Revolutionary/Violent = seeking to overthrow the present system, by violence if necessary
Integrationist vs. Separatist
Integrationist = Races should mix, minorities should intermingle with majority, everyone should be treated the same (egalitarian)
Assimilationist = Minorities should adopt majority culture, blend into the larger group
Separatist = Races should be separate, minorities should keep in their own groups
Nationalist (in this context)= Minorities should have separate culture, distinct political base
After 1870, US policy was generally forced assimilation, denial of language, religion, culture.
As a reaction, American Indian movements tend to have anti-assimilation, self-determination themes
Vary in degree of militancy, from individual assimilation to legal challenges to disruptive protests
Black Assimilation & Separatism –1-
African Americans share most culture with European Americans, have always had both impulses in their movements
Assimilationist: stress common cultural heritage, desire for citizenship, share "American values."
Separatist: stress value of own culture, look back to homeland (Africa), stress economic development, political self-determination.
Black assimilation & separation –2-
Whites forced separation, segregation on Blacks 1870-1970 (and after), so integration could be a radical demand
Or accept segregation and demand self-determination can also be radical
Separatism generally stronger among African Americans when Whites are more hostile; integration and assimilation are strong when times seem hopeful
Black Integrationists & Separatists
Booker T. Washington
“The Atlanta Compromise” accepts segregation in exchange for economic development money
“Official Black”: all White money channeled through him
Retrospective view of him changes with the times
Bishop Henry McNeal Turner, Black nationalist, demanded $40 billion in reparations for slavery, preached God is Black, involved in "African Fever", organized International Migration Society for a dollar-a-month plan to pay for passage to Liberia; not feasible, but facilitated passage of 500+ to Liberia 1895-1896
Universal Negro Improvement Association, “Back to Africa” movement
1-2 million followers
Black businesses, Black Star steamship line
Black religious symbols: Black Madonna, Black Jesus.