Strengths of the Articles of Confederation



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Unit 3: The New Nation (1783-1800)

Strengths of the Articles of Confederation:

1. ____


2. ____

Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation:

3. ____


4. ____

5. ____
1783

1787

1789


1792

1796


1800

Articles of Confederation

Constitution

President Washington

President Adams

Turning Point: Shays’ Rebellion

6. ____


7. ____

Turning Point: Constitutional Convention

8. ____


Constitutional Concepts:

9. Limited Government: ____

10. Popular Sovereignty: ____

11. Separation of Powers/


Checks and Balances: ____

12. Federalism: ____



Compromises of the Constitution:

19. Great Compromise: ____

20. Three-Fifths: ____

21. Slavery: ____

22. Ratification: ____

Key events of Washington’s two terms:

23. Judiciary Act of 1789: ____ 24. Created the first cabinet: ____

25. Hamilton’s Financial Plan: ____ 26. Whiskey Rebellion: ____

27. Neutrality Act: ____ 28. Farewell Address: ____

29. Federalist Party: ____ 30. Democratic-Republican Party: _____

Key events of Adams term:

31. Election of 1796: ____

32. XYZ Affair: ____

33. Alien and Sedition Acts: ____

34. Election of 1800: ____

Organization of the Constitution:

Article I: Article III:

13. ____ 17. ____

14. ____ 18. ____

Article II:

15. ____


16. ____
Match these concepts to the appropriate place in the timeline

  1. A rebellion of frustrated farmers in Massachusetts who were afraid of losing their farms

  2. The Constitution created a democratic republic in which citizens vote for politicians who make decisions based on the will of the people

  3. Executive Branch; President, VP, cabinet, executive bureaucracy

  4. This election was the election involving two political parties; Federalist John Adams won

  5. Judicial Branch; Supreme Court and national courts

  6. Legislative Branch; Congress is a bicameral legislature made up of the House of Reps and Senate

  7. Members included Hamilton (Treasury), Jefferson (State), Knox (War), Randolph (Attorney General)

  8. This settled the issue between Northern and Southern states to not discuss the issue of slavery until 1808

  9. National gov’t did not have power to tax the states, no president, no national court system

  10. Powers of this branch: Enforce the law, veto, negotiate treaties, appoint judges and ambassadors)

  11. Republican Thomas Jefferson defeated Federalist John Adams

  12. Sold western lands (Land Ordinance); Created a process for territories to become states (NW Ordinance)

  13. Federalists supported the ratification of the Constitution; A Bill of Rights was added to help the Anti-Federalist support the Constitution

  14. Washington addressed three concerns: avoid political parties, preserve neutrality, avoid sectionalism

  15. This national government was a success because it protected personal liberty and states’ rights

  16. This settled the issue between the large states (VA Plan) and small states (NJ Plan) over representation in Congress; Created a bi-cameral legislature

  17. The AOC was replaced by the Constitution which gave the national gov’t more power over the state gov’ts

  18. The idea only the powers explicitly listed (or implied) in the Constitution were granted to the gov’t; All other powers were reserved to the states and the people

  19. The laws passed by the Federalist Party limited free speech; led to the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves

  20. The national gov’t (expressed powers) and state governments (reserved powers) both have ability to make laws over citizens

  21. This national gov’t had no national currency; Difficult to pass laws or amend the framework of gov’t

  22. Powers of this branch: tax, make laws, impeachment, ratify treaties and ambassadors, coin money, regulate trade, declare war

  23. The rebellion proved the weaknesses of the AOC because the gov’t could not raise an taxes or an army to stop the rebellion

  24. This economic plan included creating a Bank of the US, funding and assumption of state debts, and a tax on whiskey

  25. This incident involving an attempted bribe by French diplomats almost led to a war with France

  26. This law created lower the federal courts

  27. This national gov’t provided no national unity; Gave power to states with an overly weak national gov’t

  28. This party supported a strong national government and loose interpretation of the Constitution

  29. This rebellion was led by frustrated farmers in Pennsylvania against Hamilton’s tax on whiskey; 13,000 federal troops quickly stopped the rebellion

  30. This settled the issue between Northern and Southern states of how slaves were counted in determining representation in the House of Representatives

  31. Washington’s policy regarding America’s role in the war between England and France

  32. Powers of this branch: Interpret the law, declare laws unconstitutional called judicial review)

  33. The Constitution created 3 equal branches of gov’t, each with duties and powers over other branches

  34. This party supported a strong state governments and strict interpretation of the Constitution

Answer Key

  1. A Revolutionary veteran led a rebellion of frustrated farmers in Massachusetts who were afraid of losing their farms 6

  2. The Constitution created a democratic republic in which citizens vote for politicians who make decisions based on the will of the people 10

  3. Executive Branch; President, VP, cabinet, executive bureaucracy 15

  4. This election was the election involving two political parties; Federalist John Adams won 31

  5. Judicial Branch; Supreme Court and national courts 17

  6. Legislative Branch; Congress is a bicameral legislature made up of the House of Reps and Senate 13

  7. Members included Hamilton (Sec of Treasury), Jefferson (Sec of State), Knox (Sec of War), Randolph (Attorney General) 24

  8. This settled the issue between Northern and Southern states; Decided not to discuss the issue of slavery until 1808 21

  9. National gov’t did not have power to tax the states, no president, no national court system 4

  10. Powers of this branch: Enforce the law, veto, negotiate treaties, appoint judges and ambassadors) 16

  11. Republican Thomas Jefferson defeated Federalist John Adams 34

  12. Sold Western lands (Land Ordinance) and created a process for territories to become states (Northwest Ordinance) 2

  13. Federalists supported the ratification of the Constitution; A Bill of Rights was added to help the Anti-Federalist support the Constitution 22

  14. Washington addressed three concerns: avoid political parties, preserve neutrality, avoid sectionalism 28

  15. This national government was a success because it protected personal liberty and states’ rights 1

  16. This settled the issue between the large states (VA Plan) and small states (NJ Plan) over representation in Congress; Created a bi-cameral legislature 19

  17. The AOC was replaced with the Constitution which gave the national gov’t more power over the state gov’ts 8

  18. The idea only the powers explicitly listed (or implied) in the Constitution were granted to the gov’t; All other powers were reserved to the states and the people 9

  19. The laws passed by the Federalist Party limited free speech; led to the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves 33

  20. The national gov’t (expressed powers) and state governments (reserved powers) both have ability to make laws over citizens 12

  21. This national government had no national currency; Difficult to pass laws or amend the framework of government 5

  22. Powers of this branch: tax, make laws, impeachment, ratify treaties and ambassadors, coin money, regulate trade, declare war 14

  23. The rebellion proved the weaknesses of the AOC because the gov’t could not raise an taxes or an army to stop the rebellion 7

  24. This economic plan included creating a Bank of the US, funding and assumption of state debts, and a tax on whiskey 25

  25. This incident involving an attempted bribe by French diplomats almost led to a war with France 32

  26. This law created lower the federal courts 23

  27. This national government provided no national unity; Gave power to states with an overly weak national gov’t 3

  28. This party supported a strong national government and loose interpretation of the Constitution 29

  29. This rebellion was led by frustrated farmers in Pennsylvania against Hamilton’s tax on whiskey; 13,000 federal troops quickly stopped the rebellion 26

  30. This settled the issue between Northern and Southern states of how slaves were counted in determining representation in the House of Representatives 20

  31. Washington’s policy regarding America’s role in the war between England and France 27

  32. Powers of this branch: Interpret the law, declare laws unconstitutional called judicial review) 18

  33. The Constitution created three equal branches of gov’t, each with distinct duties and powers over other branches 11

  34. This party supported a strong state governments and strict interpretation of the Constitution 30

1783

1787


1789

1792


1796

1800


Articles of Confederation
Constitution

President Washington

President Adams

Turning Point: Shays’ Rebellion

Revolutionary veteran Daniel Shays led a rebellion of frustrated farmers in Massachusetts who were afraid of losing their farms; the rebellion proved the weaknesses of the AOC because the gov’t could not raise an taxes or an army to stop the rebellion



Constitutional Concepts:

  • Limited Government: The Constitution created
    a stronger national gov’t than the AOC, but only the powers explicitly listed (or implied) in the Constitution were granted to the gov’t (other powers were reserved to the states and the people)

  • Popular Sovereignty: The Constitution created a democratic republic in which citizens vote for politicians who make decisions based on the will of the people

  • Separation of Powers/Checks and Balances: The Constitution created three equal branches of gov’t, each with distinct duties and powers over other branches

  • Federalism: The national gov’t (expressed powers) and state governments (reserved powers) both have ability to make laws over citizens



Organization of the Constitution:

  • Article I: Legislative Branch; Congress is a bicameral legislature made up of the House of Reps and Senate (Powers: tax, make laws, impeachment, ratify treaties and ambassadors, coin money, regulate trade, declare war)

  • Article II: Executive Branch; President, VP, cabinet, executive bureaucracy (Powers: Enforce the law, veto, negotiate treaties, appoint judges and ambassadors)

  • Article III: Judicial Branch; Supreme Court and national courts (Powers: Interpret the law, declare laws unconstitutional called judicial review)


Compromises of the Constitution:

  • Great Compromise: settled VA Plan and NJ Plan

  • Three-Fifths: how slaves are counted as population

  • Slavery: No discussion of slavery until 1808

Key events of Washington’s two terms:

  • Judiciary Act of 1789

  • Created the first cabinet: Hamilton (Sec of Treasury), Jefferson (Sec of State), Knox (Sec of War), Randolph (Attorney General)

  • Hamilton’s Financial Plan: Bank of the US, Funding/Assumption

  • Whiskey Rebellion in 1794

  • Neutrality Act with England and France

  • Farewell Address: two term precedent, preserve neutrality,
    avoid sectionalism

  • Hamilton (Federalists) and Jefferson (Democratic-Republicans) created the first political parties


Key events of Adams term:

  • The first “party president” (Federalist)

  • Neutrality with England and France

  • XYZ Affair almost led to war with France

  • Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) limited free speech, hurt the Federalist Party, led to the Virginia and Kentucky Resolves

  • Defeated by Thomas Jefferson in the Revolution of 1800

Strengths of AOC: Protected personal liberty and states’ rights; Dealt with Western lands (Land Ordinance of 1785, Northwest Ordinance of 1787)

Weaknesses of AOC: No national unity; Gave power to states with an overly weak national gov’t; National gov’t did not have power to tax the states, no president, no national court system, no national currency; Difficult to pass laws or amend the framework of government

Unit 3: The New Nation (1783-1800)






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