Study Guide for Unit 2 Test



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Study Guide for Unit 2 Test

#1: Why were Americans so reluctant to break with Britain? What was the tipping point?

Second Continental Congress

• Changing Sentiments: 1. cost of the war, 2. hurt feelings (King recruited Indians, slaves, and Hessians), and 3. forcing independence (rejection of the Olive Branch petition & Prohibiting Act – blockade).

• the Failed Conquest of Canada


#2: What was Paine’s radical vision and why did that vision have such a strong appeal to many at the time? Why did conservatives develop a different vision of America’s future?

• Loyalty to the Empire

• 1776 – publication of Common Sense

• Smaller body controlling the larger one?

• Creation of a “Republic” | NE town meetings

• Cultivation of Civil Virtue

• Natural Aristocracy – Stability of Social Order
#3: Does the Declaration of Independence clearly make the argument that the colonies “ought to be independent”?

• Lee’s Formal Resolution

The Committee of Five

• Natural Rights, the Social Contract, and the Right to Revolution

• Crimes of the Crown

• “We must hang together, or we will hang separately.”


#4: In what ways was the Revolution a civil war among Americans as well as a fight between Britain and those Americans seeking independence?

• Minority Movement

• Patriots – characteristics of . . .

• Loyalists – characteristics of . . .

• The Loyalist Exodus
#5: What were the major turning points of the Revolutionary War?

• General Washington at Bay

• Burgoyne’s Blundering Invasion

• Strange French Bedfellows (Franco American Alliance of 1778) – Saratoga

• Colonial War becomes a World War

• Yorktown and the Final Curtain


#6: What were the terms of the Paris Peace Treaty? Were the American’s being fair in the way they handled the peace negotiations?

• Collapse of Lord North’s Tory regime

• Franklin, J. Adams, and Jay

• The Terms of Peace


#7: What changes in American society did the revolutionary American ideas bring about in the years immediately following the revolution?

  • Evolution rather than Revolution?

  • Pursuit of Equality: political, economic, and religious

  • Abolition of Slavery

  • Republican Motherhood

#8: What were the strengths / weaknesses of the A of C? Were the social problems of the 1780’s really due to the national government’s failings, or the aftermath of the AR?



  • Constitution Making in the States

  • Relocation of State Capitals

  • Economic democracy proceeds political democracy

  • Navigation Laws | Enterprising Yankees

  • Unhealthy atmosphere

  • Articles of Confederation | Western Territories

  • No Power to Regulate Interstate Commerce

  • No Power to Enforce Tax Collection

  • Votes and Amendments

  • Land Ordinance of 1785

  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787

  • Slavery in the NW Territory

  • British Problems: no commercial treaty, shut off West Indies trade from US, continued fur trading with Indians on northern frontier

  • Spanish Problems: closed the Mississippi and territorial claims

  • Pirates of the North African States

  • Crisis in 1786: British flooding of the market & Shays’s Rebellion

#9: What really motivated the leaders who called the Constitutional Convention and worked out the essential compromises?

  • Control of Commerce

  • Annapolis Convention

  • Philadelphia Convention

  • Patriots in Philadelphia

  • Hammering Out a Bundle of Compromises

  • Safeguards for the Constitution

  • Conservative or Liberal Document?

#10: Who were the Federalist and the Antifederalist, what were the issues that divided them, and why did the Federalist win?



  • Characteristics of the Federalists . . .

  • Characteristics of the Antifederalists . . .

  • Criticisms of the Constitution

  • Great Debate in the States

  • The Four Laggard States

#11: Should the Constitution be seen as a conservative reaction to the Revolution, an enshrinement of revolutionary principles, or both? What was most truly original about the Constitution?


#12: Explain the purpose and significance of the Bill of Rights. Did these Ten Amendments weaken or strengthen the federal government?

  • Ratification with understanding of . . .

  • How to amend the Constitution – two ways

  • Ninth Amendment

  • Tenth Amendment

  • Judiciary Act of 1789

#13: What were Hamilton’s basic economic & political goals, how did he achieve them? Compare and contrast the philosophical & political disagreements between Hamilton and Jefferson. Consequence of this?

  • Revival of the Public Credit – why?

  • Funding at Par | Assumption of State Debts

  • Compromise Between States

  • Customs Duties and Excise Taxes

  • Bank of the United States

  • Benefits and Constitutionality of the Bank

  • Jefferson – strict interpretation “construction”

  • Hamilton – loose interpretation “construction”

  • Whiskey Rebellion

  • Emergence of Political Parties

#14: What were the basic goals of Washington’s and Adam’s foreign policies, and how successful were they in achieving them?



  • Impact of the French Revolution

  • Washington’s Neutrality Proclamation

  • Embroilments with Britain

  • Jay’s and Pinckney’s Treaties

  • Washington’s Farewell

  • John Adams and the High Federalists

  • Unofficial Fighting with France

  • X, Y, Z Affair | Convention of 1800

#15: What were the main domestic issues facing the Adams administration? How did he handle these and what were the short term and long terms consequences?



  • Alien and Sedition Acts (Naturalization Act, Aliens Friends Act, Alien Enemies Act, Sedition Act)

  • Virginia (Madison) and Kentucky (Jefferson) Resolutions

  • Election of 1800 – Adams v. Jefferson

#16: Is the phrase “Revolution of 1800” justified?

• Role of the High Federalists

• Jefferson’s Religious Views

• Burr Jefferson Tie

• Significance of the election?

• Responsibility Breeds Moderation

• Jeffersonian Restraint


#17: What were the political and economic consequences of the Louisiana Purchase?

• King of Spain cedes to Napoleon trans-Mississippi region of Louisiana, including N.O.

• James Monroe and Robert R. Livingston

• Why sell?

– Failed effort to re-conquer Santo Domingo

– Napoleon’s conflict to end with Britain

• Constitutionality of the Purchase

• Valley of Democracy: Lewis, Clark, & Sacajawea


#18: Which event had the greatest impact on American society in the early part of the 19th century?

• Jefferson victory in the Revolution of 1800

• Louisiana Purchase

• Defeat of Tecumseh’s Indian Confederacy
#19: Could it be argued that Jefferson ironically laid the foundations for an imperial U.S. and a powerful federal government?


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