• England • Incan Empire
• France • Aztec Empire
• Ottoman Empire
• Songhai Empire
• “Rebirth” of classical knowledge, “birth” of the modern world
• Spread of the Renaissance from the Italian city states to northern Europe
• Accomplishments in the visual arts—Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci
• Accomplishments in literature (sonnets, plays, essays)—
• Accomplishments in intellectual ideas (humanism)—Erasmus
Traditional trade patterns linking Europe with Asia and Africa
• Silk roads across Asia to the Mediterranean basin
• Maritime routes across the Indian Ocean
• Trans-Saharan routes across North Africa
• Northern European links with the Black Sea
• Western European sea and river trade
• South China Sea and lands of Southeast Asia
• Exchange of products and ideas
• Paper, compass, silk, porcelain (China)
• Textiles, numeral system (India and Middle East)
• Scientific transfer—Medicine, astronomy, mathematics
• Merchant wealth challenged the Church’s view of usury.
• German and English nobility disliked Italian domination of the
• Church corruption and the sale of indulgences were widespread
and caused conflict.
WHAT WERE THE BELIEFS OF MARTIN LUTHER, JOHN CALVIN, HENRY VIII AND ELIZABETH I?
Martin Luther (the Lutheran tradition)
• Views—Salvation by faith alone, Bible as the ultimate authority, all humans equal before God
• Actions—95 theses, birth of the Protestant Church
• John Calvin (the Calvinist tradition)
• Views—Predestination, faith revealed by living a righteous life, work ethic
• Actions—Expansion of the Protestant Movement
• Views—Dismissed the authority of the Pope in Rome
• Actions—Divorced; broke with Rome; headed the national church in England; appropriated lands and wealth of the Roman Catholic Church in England
Queen Elizabeth I
• Anglican Church
• Tolerance for dissenters
• Expansion and colonialism
• Victory over the Spanish Armada (1588)
• Princes in Northern Germany converted to Protestantism, ending authority of the Pope in their states.
• The Hapsburg family and the authority of the Holy Roman Empire continued to support the Roman Catholic Church.
• Conflict between Protestants and Catholics resulted in devastating wars (e.g., Thirty Years’ War).
• Catholic monarchy granted Protestant Huguenots freedom of worship by the Edict of Nantes (later revoked).
• Cardinal Richelieu changed the focus of the Thirty Years’ War from a religious to a political conflict.
• Dissenters prior to Luther - Huss, Wycliffe
• Counter Reformation
• The Council of Trent reaffirmed most Church doctrine and practice.
• The Society of Jesus (The Jesuits) was founded to spread Catholic doctrine around the world.
• The Inquisition was used to reinforce Catholic doctrine.
• Growth of secularism
• Growth of individualism
• Eventual growth of religious tolerance
WHAT WAS THE ROLE OF THE PRINTING PRESS IN THE SPREAD OF NEW IDEAS?
• Growth of literacy was stimulated by the Gutenberg printing
• The Bible was printed in English, French, and German.
the Reformation and Renaissance.
Factors contributing to the European discovery of lands in the Western Hemisphere
• Demand for gold, spices, and natural resources in Europe
• Support for the diffusion of Christianity
• Political and economic competition between European empires
• Innovations in navigational arts (European and Islamic origins)
• Pioneering role of Prince Henry the Navigator
WHO WERE SOME IMPORTANT EXPLORERS?
• Portugal—Vasco da Gama
• Spain—Christopher Columbus, Hernando Cortez, Francisco
Pizarro, Ferdinand Magellan
• England—Francis Drake
• France—Jacques Cartier
Means of diffusion of Christianity
• Migration of colonists to new lands
• Influence of Catholics and Protestants, who carried their faith,
language, and cultures to new lands
• Conversion of indigenous peoples
• Expansion of overseas territorial claims and European emigration
to North and South America
• Demise of Aztec and Inca Empires
• Legacy of a rigid class system and dictatorial rule in Latin America
• Forced migration of some Africans into slavery
• Colonies’ imitation of the culture and social patterns of their
• Trade in slaves, gold, and other products
• Colonization by small groups of merchants (India, the Indies,
• Influence of trading companies (Portuguese, Dutch, British)
• Western Hemisphere agricultural products such as corn, potatoes,
and tobacco changed European lifestyles.
• European horses and cattle changed the lifestyles of American
Impact of the Columbian Exchange
• Shortage of labor to grow cash crops led to the use of African
• European plantation system in the Caribbean and the Americas
destroyed indigenous economics and damaged the environment.
The triangular trade linked Europe, Africa, and the Americas. Slaves, sugar, and rum were traded.
• Gold and silver (exported to Europe and Asia)
• Impact on indigenous empires of the Americas
• Impact on Spain and international trade
Original location of the Ottoman Empire
• Asia Minor
Expansion and extent of the Ottoman Empire
• Southwest Asia
• Southeastern Europe, Balkan Peninsula
• North Africa
Development of the Ottoman Empire
• Capital at Constantinople renamed Istanbul
• Islamic religion as a unifying force that accepted other
• Trade in coffee and ceramics
Location of the Mughal Empire
• North India
Contributions of Mughal rulers
• Spread of Islam into India
• Art and architecture—Taj Mahal
• Arrival of European trading outposts
• Influence of Indian textiles on British textile industry
• Portugal, England, and the Netherlands competed for the Indian
Ocean trade by establishing Coastal ports on the Indian sub-
Southern India traded silks, spices, and gems
• Creation of foreign enclaves to control trade
• Imperial policy of controlling foreign influences and trade
• Increase in European demand for Chinese goods (tea, porcelain)
• Characterized by powerless emperor controlled by military
• Adopted policy of isolation to limit foreign influences
• Slaves (triangular trade)
• Raw materials
• Manufactured goods from Europe,
• Asia, and the Americas
• New food products (corn, peanuts)
An economic practice adopted by European
colonial powers in an effort to become self-sufficient; based on
the theory that colonies existed for the benefit of the mother
• European maritime nations competed for overseas markets,
colonies, and resources.
• A new economic system emerged.
– New money and banking systems were created.
– Economic practices such as mercantilism evolved.
– Colonial economies were limited by the economic needs of
the mother country
• Nicolaus Copernicus: Developed heliocentric theory
• Johannes Kepler: Discovered planetary motion
• Galileo Galilei: Used telescope to support heliocentric theory
• Isaac Newton: Discovered Laws of Gravity
• William Harvey: Discovered circulation of the blood
• Emphasis on reason and systematic observation of nature
• Formulation of the scientific method
• Expansion of scientific knowledge
• Centralization of power
• Concept of rule by divine right
WHO WERE THE ABSOLUTE MONARCHS?
• Louis XIV—France, Palace of Versailles as a symbol of royal
• Peter the Great—Russia, westernization of Russia
Development of the rights of Englishmen
• Oliver Cromwell and the execution of Charles I
• The restoration of Charles II
• Development of political parties/factions
• Glorious Revolution (William and Mary)
• Increase of parliamentary power over royal power
• English Bill of Rights of 1689
• Applied reason to the human world, not just the natural world
• Stimulated religious tolerance
• Fueled democratic revolutions around the world
• Thomas Hobbes’ Leviathan: Humans exist in a primitive “state of
nature” and consent to government for self-protection.
• John Locke’s Two Treatises on Government: People are sovereign
and consent to government for protection of natural rights to life,
liberty, and property.
• Montesquieu’s The Spirit of Laws: The best form of government
includes a separation of powers.
• Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract—Government is a
contract between rulers and the people.
• Voltaire—Religious toleration should triumph over religious
fanaticism; separation of church and state
Influence of the Enlightenment
• Political philosophies of the Enlightenment fueled revolution in the Americas and France.
• Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence incorporated Enlightenment ideas.
• The Constitution of the United States of America and Bill of Rights incorporated Enlightenment ideas.
• Influence of Enlightenment ideas
• Influence of the American Revolution
Events of the French Revolution
• Storming of the Bastille
• Reign of Terror
Outcomes of the French Revolution
• End of the absolute monarchy of Louis XVI
• Rise of Napoleon
• Johann Sebastian Bach: Baroque composer
• Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Classical composer
• Voltaire: Philosopher
• Miguel de Cervantes: Novelist
• Eugène Delacroix: Painter (transition to the Romantic School of
the nineteenth century)
New schools of art and forms of literature
• Paintings depicted classical subjects, public events, natural
scenes, and living people (portraits).
• New forms of literature—the novel (Cervantes’ Don Quixote).
• Colonial governments mirrored the home governments.
• Catholicism had a strong influence on the development of the colonies.
• A major element of the economy was the mining of precious metals for export.
• Viceroys / colonial officers
• Slaves in Haiti rebelled, abolished slavery, and won independence.
• Father Miguel Hidalgo started the Mexican independence movement.
• French, Spanish, and Portuguese colonies gained independence.
• Former slave who led Haitian rebellion against French
• Defeated the armies of three foreign powers: Spain, France, and Britain
Contributions of Simón Bolivar
• Native resident who led revolutionary efforts
• Liberated the northern areas of Latin America
• The Monroe Doctrine was issued by President James Monroe in 1823.
• Latin American nations were acknowledged to be independent.
• The United States would regard as a threat to its own peace and safety any attempt by European powers to impose their system on any independent state in the Western Hemisphere.
• Unsuccessful attempt to unify Europe under French domination
• Napoleonic Code
• Awakened feelings of national pride and growth of nationalism
• “Balance of power” doctrine
• Restoration of monarchies
• New political map of Europe
• New political philosophies (liberalism, conservatism)
National pride, economic competition, and democratic ideals stimulated the growth of nationalism.
The terms of the Congress of Vienna led to widespread discontent in Europe. especially in Italy and the German states. Unsuccessful revolutions of 1848 increased nationalistic tensions.
In contrast to continental Europe, Great Britain expanded political rights through legislative means and made slavery illegal in the British Empire.
• Count Cavour unified Northern Italy.
• Giuseppe Garibaldi joined southern Italy to northern Italy.
• The Papal States (including Rome) became the last to join Italy.
• Otto von Bismarck led Prussia in the unification of Germany through war and by appealing to nationalist feelings.
• Bismarck’s actions were seen as an example of Realpolitik, which justifies all means to achieve and hold power.
• The Franco-Prussian War led to the creation of the German state.
• Origin in England, because of its natural resources like coal, iron ore, and the invention and improvement of the steam engine
• Spread to Europe and the United States
• Role of cotton textile, iron, and steel industries
• Relationship to the British Enclosure Movement
• Rise of the factory system and demise of cottage industries
• Spinning jenny: James Hargreaves
• James Watt—Steam engine
• Eli Whitney—Cotton gin
• Henry Bessemer—Process for making steel
Advancements in science and medicine
• Edward Jenner—Developed smallpox vaccination
• Louis Pasteur—Discovered bacteria
Impacts of the Industrial Revolution on industrialized countries
• Population increase
• Increased standards of living for many, though not all
• Improved transportation
• Environmental pollution
• Increased education
• Dissatisfaction of working class with working conditions
• Growth of the middle class
• Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations
• Role of market competition and entrepreneurial abilities
• Impact on standard of living and the growth of the middle class
• Dissatisfaction with poor working conditions and the unequal distribution of wealth in society
WHAT WERE SOME THEORIES OPPOSED TO CAPITALISM?
Socialism and communism
• Karl Marx’s Communist Manifesto (written with Friedrich Engels) and Das Capital
• Response to the injustices of capitalism
• Importance of redistribution of wealth to the communists
WHY DID WORKERS ORGANIZE INTO LABOR UNIONS?
The rise of labor unions
• Encouraged worker-organized strikes to increase wages and improve working conditions
• Lobbied for laws to improve the lives of workers, including women and children
• Wanted worker rights and collective bargaining between labor and management
The nature of work in the factory system
• Family-based cottage industries displaced by the factory system
• Harsh working conditions with men competing with women and children for wages
• Child labor that kept costs of production low and profits high
• Owners of mines and factories who exercised considerable control over the lives of their laborers
• The cotton gin increased demand for slave labor on American plantations.
• The United States and Britain outlawed the slave trade and then slavery.
Social effects of the Industrial Revolution
• Women and children entering the workplace as cheap labor
• Introduction of reforms to end child labor
• Expansion of education
• Women’s increased demands for suffrage
• European domination
• European conflicts carried to the colonies
• Christian missionary efforts
• Spheres of influence in China
• Suez Canal
• East India Company’s domination of Indian states
• American opening of Japan to trade
• Colonies’ participation in the war, which increased demands for independence
• End of the Russian Imperial, Ottoman, German, and Austro-Hungarian empires
• Enormous cost of the war in lives, property, and social disruption
• Armed conflicts (Events leading to the Boxer Rebellion in China)
• Rise of nationalism (first Indian nationalist party founded in the mid-1800s)
• Alliances that divided Europe into competing camps
• Nationalistic feelings
• Diplomatic failures
• Competition over colonies
• Assassination of Austria’s Archduke Ferdinand
• United States enters war
• Russia leaves the war
• Woodrow Wilson
• Kaiser Wilhelm II
• Colonies’ participation in the war, which increased demands
• End of the Russian Imperial, Ottoman, German, and Austro-
• Forced Germany to accept guilt for war and loss of territory and pay reparations
• Limited the German military
• League of Nations
• Defeat in war with Japan in 1905
• Landless peasantry
• Incompetence of Tsar Nicholas II
• Military defeats and high casualties in World War I
HOW DID COMMUNISM RISE IN RUSSIA?
Rise of communism
• Bolshevik Revolution and civil war
• Vladimir Lenin’s New Economic Policy
• Lenin’s successor—Joseph Stalin
• International cooperative organization
• Established to prevent future wars
• United States not a member
• Failure of League because it did not have power to enforce its decisions
WHY WAS THE MANDATE SYSTEM CREATED?
• During World War I, Great Britain and France agreed to divide large portions of the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East between themselves.
• After the war, the “mandate system” gave Great Britain and France control over the lands that became Iraq, Transjordan, and Palestine (British controlled) and Syria and Lebanon (French controlled).
• German reparations
• Expansion of production capacities and dominance of the United States in the global economy
• High protective tariffs
• Excessive expansion of credit
• Stock Market Crash (1929)
Impact of world depression
• High unemployment in industrial countries
• Bank failures and collapse of credit
• Collapse of prices in world trade
• Nazi Party’s growing importance in Germany; Nazi Party’s blame of European Jews for economic collapse
• Entrenchment of communism
• Stalin’s policies (five-year plans, collectivization of farms, state industrialization, secret police)
• Great Purge
• Inflation and depression
• Democratic government weakened
• Extreme nationalism
• National Socialism (Nazism)
• German occupation of nearby countries
Italy during the Interwar Period—Benito Mussolini
• Rise of fascism
• Ambition to restore the glory of Rome
• Invasion of Ethiopia
• Industrialization of Japan, leading to drive for raw materials
• Invasion of Korea, Manchuria, and the rest of China
• Aggression by totalitarian powers (Germany, Italy, Japan)
• Failures of the Treaty of Versailles
• Weakness of the League of Nations
• Tendencies towards isolationism and pacifism in Europe and the United States
• German invasion of Poland
• Fall of France
• Battle of Britain
• German invasion of the Soviet Union
• Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
• D-Day (Allied invasion of Europe)
• Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
• Franklin D. Roosevelt—U.S. President
• Harry Truman—U.S. President after death of President Roosevelt
• Dwight D. Eisenhower— Allied commander in
• Douglas MacArthur—U.S. general
• George Marshall—U.S. general
• Winston Churchill—British prime minister
• Joseph Stalin—Soviet dictator
• Adolf Hitler—Nazi dictator of Germany
• Hideki Tojo—Japanese general
• Hirohito—Emperor of Japan
• Totalitarianism combined with nationalism
• History of anti-Semitism
• Defeat in World War I and economic depression blamed on German Jews
• Hitler’s belief in the master race
• Final solution—Extermination camps, gas chambers
• Armenians by leaders of the Ottoman Empire
• Peasants, government and military leaders, and members of the elite in the Soviet Union by Joseph Stalin
• The educated, artists, technicians, former government officials, monks, and minorities by Pol Pot in Cambodia
• Tutsi minority by Hutu in Rwanda
• European powers’ loss of empires
• Establishment of two major powers in the world: The United States and the U.S.S.R.
• War crimes trials
• Division of Europe—Iron Curtain
• Establishment of the United Nations
• The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
• Marshall Plan
• Formation of North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) and
• Democratic government installed in West Germany and West Berlin
• Germany and Berlin divided among the four Allied powers
• Emergence of West Germany as economic power in postwar Europe
• U.S. occupation of Japan under MacArthur’s administration
• Democracy and economic development
• Elimination of Japanese offensive military capabilities; United States’ guarantee of Japan’s security
• Emergence of Japan as dominant economy in Asia
• United Nations
• North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
• Warsaw Pact
• Established and adopted by members of the United Nations
• Provided a code of conduct for the treatment of people under the protection of their government
Beginning of the Cold War (1945-1948)
• The Yalta Conference and the Soviet control of Eastern Europe
• Rivalry between the United States and the U.S.S.R.
• Democracy and the free enterprise system v. dictatorship and communism
• President Truman and the Policy of Containment
• Eastern Europe—Soviet satellite nations; the Iron Curtain
• North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) v. the Warsaw Pact
• Korean Conflict
• Vietnam War
• Berlin and significance of Berlin Wall
• Cuban Missile Crisis
• Nuclear weapons and the theory of deterrence
Collapse of Communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe
• Soviet economic collapse
• Nationalism in Warsaw Pact countries
• Tearing down of Berlin Wall
• Breakup of the Soviet Union
• Expansion of NATO
Policy for preventing the expansion of communism
• Conflicts and revolutionary movements in China
• Division of China into two nations at the end of the Chinese civil war
• Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi)—Nationalist China (island of Taiwan)
• Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong)—Communist China (mainland China)
Conflicts and revolutionary movements in Vietnam
• Role of French Imperialism
• Leadership of Ho Chi Minh
• Vietnam as a divided nation
• Influence of policy of containment
• The United States and the Vietnam War
• Vietnam as a reunited communist country today
• Closer relationship between India and the Soviet Union during the Cold War
• Developed nuclear program
• British Prime Minister
• Free trade and less government regulation of business
• Close relationship with United States and U.S. foreign policy
• Asserted United Kingdom’s military power
• Glasnost and perestroika
• Fall of the Berlin Wall
• Last president of Soviet Union
• Oversaw peaceful transition to democracy
• Reformed communist economy to market economy leading to rapid economic growth
Regional setting for the Indian independence movement
• Indian sub-continent
• British India
• Pakistan (former West Pakistan)
• Bangladesh (former East Pakistan)
• Sri Lanka (former Ceylon)
Evolution of the Indian independence movement
• British rule in India
• Indian National Congress
• Leadership of Mohandas Gandhi
• Role of civil disobedience and passive resistance
• Political division along Hindu-Muslim lines — Pakistan/India
• Republic of India
– World’s largest democratic nation
- Federal system, giving many powers to the states
• Jawaharlal Nehru, a close associate of Gandhi, supported western-style industrialization.
• 1950 Constitution sought to prohibit caste discrimination.
• Ethnic and religious differences caused problems in the development of India as a democratic nation.
• New economic development has helped to ease financial problems of the nation.
• Right to self-determination (U.N. charter)
• Peaceful and violent revolutions after World War II
• Pride in African cultures and heritage
• Resentment toward imperial rule and economic exploitation
• Loss of colonies by Great Britain, France, Belgium, and Portugal Influence of superpower rivalry during the Cold War
• West Africa—Peaceful transition
• Algeria—War for Independence from France
• Kenya (Britain)—Violent struggle under leadership of Kenyatta
• South Africa: Black South Africans’ struggle against apartheid led by Nelson Mandela, who became the first black president of the Republic of South Africa
• Established by the League of Nations
• Granted independence after World War II
• Resulted in Middle East conflicts created by religious differences
• Palestine (part became independent as the State of Israel)
WHAT WAS THE ROLE OF GOLDA MEIR AND GAMAL ABDUL NASSER IN THE CREATION OF THE STATES IN THE MIDDLE EAST?
• Prime Minister of Israel
• After initial setbacks, led Israel to victory in Yom Kippur War
Gamal Abdul Nasser
• President of Egypt
• Nationalized Suez Canal
• Ten Commandments of moral and religious conduct
• Torah—Written record and beliefs of Hebrews
• Jesus as Son of God
• Life after death
• New Testament—Life and teachings of Jesus
• Establishment of Christian doctrine by early church councils
• Muhammad the prophet
• Qur’an / Koran
• Five Pillars of Islam
• Mecca and Medina
• Founder—Siddhartha Gautama (Buddha)
• Four Noble Truths
• Eightfold Path to Enlightenment
• Spread of Buddhism from India to China and other parts of Asia, resulting from Asoka’s missionaries and their writings
• Many forms of one God
• Reincarnation: Rebirth based upon karma
• Karma: Knowledge that all thoughts and actions result in future consequences
Geographical distribution of world’s major religions
• Judaism—Concentrated in Israel and North America
• Christianity —Concentrated in Europe, North and South America
• Islam—Concentrated in the Middle East, Africa, and Asia
• Hinduism—Concentrated in India
• Buddhism—Concentrated in East and Southeast Asia
• Refugees as an issue in international conflicts
• Migrations of “guest workers” to European cities
Ethnic and religious conflicts
• Middle East
• Northern Ireland
• Horn of Africa
• South Asia
• Widespread but unequal access to computers and instantaneous communications
• Genetic engineering and bioethics
• Geographic locations of major developed and developing countries
• Economic conditions
• Social conditions (literacy, access to health care)
• Population size and rate of growth
Factors affecting environment and society
• Economic development
• Rapid population growth
• Loss of habitat
• Global climate change
• Poor health
• Role of rapid transportation, communication, and computer networks
• Rise and influence of multinational corporations
• Changing role of international boundaries
• Regional integration (European Union)
• Trade agreements—North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), World Trade Organization (WTO)
• International organizations— United Nations (UN), International Monetary Fund (IMF)
Examples of International Terrorism
• Munich Olympics
• Terrorist attacks in the United States (e.g. 9/11/2001) - motivated by extremism (Osama bin Laden).
• Car bombings
• Suicide bombers
• Airline hijackers
HOW HAS TERRORISM IMPACTED DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING NATIONS IN THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD?
Governmental responses to terrorist activities
• Review of privacy rights
• Security at ports and airports
• Identification badges and photos