Study Guide for Test #1 2/6/15 History

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Study Guide for Test #1


What kind of thing does Socrates think we are? Why does he think we're that kind of thing?

According to Socrates, should we fear death? Why or why not? Given what Socrates thinks death is, how does he think we should live?

According to Socrates, how do we become good?

Why does Aristotle disagree with Socrates' view of acting morally? What kind of thing does Aristotle think we are? How does Aristotle think we become good?

What the Epicureans and Stoics think about how we should live? How do they differ?

Briefly state what descriptive ethics, normative ethics, metaethics, and applied ethics are in a way that makes it clear how they're different.

Moral Relativism

What is moral relativism?

What is the difference between individual moral relativism and cultural moral relativism?

Give two arguments for individual moral relativism. Give an objection of each of these arguments.

Give three arguments against individual moral relativism.

Show how cultural moral relativism isn't susceptible to the arguments against individual moral relativism.

Give three arguments against cultural moral relativism.


What is the principle of verification?

What is emotivism?

How does the principle of verification show that moral statements are meaningless?

Give G.E. Moore's objection to emotivism and Ayer's reply.

Give two objections to emotivism.

Deciding Ethical Issues

Why can't an ethical principle be just the disjunction of every moral case?

Why can't we decide ethical principles a priori?

What is one way that 1) an ethical principle can inform us about the moral status of particular cases and 2) the cases inform the ethical principle we adopt. Give an example.

Moral Luck

What is moral luck?

What are four ways in which we can be morally lucky? Give an example of each.

What is the problem of moral luck?

What are three ways one could deal with the problem of moral luck?

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