Study Guide, Chapter 14 European Cultural & Religious Transformation

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Study Guide, Chapter 14

European Cultural & Religious Transformation
After reading this chapter, students should have an understanding of:

  • Humanism—its classical roots and its writers and how it compared and contrasted with medieval scholasticism

  • The Italian Renaissance—its leading painters, sculptors, and architects along with their patrons.

  • The Northern Renaissance—how printing spurred it on and who its key writers and painters were.

  • The Protestant Reformation with emphasis on its roots, Luther’s role, its spread over Europe.

  • Reformation in England and the rise of Anglicanism.

  • The reforms of Zwingli and Calvin.

  • The Counter-reformation efforts Catholics made to correct the abuses that had crept into the church.

Terms, concepts

Bubonic Plague “black death”





Protestant Reformation









Francesco Petrarca “Petrarch”

Michelangelo Buonarroti

Leonardo da Vinci

Medici family

Niccolo Machiavelli “The Prince”

Thomas More,“Utopia”

Erasmus, “Praise of Folly”

Pope Boniface VIII

Charles V of Spain

Johann Gutenberg

John Hus

John Wyclif

Martin Luther

Henry VIII, England

Mary Tudor ”Bloody Mary”

William Shakespeare

John Calvin

Ignatius Loyola

Jesuits (Society of Jesus)


1378-1417 Great Schism

1455, Printing press

1517, Luther posts 95 theses

1527, Charles V sacks Rome

1531, Henry VIII proclaims Church of England

1545-1563, Council of Trent

1555, Peace of Augsburg

Reading & homework schedule:

Wed 3/17 Read/notes pp. 398-404

Thu 3/18 Read/notes pp. 404-413

Fri 3/19 Read/notes pp. 413-421

Mon 3/22 Read/notes pp. 421-429 & map

Thu 3/25 Test Ch. 14 & concept question due

Concept Questions. You will answer one concept question. Write a minimum of two clear paragraphs including 2 quotes with parenthetical citations. Most of your answer must be in your own words. Quotes should be relevant, brief and serve to clarify or emphasize a point you are making in your answer.

  1. Describe the characteristics of humanism and how it developed in 14th century Italy. What characteristics of humanism can be interpreted as a revolt against the religious emphasis of the Middle Ages?

  2. How did the Northern Renaissance differ from the Italian Renaissance?

  3. Explain the progression of events which led to Martin Luther’s break with the Catholic Church. How did his religious views differ with those of the Church.

  4. How successful was the Catholic Church in dealing with the Protestant reformation and its internal problems? Cite specific events, people and policies.

  5. Explain the political reasons that drove Henry VIII of England to create the Anglican Church and the impact of his decision on England after his death.

Rev. 3/18/10

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