

• Glorious Revolution (William and Mary)

• Increase of parliamentary power over royal power

• English Bill of Rights of 1689




STANDARD WHII.6d – Enlightenment

HOW DID PHILOSOPHERS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT INFLUENCE THINKING ON POLITICAL ISSUES?

The Enlightenment

• Applied reason to the human world, not just the natural world

• Stimulated religious tolerance

• Fueled democratic revolutions around the world



WHO WERE SOME ENLIGHTENMENT THINKERS, AND WHAT WERE THEIR IDEAS?

Enlightenment thinkers and their ideas

• Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan: Humans exist in a primitive “state of

nature” and consent to government for self-protection.

• John Locke’s Two Treatises on Government: People are sovereign

and consent to government for protection of natural rights to life,

liberty, and property.

• Montesquieu’s The Spirit of Laws: The best form of government

includes a separation of powers.

• Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract—Government is a

contract between rulers and the people.

• Voltaire—Religious toleration should triumph over religious

fanaticism; separation of church and state



HOW DID THE ENLIGHTENMENT PROMOTE REVOLUTION IN THE AMERICAN COLONIES?

Influence of the Enlightenment

• Political philosophies of the Enlightenment fueled revolution in the Americas and France.

• Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence incorporated Enlightenment ideas.

• The Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights incorporated Enlightenment ideas.


STANDARD WHII.6e – French Revolution

HOW DID THE IDEAS OF THE ENLIGHTENMENT CONTRIBUTE TO CAUSING THE FRENCH REVOLUTION?

Causes of the French Revolution

• Influence of Enlightenment ideas

• Influence of the American Revolution

Events of the French Revolution

• Storming of the Bastille

• Reign of Terror

Outcomes of the French Revolution

• End of the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI

• Rise of Napoleon


STANDARD WHII.6f -- Arts. Philosophy, Literature

WHO WERE SOME ARTISTS, PHILOSOPHERS, AND WRITERS OF THE PERIOD?

Representative artists, philosophers, and writers

• Johann Sebastian Bach: Baroque composer

• Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Classical composer

Voltaire: Philosopher

Miguel de Cervantes: Novelist

Eugène Delacroix: Painter (transition to the Romantic School of

the nineteenth century)

New schools of art and forms of literature

• Paintings depicted classical subjects, public events, natural

scenes, and living people (portraits).

• New forms of literature—the novel (Cervantes’ Don Quixote).



Standard WH II.7 – Latin American Revolutions

Standard WH II.7a - Colonial System

WHAT WERE THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COLONIAL SYSTEM IN LATIN AMERICA IN THE NINETEENTH CENTURY?

• Colonial governments mirrored the home governments.

• Catholicism had a strong influence on the development of the colonies.

• A major element of the economy was the mining of precious metals for export.



HOW DID SPAIN AND PORTUGAL MAINTAIN CONTROL OF THEIR LATIN AMERICAN DOMAINS?

Rigid class structure

• Viceroys / colonial officers

• Creoles

• Mestizos





STANDARD WHII.7b—Revolutions in Latin America

HOW DID THE AMERICAN AND FRENCH REVOLUTIONS INFLUENCE LATIN AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS?

• Slaves in Haiti rebelled, abolished slavery, and won independence.

• Father Miguel Hidalgo started the Mexican independence movement.

• French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies gained independence.



Selected countries that gained independence during the 1800s

• Mexico

• Haiti

• Colombia

• Venezuela

• Brazil




STANDARD WHII.7c --L’Ouverture and Bolivar

WHAT WERE THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF TOUSSAINT L’OUVERTURE AND SIMÓN BOLIVAR TO REVOLUTIONS IN LATIN AMERICA?

Contributions of Toussaint L’Ouverture

• Former slave who led Haitian rebellion against French

• Defeated the armies of three foreign powers: Spain, France, and Britain

Contributions of Simón Bolivar

• Native resident who led revolutionary efforts

• Liberated the northern areas of Latin America



STANDARD WHII.7d –Monroe Doctrine

HOW DID THE MONROE DOCTRINE IMPACT REVOLUTIONS IN LATIN AMERICA?

Impact of the Monroe Doctrine

• The Monroe Doctrine was issued by President James Monroe in 1823.

• Latin American nations were acknowledged to be independent.

• The United States would regard as a threat to its own peace and safety any attempt by European powers to impose their system on any independent state in the Western Hemisphere.





Standard WH II.8 – Political and Philosophical Developments in Europe

STANDARD WHII.8a -- Napoleon

WHAT WAS THE LEGACY OF NAPOLEON?

• Unsuccessful attempt to unify Europe under French domination

• Napoleonic Code

• Awakened feelings of national pride and growth of nationalism



WHAT WAS THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA?

• “Balance of power” doctrine

• Restoration of monarchies

• New political map of Europe

• New political philosophies (liberalism, conservatism)


STANDARD WHII.8b – Great Britain

HOW DID NATIONALISM AND DEMOCRACY INFLUENCE NATIONAL REVOLUTIONS?

National pride, economic competition, and democratic ideals stimulated the growth of nationalism.

The terms of the Congress of Vienna led to widespread discontent in Europe. especially in Italy and the German states. Unsuccessful revolutions of 1848 increased nationalistic tensions.

In contrast to continental Europe, Great Britain expanded political rights through legislative means and made slavery illegal in the British Empire.



STANDARD WHII.8c – Italy

WHAT EVENTS LED TO THE UNIFICATION OF ITALY?

Unification of Italy

Count Cavour unified Northern Italy.

Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern Italy to northern Italy.

• The Papal States (including Rome) became the last to join Italy.




STANDARD WHII.8 d – Germany

WHAT ROLE DID OTTO VON BISMARCK PLAY IN THE UNIFICATION OF GERMANY?

Unification of Germany

Otto von Bismarck led Prussia in the unification of Germany through war and by appealing to nationalist feelings.

• Bismarck’s actions were seen as an example of Realpolitik, which justifies all means to achieve and hold power.

• The Franco-Prussian War led to the creation of the German state.





STANDARD WHII.9a – Industrial Revolution

STANDARD WHII.9a -- Industrial Revolution

WHY DID THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION ORIGINATE IN ENGLAND?

Origin in England, because of its natural resources like coal, iron ore, and the invention and improvement of the steam engine

• Spread to Europe and the United States

• Role of cotton textile, iron, and steel industries

• Relationship to the British Enclosure Movement

• Rise of the factory system and demise of cottage industries



Technological advances that produced the Industrial Revolution

• Spinning jenny: James Hargreaves

• James Watt—Steam engine

• Eli Whitney—Cotton gin

• Henry Bessemer—Process for making steel

Advancements in science and medicine

• Edward Jenner—Developed smallpox vaccination

• Louis Pasteur—Discovered bacteria

Impacts of the Industrial Revolution on industrialized countries

• Population increase

• Increased standards of living for many, though not all

• Improved transportation

• Urbanization

• Environmental pollution

• Increased education

• Dissatisfaction of working class with working conditions

• Growth of the middle class


STANDARD WHII.9b – Capitalism, Communism

WHAT WAS THE ROLE OF CAPITALISM AND MARKET COMPETITION IN THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION?

Capitalism

• Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations

• Role of market competition and entrepreneurial abilities

• Impact on standard of living and the growth of the middle class

• Dissatisfaction with poor working conditions and the unequal distribution of wealth in society

WHAT WERE SOME THEORIES OPPOSED TO CAPITALISM?

Socialism and communism

• Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto (written with Friedrich Engels) and Das Capital

• Response to the injustices of capitalism

• Importance of redistribution of wealth to the communists

WHY DID WORKERS ORGANIZE INTO LABOR UNIONS?

The rise of labor unions

• Encouraged worker-organized strikes to increase wages and improve working conditions

• Lobbied for laws to improve the lives of workers, including women and children

• Wanted worker rights and collective bargaining between labor and management




STANDARD WHII.9c – Impact on Society

HOW DID THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IMPACT THE LIVES OF WOMEN, CHILDREN, AND THE FAMILY?

The nature of work in the factory system

• Family-based cottage industries displaced by the factory system

• Harsh working conditions with men competing with women and children for wages

• Child labor that kept costs of production low and profits high

• Owners of mines and factories who exercised considerable control over the lives of their laborers



HOW DID THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION AFFECT SLAVERY?

Impact of the Industrial Revolution on slavery

• The cotton gin increased demand for slave labor on American plantations.

• The United States and Britain outlawed the slave trade and then slavery.

Social effects of the Industrial Revolution

• Women and children entering the workplace as cheap labor

• Introduction of reforms to end child labor

• Expansion of education

• Women’s increased demands for suffrage



STANDARD WHII.9d Imperialism

WHY DID EUROPEAN COUNTRIES PARTICIPATE IN IMPERIALISM AND A RACE FOR COLONIES?

Imperialism in Africa and Asia

• European domination

• European conflicts carried to the colonies

• Christian missionary efforts

• Spheres of influence in China

• Suez Canal

• East India Company’s domination of Indian states

• American opening of Japan to trade



Outcomes and global effects

• Colonies’ participation in the war, which increased demands for independence

• End of the Russian Imperial, Ottoman, German, and Austro-Hungarian empires

• Enormous cost of the war in lives, property, and social disruption



Responses of colonized peoples

• Armed conflicts (Events leading to the Boxer Rebellion in China)

• Rise of nationalism (first Indian nationalist party founded in the mid-1800s)




WHII.10 World War I

STANDARD WHII.10a—Causes of World War I

WHAT WERE THE FACTORS THAT PRODUCED WORLD WAR I?

Causes of World War I

Alliances that divided Europe into competing camps

• Nationalistic feelings

• Diplomatic failures

• Imperialism

• Competition over colonies

• Militarism


STANDARD WHII.10b—Events & Leader of World War I

WHAT WERE THE MAJOR EVENTS OF THE WAR?

Major events

• Assassination of Austria’s Archduke Ferdinand

• United States enters war

• Russia leaves the war



WHO WERE THE MAJOR LEADERS?

Major leaders

• Woodrow Wilson

Kaiser Wilhelm II


WHAT WERE THE OUTCOMES AND GLOBAL EFFECTS OF WORLD WAR I?

Outcomes and global effects

• Colonies’ participation in the war, which increased demands

for independence

• End of the Russian Imperial, Ottoman, German, and Austro-

Hungarian empires

• Enormous cost of the war in lives, property, and social disruption



WHAT WERE THE TERMS OF THE TREATY OF VERSAILLES?

• Forced Germany to accept guilt for war and loss of territory and pay reparations

• Limited the German military

• League of Nations





STANDARD WHII.10c-- Russian Revolution

WHY DID RUSSIA ERUPT IN REVOLUTION WHILE FIGHTING IN WORLD WAR I?

Causes of 1917 revolutions

• Defeat in war with Japan in 1905

• Landless peasantry

• Incompetence of Tsar Nicholas II

• Military defeats and high casualties in World War I

HOW DID COMMUNISM RISE IN RUSSIA?

Rise of communism

• Bolshevik Revolution and civil war

• Vladimir Lenin’s New Economic Policy

• Lenin’s successor—Joseph Stalin



WH.11-- The Interwar Period

STANDARD WHII.11a – League of Nations

WHAT WAS THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS AND WHY DID IT FAIL?

• International cooperative organization

• Established to prevent future wars

• United States not a member

• Failure of League because it did not have power to enforce its decisions

WHY WAS THE MANDATE SYSTEM CREATED?

• During World War I, Great Britain and France agreed to divide large portions of the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East between themselves.

• After the war, the “mandate system” gave Great Britain and France control over the lands that became Iraq, Transjordan, and Palestine (British controlled) and Syria and Lebanon (French controlled).


STANDARD WHII.11b – Depression

WHY DID THE WORLD EXPERIENCE DEPRESSION IN THE 1930S?

Causes of worldwide depression

• German reparations

• Expansion of production capacities and dominance of the United States in the global economy

• High protective tariffs

• Excessive expansion of credit

• Stock Market Crash (1929)



WHAT POLITICAL CHANGES RESULTED FROM THE WORLDWIDE DEPRESSION?

Impact of world depression

• High unemployment in industrial countries

• Bank failures and collapse of credit

• Collapse of prices in world trade

• Nazi Party’s growing importance in Germany; Nazi Party’s blame of European Jews for economic collapse




STANDARD WHII.11c – Dictators

WHY DID DICTATORIAL GOVERNMENTS EMERGE IN GERMANY, ITALY, JAPAN, AND THE U.S.S.R. AFTER WORLD WAR I?

U.S.S.R. during the Interwar Period—Joseph Stalin

• Entrenchment of communism

• Stalin’s policies (five-year plans, collectivization of farms, state industrialization, secret police)

• Great Purge



Germany during the Interwar Period—Adolf Hitler

• Inflation and depression

• Democratic government weakened

• Anti-Semitism

• Extreme nationalism

• National Socialism (Nazism)

• German occupation of nearby countries

Italy during the Interwar Period—Benito Mussolini

• Rise of fascism

• Ambition to restore the glory of Rome

• Invasion of Ethiopia



Japan during the Interwar Period—Hirohito and Hideki Tojo

• Militarism

• Industrialization of Japan, leading to drive for raw materials

• Invasion of Korea, Manchuria, and the rest of China










WH11.12 World War II

STANDARD WHII.12a- Causes

WHAT WERE THE CAUSES OF WORLD WAR II?

Economic and political causes of World War II

• Aggression by totalitarian powers (Germany, Italy, Japan)

• Nationalism

• Failures of the Treaty of Versailles

• Weakness of the League of Nations

• Appeasement

• Tendencies towards isolationism and pacifism in Europe and the United States


STANDARD WHII.12a- Major Leaders & Events

WHAT WERE THE MAJOR EVENTS OF WORLD WAR II?

Major events of the war (1939-1945)

• German invasion of Poland

• Fall of France

• Battle of Britain

• German invasion of the Soviet Union

• Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor

• D-Day (Allied invasion of Europe)

• Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki



WHO WERE THE MAJOR LEADERS OF WORLD WAR II?

Major leaders of the war

• Franklin D. Roosevelt—U.S. President

• Harry Truman—U.S. President after death of President Roosevelt

• Dwight D. Eisenhower— Allied commander in

• Europe

• Douglas MacArthur—U.S. general

• George Marshall—U.S. general

• Winston Churchill—British prime minister

• Joseph Stalin—Soviet dictator

• Adolf Hitler—Nazi dictator of Germany

• Hideki Tojo—Japanese general

Hirohito—Emperor of Japan




STANDARD WHII.12b—Genocide

Genocide: The systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group

WHY DID THE HOLOCAUST OCCUR?

• Totalitarianism combined with nationalism

• History of anti-Semitism

• Defeat in World War I and economic depression blamed on German Jews

• Hitler’s belief in the master race

• Final solution—Extermination camps, gas chambers



Examples of other genocides

• Armenians by leaders of the Ottoman Empire

• Peasants, government and military leaders, and members of the elite in the Soviet Union by Joseph Stalin

• The educated, artists, technicians, former government officials, monks, and minorities by Pol Pot in Cambodia

• Tutsi minority by Hutu in Rwanda


STANDARD WHII.12c – War Crimes

WHAT WERE THE WAR CRIMES TRIALS?

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights was issued in 1948 to protect the “inherent dignity and…the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family….”


WHAT WERE THE OUTCOMES OF WORLD WAR II?

• European powers’ loss of empires

• Establishment of two major powers in the world: The United States and the U.S.S.R.

• War crimes trials

• Division of Europe—Iron Curtain

• Establishment of the United Nations

• The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

Marshall Plan

• Formation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and

Warsaw Pact


HOW DID THE ALLIES PROMOTE RECONSTRUCTION OF THE DEFEATED POWERS?

Efforts for reconstruction of Germany

Democratic government installed in West Germany and West Berlin

Germany and Berlin divided among the four Allied powers

• Emergence of West Germany as economic power in postwar Europe



Efforts for reconstruction of Japan

U.S. occupation of Japan under MacArthur’s administration

• Democracy and economic development

• Elimination of Japanese offensive military capabilities; United States’ guarantee of Japan’s security

• Emergence of Japan as dominant economy in Asia


WHAT WERE THE INTERNATIONAL COOPERATIVE ORGANIZATIONS CREATED AFTER WORLD WAR II?

International Cooperative Organizations

• United Nations

• North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)

• Warsaw Pact


The Universal Declaration of Human Rights

• Established and adopted by members of the United Nations

• Provided a code of conduct for the treatment of people under the protection of their government


WH11.13 – 2nd half of 20th century

STANDARD WHII.13a – Cold War Events

WHAT EVENTS LED TO THE COLD WAR?

Beginning of the Cold War (1945-1948)

• The Yalta Conference and the Soviet control of Eastern Europe

• Rivalry between the United States and the U.S.S.R.

• Democracy and the free enterprise system v. dictatorship and communism

• President Truman and the Policy of Containment

• Eastern Europe—Soviet satellite nations; the Iron Curtain


STANDARD WHII.13b – The Playing Field

WHAT WAS THE IMPACT OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS?

• North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) v. the Warsaw Pact

• Korean Conflict

• Vietnam War

• Berlin and significance of Berlin Wall

• Cuban Missile Crisis

• Nuclear weapons and the theory of deterrence


WHAT WERE THE CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES OF THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION?

Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe

• Soviet economic collapse

• Nationalism in Warsaw Pact countries

• Tearing down of Berlin Wall

• Breakup of the Soviet Union

• Expansion of NATO


STANDARD WHII.13c – Asian Conflicts

WHAT WAS THE POLICY OF CONTAINMENT?

Policy for preventing the expansion of communism



HOW DID THE COLD WAR INFLUENCE CONFLICTS IN EASTERN ASIA AFTER WORLD WAR II?

• Conflicts and revolutionary movements in China

Division of China into two nations at the end of the Chinese civil war

Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi)—Nationalist China (island of Taiwan)

Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong)—Communist China (mainland China)

Conflicts and revolutionary movements in Vietnam

• Role of French Imperialism

• Leadership of Ho Chi Minh

• Vietnam as a divided nation

• Influence of policy of containment

• The United States and the Vietnam War

• Vietnam as a reunited communist country today


STANDARD WHII.13d – World Leaders

Indira Gandhi

• Closer relationship between India and the Soviet Union during the Cold War

• Developed nuclear program

Margaret Thatcher

• British Prime Minister

• Free trade and less government regulation of business

• Close relationship with United States and U.S. foreign policy

• Asserted United Kingdom’s military power

Mikhail Gorbachev

• Glasnost and perestroika

• Fall of the Berlin Wall

• Last president of Soviet Union

• Oversaw peaceful transition to democracy

Deng Xiaoping

• Reformed communist economy to market economy leading to rapid economic growth









WH11.14 Independence Movements

STANDARD WHII.14a – India

WHO WAS A LEADER OF THE INDIAN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT, AND WHAT TACTICS DID HE USE?

Regional setting for the Indian independence movement

• Indian sub-continent

• British India

• India

• Pakistan (former West Pakistan)

• Bangladesh (former East Pakistan)

• Sri Lanka (former Ceylon)



WHAT WERE THE OUTCOMES OF THE INDIAN INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT?

Evolution of the Indian independence movement

• British rule in India

• Indian National Congress

• Leadership of Mohandas Gandhi

• Role of civil disobedience and passive resistance

• Political division along Hindu-Muslim lines — Pakistan/India

• Republic of India

– World’s largest democratic nation

- Federal system, giving many powers to the states



Indian democracy

• Jawaharlal Nehru, a close associate of Gandhi, supported western-style industrialization.

• 1950 Constitution sought to prohibit caste discrimination.

• Ethnic and religious differences caused problems in the development of India as a democratic nation.

• New economic development has helped to ease financial problems of the nation.



STANDARD WHII.14b – Africa

WHY DID INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENTS IN AFRICA GAIN SUCCESS AFTER WORLD WAR II?

The independence movement in Africa

• Right to self-determination (U.N. charter)

• Peaceful and violent revolutions after World War II

• Pride in African cultures and heritage

• Resentment toward imperial rule and economic exploitation

• Loss of colonies by Great Britain, France, Belgium, and Portugal Influence of superpower rivalry during the Cold War



Examples of independence movements and subsequent development efforts

• West Africa—Peaceful transition

• Algeria—War for Independence from France

• Kenya (Britain)—Violent struggle under leadership of Kenyatta

South Africa: Black South Africans’ struggle against apartheid led by Nelson Mandela, who became the first black president of the Republic of South Africa


STANDARD WHII.14c – Middle East

WHAT WERE THE RESULTS OF THE UNITED NATIONS’ DECISION TO END THE MANDATE SYSTEM IN TERMS OF STATES CREATED (LOCATIONS) AND THEIR SUBSEQUENT PROBLEMS?

Mandates in the Middle East

• Established by the League of Nations

• Granted independence after World War II

• Resulted in Middle East conflicts created by religious differences



French Mandates in the Middle East

• Syria


• Lebanon

British Mandates in the Middle East

• Jordan

• Palestine (part became independent as the State of Israel)

WHAT WAS THE ROLE OF GOLDA MEIR AND GAMAL ABDUL NASSER IN THE CREATION OF THE STATES IN THE MIDDLE EAST?

Golda Meir

• Prime Minister of Israel

• After initial setbacks, led Israel to victory in Yom Kippur War

Gamal Abdul Nasser

• President of Egypt

• Nationalized Suez Canal





STANDARD WHII.15 – Religions

STANDARD WHII.15a – Religious Beliefs

WHAT ARE SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF THE FIVE MAJOR WORLD RELIGIONS?

Judaism

• Monotheism

• Ten Commandments of moral and religious conduct

• Torah—Written record and beliefs of Hebrews



Christianity

• Monotheism

• Jesus as Son of God

• Life after death

• New Testament—Life and teachings of Jesus

• Establishment of Christian doctrine by early church councils



Islam

• Monotheism

• Muhammad the prophet

• Qur’an / Koran

• Five Pillars of Islam

• Mecca and Medina



Buddhism

• Founder—Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)

• Four Noble Truths

• Eightfold Path to Enlightenment

• Spread of Buddhism from India to China and other parts of Asia, resulting from Asoka’s missionaries and their writings

Hinduism

• Many forms of one God

Reincarnation: Rebirth based upon karma

Karma: Knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences




STANDARD WHII.15b – Geography of Religion

WHERE ARE THE FOLLOWERS OF THE FIVE WORLD RELIGIONS CONCENTRATED?

Geographical distribution of world’s major religions

Judaism—Concentrated in Israel and North America

Christianity —Concentrated in Europe, North and South America

Islam—Concentrated in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia

Hinduism—Concentrated in India

Buddhism—Concentrated in East and Southeast Asia



STANDARD WHII.16 – Contemporary World Issues

STANDARD WHII.16a – Technology & Science

WHAT ARE SOME CHALLENGES FACED BY THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD?

Migrations of refugees and others

• Refugees as an issue in international conflicts

• Migrations of “guest workers” to European cities

Ethnic and religious conflicts

• Middle East

• Northern Ireland

• Balkans

• Horn of Africa

• South Asia



WHAT NEW TECHNOLOGIES HAVE CREATED OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES?

Impact of new technologies

• Widespread but unequal access to computers and instantaneous communications

• Genetic engineering and bioethics


STANDARD WHII.16b – Economic Development

HOW DOES THE DEVELOPING WORLD COMPARE WITH THE DEVELOPED WORLD IN TERMS OF ECONOMIC, SOCIAL, AND POPULATION CHARACTERISTICS?

Contrasts between developed and developing nations

• Geographic locations of major developed and developing countries

• Economic conditions

• Social conditions (literacy, access to health care)

• Population size and rate of growth

Factors affecting environment and society

• Economic development

• Rapid population growth


WHAT IMPACT ARE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AND RAPID POPULATION GROWTH HAVING ON THE ENVIRONMENT?

Environmental challenges

• Pollution

• Loss of habitat

• Global climate change



Social challenges

• Poverty

• Poor health

• Illiteracy

• Famine

• Migration



STANDARD WHII.16c – Economic Interdependence

HOW IS ECONOMIC INTERDEPENDENCE CHANGING THE WORLD?

Economic interdependence

• Role of rapid transportation, communication, and computer networks

• Rise and influence of multinational corporations

• Changing role of international boundaries

• Regional integration (European Union)

Trade agreements—North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization (WTO)

• International organizations— United Nations (UN), International Monetary Fund (IMF)


STANDARD WHII. 16d – Terrorism

WHAT ARE EXAMPLES OF INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM IN OUR WORLD TODAY THAT HAVE IMPACTED DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING NATIONS?

Examples of International Terrorism

• Munich Olympics

• Terrorist attacks in the United States (e.g. 9/11/2001) - motivated by extremism (Osama bin Laden).

• Car bombings

• Suicide bombers

• Airline hijackers

HOW HAS TERRORISM IMPACTED DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING NATIONS IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD?

Governmental responses to terrorist activities

• Surveillance

• Review of privacy rights

• Security at ports and airports

• Identification badges and photos









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